Theatre of Canada

Canada's contemporary theatre reflects a rich diversity of regional and cultural identities.[1] Since the late 1960s, there has been a concerted effort to develop the voice of the 'Canadian playwright', which is reflected in the nationally focused programming of many of the country's theatres.[2][3] Within this 'Canadian voice' are a plurality of perspectives - that of the First Nations, new immigrants, French Canadians, sexual minorities, etc. - and a multitude of theatre companies have been created to specifically service and support these voices.[4][4]

Prominent playwrights, practitioners, and contributors

Early Canadian theatre

The Annapolis Basin in Nova Scotia served as the cradle for both French and English language theatre in Canada.[5] Théâtre de Neptune was the first European theatre production in North America. The tradition of English theatre in Canada also started at Annapolis Royal. In Fort Anne, Nova Scotia, plays were produced for Prince of Wales' birthday.[6] George Farquhar's The Recruiting Officer was produced on Saturday, 20 January 1733 to celebrate the birthday of Frederick, Prince of Wales[6]. When he was a Lieutenant-Governor of Nova Scotia, Paul Mascarene translated Molière's French play The Misanthrope in to English and produced several plays in 1743 and 1744[6]. An unknown play was also staged on 20 January 1748 for the Prince's birthday, and it was restaged on 2 February 1748[6].


  • Lescarbot’s Neptune Theatre 1606
  • Molière’s Tartuffe Scandal 1693
  • Halifax Prologue 1776
  • Sullen Indian Prologue 1826
  • Eight Men Speak 1933 (at Toronto’s Standard Theatre)


Theatre Royal Montreal 1825
A performance at John Molson's Theatre Royal, Montreal, 1825

Antoine Foucher (1717-1801), of Terrebonne (father of Louis-Charles Foucher), was the owner of the first Francophone theatre in Canada. In 1774, with various British officers, he staged the first production of Molière at his home in Montreal.[7][8][9] Other Garrison performances were private shows put on for troops, publicly performed by officers, which helped bridge theatre and war during its initial stages of development. It was welcomed by the populaces and distracted soldiers from war and routine military protocol.[10]

Before 1825, the Hayes House Hotel on Dalhousie Square, Montreal, had a theatre that staged German Orchestras and held Viennese dances.[11] After it burned it down, John Molson built the Theatre Royal in 1825, presenting Shakespeare and Restoration authors. It sat 1,000 guests and was also used for circuses and concerts.[10] Edmund Kean and Charles Dickens both performed there before it was demolished in 1844 to make way for the Bonsecours Market.[12]

In the West, the Grand Theatre was built in 1912 in Calgary by the visionary Sir James Lougheed.[13] The Grand was the initial home of many arts organizations in Calgary; the first theatre, opera, ballet, symphony concerts, and movies were seen here. This theatre was the centre of social, cultural, and political life in Calgary until the early 1960s. The Grand Theatre has been saved from demolition in 2004 by the company Theatre Junction and its director Mark Lawes.[13]

From 1929, Martha Allan founded the Montreal Repertory Theatre and later co-founded the Dominion Drama Festival.[14] She loathed amateur theatre, but her energies spearheaded the Canadian Little Theatre Movement at a time when live theatre in Montreal and across Canada was being threatened by the rapid expansion of the American-influenced movie theatre. She almost single-handedly laid the groundwork for the development of the professional modern Canadian theatre scene.

Theatre of the 1950s


  • Teach Me How To Cry 1955 Patricia Joudry

Theatre companies and groups

Theatre of the 1960s


  • Ecstasy of Rita Joe 1967 George Ryga
  • Fortune and Men’s Eyes 1967 John Herbert
  • Les Belles-Soeurs 1968 Michel Tremblay

Theatre companies and groups

Theatre of the 1970s


Theatre companies and groups

  • Factory Theatre 1970 (Toronto), founded by Ken Gass
  • Tarragon Theatre 1971 (Toronto), founded by Bill Glassco
  • Toronto Free Theatre 1971 (Toronto), founded by Tom Hendry, Martin Kinch, John Palmer
  • 25th Street Theatre 1972 (Saskatoon)
  • Black Theatre Workshop 1972, founded by Dr. Clarence S. Bayne
  • The Second City 1973 (Toronto)
  • Persephone Theatre 1974 (Saskatoon), founded by Janet Wright, Susan Wright, Brian Richmond
  • Green Thumb Theatre 1975 (Vancouver, theatre for young audiences), founded by Dennis Foon
  • Carbone 14 1975 (Montreal)
  • Great Canadian Theatre Company 1975 (Ottawa)
  • Theatre Network 1976 (Edmonton)
  • VideoCabaret 1976 (Toronto), founded by Michael Hollingsworth and Deanne Taylor
  • Northern Light Theatre 1977 Scott Swan (Edmonton)
  • Catalyst Theatre 1977 (Edmonton)
  • Necessary Angel 1978 (Toronto), founded by Richard Rose
  • Buddies in Bad Times 1979 (Toronto, queer), founded by Sky Gilbert
  • Nightwood Theatre 1979 (Toronto, feminist), founded by Cynthia Grant, Kim Renders, Mary Vingoe and Maureen White
  • Workshop West Theatre 1979 Gerry Potter Artistic Director (Edmonton)
  • Roseneath Theatre 1979 (Toronto, theatre for young audiences), founded by David S Craig and Robert Morgan


With Canada's centennial in 1967 came a growing awareness of the need to cultivate a national cultural identity. Thus, the 1970s were marked by the establishment of multiple theatre institutions dedicated to the development and presentation of Canadian playwrights, such as Factory Theatre,[3] Tarragon Theatre,[17] and the Great Canadian Theatre Company.[18] Theatre Passe Muraille, under Paul Thompson's directorship in the 1970s, gained a national reputation for its distinctive style of collective creation with plays such as The Farm Show, 1837: The Farmer's Revolt and I Love You, Baby Blue.[19]

In 1971 a group of Canadian playwrights issued the Gaspé Manifesto as a call for at least one-half of the programing at publicly subsidized theatres to be Canadian content. The numerical goal was not achieved, but the following years saw an increase in Canadian content stage productions.[20][21]

Theatre of the 1980s and 1990s


Theatre companies and groups

  • 4th Line Theatre (Millbrook, Ontario) 1992
  • Cirque du Soleil (Quebec) (early 1980s)
  • Windsor Feminist Theatre 1980 (Windsor)
  • Native Earth Performing Arts 1982 (Toronto)
  • Half the Sky Feminist Theatre 1982 (Hamilton)
  • DNA Theatre 1982 (Toronto)
  • Crow's Theatre 1982 (Toronto)
  • One Yellow Rabbit 1982 (Calgary)
  • Theatre Junction 1991
  • The Augusta Company 1980-90s (Toronto)
  • De-ba-jeh-mu-jig Theatre 1984 (Manitoulin Island)
  • Cahoots Theatre 1986 (Toronto)
  • da da kamera 1986 (Toronto)
  • Radix Theatre 1988 (Vancouver)
  • Primus Theatre 1988 (Winnipeg)
  • Théâtre Ex Machina 1990 (Quebec City)
  • Rumble Productions 1990 (Vancouver)
  • Theatre Projects Manitoba 1990 (Winnipeg) founded by Harry Rintoul
  • Mammalian Diving Reflex 1993 (Toronto)
  • Die in Debt Theatre 1993 (Toronto)
  • STO Union 1992 (Wakefield)
  • Artistic Fraud of Newfoundland 1995 (St. John's)
  • Soulpepper Theatre Company 1997 (Toronto)
  • The Electric Company Theatre 1996 (Vancouver)
  • Nightswimming 1995 (Toronto)


The 1980s and 1990s saw a flourish of experimental theatre companies cropping up across Canada, many of whom were exploring site-specific and immersive staging techniques, such as Toronto's DNA Theatre[22] and Vancouver's Radix Theatre.[23]

Theatre of the 2000s


Theatre companies and groups

  • Bluemouth Inc. 1998 (Toronto)
  • Project Porte Parole 1998 (Montreal)
  • 2b theatre company 1999 (Halifax)
  • Old Trout Puppet Workshop 1999 (Calgary)
  • Leaky Heaven 1999 (Vancouver)
  • Zuppa Theatre 1999 (Halifax)
  • Obsidian Theatre 2000 (Toronto)
  • Aluna Theatre 2001 (Toronto)
  • Small Wooden Shoe 2001 (Halifax/Toronto)
  • fu-GEN 2002 (Toronto)
  • Theatre Replacement 2003 (Vancouver)
  • Downstage 2004 (Calgary)
  • DaPoPo Theatre 2004 (Halifax)
  • Ecce Homo Theatre 2005 (Toronto)
  • Convergence Theatre 2006 (Toronto)
  • Why Not Theatre 2007 (Toronto)
  • Suburban Beast 2008 (Toronto)
  • Outside The March 2009 (Toronto)


The 2000s saw the creation of several theatre companies with specific cultural mandates including Obsidian Theatre, a company supporting 'the Black voice',[24] fu-GEN, a company dedicated to work by Asian Canadians,[25] and Aluna Theatre, a company with a focus on Latin Canadian artists.[26]

Western Canadian theatre

British Columbia




Northwest Territories

  • Yellowknife is home to the Northern Arts and Cultural Centre, a small theatre with just over 300 seats.

Central Canadian theatre



Atlantic Canada

New Brunswick

Prince Edward Island

Nova Scotia

Newfoundland and Labrador

  • St. John's has the RCA (Resource Centre for the Arts), an artist-run company that is based at the LSPU Hall. It also has the St. John's Arts and Culture Centre, with a 1,000 seat main theatre.
  • Clarenville, Newfoundland is the home to The New Curtain Theatre Company, which operates as a year-round professional theatre based out of The Loft Theatre at the White Hills Ski Resort in Clarenville (2 hours west of St. John's).
  • Cupids, Newfoundland is home to The New World Theatre Project, which aims to do work from and inspired by the year 1610, when Cupids was settled as Canada's first English colony.
  • Stephenville, Newfoundland and Labrador, on the west coast of the island of Newfoundland, features the annual Stephenville Theatre Festival, a summer festival that began in the mid-1970s.
  • In Corner Brook, the Grenfell Campus of Memorial University offers a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree in Theatre, with productions staged every semester.

Summer Festivals

Major summer theatre festivals include:

As of 2014, Canada had more fringe theatre festivals than any other country,[28] forming a summer fringe circuit running from the St-Ambroise Montréal Fringe in June and heading westward to the Vancouver Fringe Festival in September. The circuit includes the two largest fringe festivals in North America, the Winnipeg Fringe Theatre Festival and the Edmonton International Fringe Festival. Other fringe theatre festivals include the Saskatoon Fringe Theatre Festival, the Calgary Fringe Festival, the London Fringe Theatre Festival (Ontario), the Toronto Fringe Festival and the Atlantic Fringe Festival.

See also


  1. ^ Grajewski, Katherine Foster. "Multicultural Theatre". Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  2. ^
  3. ^ a b "Factory Theatre". Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  4. ^ a b
  5. ^ David Gardner's thesis, "An Analytic History of the Theatre in Canada: the European Beginnings to 1760," and his article "British Garrison Theatre in Canada during the French Regime"
  6. ^ a b c d Patrick B. O'Neill (2000). "Yashdip S. Bains. English Canadian Theatre, 1765-1826". Theatre Research in Canada. 21.
  7. ^ "Quebec et bourges - Bourges encyclopédie". Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  8. ^ "Societe d'Histoire de la Region de Terrebonne" (PDF). Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  9. ^ Theatre and Politics in Modern Quebec (1989) by Elaine Nardoccio
  10. ^ a b Wilson, Edwin, ed. Living Theatre: History of the Theatre. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw Hill, 2008. Print.
  11. ^ "Biography – HAYES, MOSES JUDAH – Volume IX (1861-1870) – Dictionary of Canadian Biography". Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  12. ^ Encyclopedia, Canadian Theatre. "Canadian Theatre Encyclopedia - Theatre Royal". Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  13. ^ a b Donald B. Smith (2005). Calgary's Grand Story: The Making of a Prairie Metropolis from the Viewpoint of Two Heritage Buildings. University of Calgary Press.
  14. ^ Roderick MacLeod and Eric John Abrahamson (2010). Spirited Commitment: The Samuel and Saidye Bronfman Family Foundation. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 163.
  15. ^ "Stratford Festival". Canadian Theatre Encyclopedia. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
  16. ^ "Manitoba Theatre Centre". Canadian Theatre Encyclopedia. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
  17. ^ "Tarragon Theatre - Canada's home for new contemporary plays". Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  18. ^ "Home". GCTC - Great Canadian Theatre Company. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  19. ^ "Theatre Passe Muraille - Canada's first alternative theatre devoted to the development and production of new Canadian work". Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  20. ^ Ryan Edwardson, Canadian Content: Culture and the Quest for Nationhood (University of Toronto Press, 2008), ISBN 978-1442692428. Excerpts available at Google Books.
  21. ^ Louise Ladouceur, Dramatic Licence: Translating Theatre from One Official Language to the Other in Canada (University of Alberta, 2012), ISBN 978-0888647061. Excerpts available at Google Books.
  22. ^ "DNA Theatre". Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  23. ^ "Radix Theatre". Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  24. ^ Koehler, Omega Station • Paul Kevin. "Obsidian Theatre Company". Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  25. ^ "fu-GEN Theatre Company". Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  26. ^
  27. ^ "From store to stage: Toronto theatres set up shop in small places". The Globe and Mail, December 13, 2013.
  28. ^ Nestruck, J. Kelly (11 July 2014). "Has the Fringe circuit been good for Canadian theatre?". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 6 November 2016.

Further reading

  • Bhabha, Homi. Editor's Introduction: Minority Maneuvers and Unsettled Negotiations.
  • "Cosmopolitanisms." Public Culture 12.3. 2000. pp. 577–89.
  • Critical Inquiry 23.3. 1997. pp. 431–50.
  • Robinson, Amy (1994). "‘It Takes One to Know One’: Passing and Communities of Common Interest." Critical Inquiry 20. pp. 715–36.
  • "Summary," In Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade/Ministère des affairs étrangères et du commerce international. Canada in the World. 1999. Rpt. Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade/Ministère des affairs étrangères et du commerce international Home Page. 2001.
  • Wagner, Anton, ed. Contemporary Canadian Theatre: New World Visions, a Collection of Essays Prepared by the Canadian Theatre Critics Association. Toronto: Simon & Pierre, 1985. 411 p. ISBN 0-88924-159-7
  • Young, Robert (2001). Postcolonialism: an Historical Introduction. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.

External links

Adelaide Festival

The Adelaide Festival of Arts, also known as the Adelaide Festival, is an arts festival held annually in the South Australian capital of Adelaide. It is considered to be one of the world's major celebrations of the arts, and a pre-eminent cultural event in Australia.Begun in 1960, the Adelaide Festival is held in the autumnal month of March. It is actually made up of several events, but overall features include opera, theatre, dance, classical and contemporary music, cabaret, literature, visual art and new media.

The festival is based in the city centre, principally in venues along the cultural boulevard of North Terrace, but also elsewhere in the city and its parklands. The Adelaide Festival Centre and River Torrens usually form the nucleus of the event, and in recent years Elder Park has played host to opening ceremonies. The popularity of the event is sometimes attributed to the city's unique design (known as Light's Vision) that locates many pleasant settings within short distance of each other.

Originally presented biennially, the festival has been held annually since 2012.The festival attracts interstate and overseas visitors, and generated an estimated gross expenditure of $76.1 million for South Australia in 2018.

Arts Club Theatre Company

The Arts Club Theatre Company is a Canadian professional theatre company in Vancouver, British Columbia, founded in 1958. It is the largest urban not-for-profit theatre company in the country and the largest in Western Canada, with productions taking place at the 650-seat Stanley Industrial Alliance Stage, the 440-seat Granville Island Stage, the 250-seat Goldcorp Stage at the BMO Theatre Centre, and on tour around the province. The company celebrated its 50th season in 2014 and produced its 600th production in 2017.

Major themes from this company are new Canadian works, comedies, musicals, drama, and revues, with an emphasis on developing local and Canadian talent. In addition to theatre presentations, the company offers educational programs and special events.

Since 1972, the company's artistic director has been Bill Millerd, who oversaw its expansion for over 45 years. On February 20, 2017, Millerd announced his retirement at the end of the 2017/2018 season. On June 28, 2017, the company announced that Ashlie Corcoran would take over as artistic director for the 2018–2019 season.

Atlantic Ballet Theatre of Canada

The Atlantic Ballet Theatre of Canada is a professional award-winning touring ballet company based in Moncton, New Brunswick. Founded in 2002 by Susan Chalmers-Gauvin, CEO, and Artistic Director Igor Dobrovolskiy, Ballet-théâtre atlantique du Canada/ The Atlantic Ballet Theatre Of Canada presents a diverse collection of original full-length narrative ballets and short works which explore contemporary themes within the classical genre. Each work is conceived and choreographed by Dobrovolskiy.

Ballet-théâtre atlantique du Canada/ The Atlantic Ballet Theatre of Canada, is Atlantic Canada's only professional ballet company, and the artists of the Company are classically trained soloists from Canada and around the world.

Dobrovolskiy is a graduate of the Kiev State Ballet Academy and earned a Bachelor of Fine Arts in pedagogy of ballet dance and choreography from the Kiev National University of the Arts. He began his professional dance career with the State Theatre of Opera and Ballet for Children and Youth in Kiev, Ukraine. His vocation has taken him across Europe, to Ecuador and finally to the Atlantic Ballet Theatre of Canada.

ABTC's/ BTAC's world premiere was held at the Capitol Theater in Moncton, it was a rendition of Figaro.

The Company serves the four eastern provinces of Canada and is the only dance company in Canada with a four Province home constituency: New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland and Labrador and is a major cultural institution for its home region.

They have also played many national and international shows touring to United States of America, Germany, France and around Europe. They began their 'InTENse' tour at the beginning of 2011 in celebration of their 10th anniversary. In Tense is a show case for the Company and also an opportunity for Company artists to create. Dancers who have contributed and choreographed for Intense include: Leigh Alderson, Kyle Davey and Janie Richard.

Ben McPeek

Benjamin Dewey McPeek (28 August 1934 – 14 January 1981) was a Canadian composer, arranger, conductor, and pianist.

Canadian literature

Canadian literature (widely abbreviated as CanLit) is literature originating from Canada. Canadian writers have produced a variety of genres. Influences on Canadian writers are broad, both geographically and historically.

Since before European contact and the Confederation of Canada, Indigenous people in North America have occupied the land and have maintained a rich and diverse history of culture, identity, language, art and literature. "Indigenous literature" is a problematic term, as every cultural group has its own distinct oral tradition, language, and cultural practices. Therefore, Indigenous literatures in Canada is a more inclusive term for understanding the variety of languages and traditions across communities.

After the colonization of Canada, the dominant European cultures were originally English, French, and Gaelic. After Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau's "Announcement of Implementation of Policy of Multiculturalism within Bilingual Framework" in 1971, Canadian critics and academics gradually began to recognize that there existed a more diverse population of readers and writers. The country's literature has been strongly influenced by international immigration, particularly in recent decades. Since the 1980s Canada's ethnic and cultural diversity have been openly reflected in its literature, with many of its most prominent writers focusing on ethnic minority identity, duality and cultural differences. However, Canadians have been less willing to acknowledge the diverse languages of Canada, besides English and French.

Capitol Theatre (Moncton)

The Capitol Theatre (French: Théâtre Capitol) in downtown Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada is an 800-seat, restored 1920s-era vaudeville house on Main Street that serves as the centre for cultural entertainment for the city. Designed by René-Arthur Fréchet in 1920, it was rebuilt by Fréchet in 1926 after it burned. Having been converted to a cinema early in its history, the theatre was purchased by the City of Moncton in 1991, restored to its original look commencing in 1992, and was officially reopened as a performance space in 1993. It hosts the productions of Theatre New Brunswick and The Atlantic Ballet Theatre of Canada, as well as symphony orchestra and dance performances.

Igor Dobrovolskiy (choreographer)

Igor Dobrovolskiy is a Ukrainian-born dance choreographer based in New Brunswick, Canada.

He graduated from the Kiev State Ballet Academy with a BFA in ballet pedagogy and choreography from the Kiev National University of the Arts. His professional dance career began with the State Theatre of Opera and Ballet for Children and Youth in Kiev, Ukraine. He has travelled across Europe and also worked in Ecuador.

In 2002, he and Susan Chalmers-Gauvin founded Ballet-théâtre atlantique du Canada/ The Atlantic Ballet Theatre of Canada, which is located in Moncton, New Brunswick. Here, Dobrovolskiy has choreographed and directed a diverse collection of original full-length narrative ballets along with short works which have explored contemporary themes within classical genre.

In 2014 he was awarded the Lieutenant-Governor's Award for High Achievement in the Arts by the New Brunswick Arts Board.

Jan Randall

Jan Randall is a Canadian composer and pianist. Randall played entirely by ear from childhood, started working in blues and pop music bands while still in high school, and after receiving formal classical and jazz training as a composer and arranger went on to spend a decade in theatre before moving on to make a career of composing sound tracks for broadcast.

Leigh Alderson

Leigh Alderson (born 1986) is a male ballet dancer, model and actor from Portadown, Northern Ireland.

Alderson trained at The Royal Ballet School performing in Rudi Van Dantzig's Four Last Songs in Toronto and Stuttgart before graduating in 2006. He joined Scottish Ballet dancing works by Ashley Page, Forsythe and Trisha Brown and Pastor and works by Richard Wherlock with New English Contemporary Ballet, later joining Atlantic Ballet Theatre of Canada and guesting with Cork City Ballet.

With Les Grands Ballets Canadiens he performed in works by Stijn Celis, Stephan Thoss, The Snake in Veldman's Petit Prince, Kylian's Kaguyahime and The Prince in Mats Ek's Sleeping Beauty.

Film and TV work has included the Canadian horror film Undress Me (2017), Street Dance 3D (2010), Angel (2009), the BBC documentary series; Lost to Dance (1998) and God Given Gift (2005/07).

Awards include Royal Ballet School Achievement Award (2005 & 2006) Lynne Seymour Award for Most Expressive Dancer (2004), The NJL Choreographic Development Award (2005) and The Ulster Tatler Arts Personality of the Year Award (2009 & 2010).

Lido Theatre (Canada)

The Lido Theatre is an atmospheric theatre in The Pas, Manitoba. The Lido Theatre began operations in 1929 and has remained running in its original form since its inception, making it one of Canada's oldest and most unique atmospheric theaters still in operation.

List of Canadian plays

Canadian plays have been written since the 19th century, both in English and in French. The present list comprises plays in English, some of which being translations from French Canadian plays. Full length and one act plays are included but not musicals.

The Playwrights Guild of Canada has a large list of titles of copyrighted plays, included in the present one, mostly their own publications or those of Playwrights Canada Press. The year of the playbook in the present list corresponds to the printed form, but when this information is unavailable, it corresponds to the first stage production. In rare cases, neither is available.

In addition to traditional forms, Canada has a vibrant non-traditional theatre scene with notable experimental, fringe, and other alternative forms, the largest fringe festival in North America being the Edmonton International Fringe Festival.

List of Canadian plays (A–F)

List of Canadian plays (G–O)

List of Canadian plays (P–Z)

List of dance companies

This is a list of notable dance and ballet companies.

List of dance companies in Canada

There are many dance companies in Canada. Listed are some of the professional dance companies.


Moncton (; French pronunciation: ​[mɔŋktœn]) is the largest city in the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Situated in the Petitcodiac River Valley, Moncton lies at the geographic centre of the Maritime Provinces. The city has earned the nickname "Hub City" due to its central inland location in the region and its history as a railway and land transportation hub for the Maritimes.

The city proper has a population of 71,889 (2016) and has a land area of 142 km2 (55 sq mi). Greater Moncton has a population of 144,810 (2016), making it the largest city and CMA in New Brunswick, and the second-largest city and CMA in the Maritime Provinces. The CMA includes the neighbouring city of Dieppe and the town of Riverview, as well as adjacent suburban areas in Westmorland and Albert counties.Although the Moncton area was first settled in 1733, Moncton is considered to have been officially founded in 1766 with the arrival of Pennsylvania Dutch immigrants from Philadelphia. Initially an agricultural settlement, Moncton was not incorporated until 1855. The city was named for Lt. Col. Robert Monckton, the British officer who had captured nearby Fort Beauséjour a century earlier. A significant wooden shipbuilding industry had developed in the community by the mid-1840s, allowing for the civic incorporation in 1855, but the shipbuilding economy collapsed in the 1860s, causing the town to lose its civic charter in 1862. Moncton regained its charter in 1875 after the community's economy rebounded, mainly due to a growing railway industry. In 1871, the Intercolonial Railway of Canada had chosen Moncton to be its headquarters, and Moncton remained a railway town for well over a century until the closure of the Canadian National Railway (CNR) locomotive shops in the late 1980s.

Although the economy of Moncton was traumatized twice—by the collapse of the shipbuilding industry in the 1860s and by the closure of the CNR locomotive shops in the 1980s—the city was able to rebound strongly on both occasions. The city adopted the motto Resurgo (Latin: I rise again) after its rebirth as a railway town. The city's economy is stable and diversified, primarily based on its traditional transportation, distribution, retailing, and commercial heritage, and supplemented by strength in the educational, health care, financial, information technology, and insurance sectors. The strength of Moncton's economy has received national recognition and the local unemployment rate is consistently less than the national average.

New Brunswick

New Brunswick (French: Nouveau-Brunswick; Canadian French pronunciation: [nuvobʁɔnzwɪk] (listen)) is one of four Atlantic provinces on the east coast of Canada. According to the Constitution of Canada, New Brunswick is the only bilingual province. About two thirds of the population declare themselves anglophones and a third francophones. One third of the population describes themselves as bilingual. Atypically for Canada, only about half of the population lives in urban areas, mostly in Greater Moncton, Greater Saint John and the capital Fredericton.

Unlike the other Maritime provinces, New Brunswick's terrain is mostly forested uplands, with much of the land further from the coast, giving it a harsher climate. New Brunswick is 83% forested, and less densely-populated than the rest of the Maritimes.

Being relatively close to Europe, New Brunswick was among the first places in North America to be explored and settled by Europeans, starting with the French in the early 1600s, who displaced the indigenous Mi'kmaq, Maliseet, and the Passamaquoddy peoples. The French settlers were later displaced when the area became part of the British Empire. In 1784, after an influx of refugees from the American Revolutionary War, the province was partitioned from Nova Scotia. In 1785 Saint John became Canada's first incorporated city..

The province prospered in the early 1800s and the population grew rapidly, reaching about a quarter of a million by mid-century. In 1867, New Brunswick was one of four founding provinces of the Canadian Confederation, along with Nova Scotia and the Province of Canada (now Ontario and Quebec).

After Confederation, wooden shipbuilding and lumbering declined, while protectionism disrupted trade ties with New England. The mid-1900s found New Brunswick to be one of the poorest regions of Canada, now mitigated by Canadian transfer payments and improved support for rural areas. As of 2002, provincial gross domestic product was derived as follows: services (about half being government services and public administration) 43%; construction, manufacturing, and utilities 24%; real estate rental 12%; wholesale and retail 11%; agriculture, forestry, fishing, hunting, mining, oil and gas extraction 5%; transportation and warehousing 5%.Tourism accounts for about 9% of the labour force directly or indirectly. Popular destinations include Fundy National Park and the Hopewell Rocks, Kouchibouguac National Park, and Roosevelt Campobello International Park. In 2013, 64 cruise ships called at Port of Saint John carrying on average 2600 passengers each.

Outline of Canada

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Canada:

Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west and northward into the Arctic Ocean. It is the world's second largest country by total area, and shares land borders with the United States to the south and northwest, and marine borders with France and Greenland on the east and northeast, respectively.

The lands have been inhabited for millennia by various groups of aboriginal peoples. Beginning in the late 15th century, British and French expeditions explored and later settled the Atlantic coast. France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763 after the Seven Years' War.

In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of additional provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom, highlighted by the Statute of Westminster in 1931 and culminating in the Canada Act in 1982 which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament.

Canada is a federation that is governed as a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. It is a bilingual and multicultural country, with both English and French as official languages at the federal level. Technologically advanced and industrialized, Canada maintains a diversified economy that is heavily reliant upon its abundant natural resources and upon trade—particularly with the United States, with which Canada has a long and complex relationship.

Playwrights Canada Press

Playwrights Canada Press is a Canadian publishing house founded in 1984 by the Playwrights Guild of Canada. It was incorporated in 2000 as an independent company.

Polygraph (disambiguation)

A polygraph is a forensic instrument.

Polygraph may also refer to:

Polygraph (author), an author who can write on a variety of different subjects

Polygraph (duplicating device), a dual pen device that produces a simultaneous copy of an original while it is written in cursive writing

Polygraph (film), a 1996 Canadian film

Polygraph (mathematics), a mathematical generalisation of a directed graph in mathematics, also called a computad

Autopen, an automatic signing instrument

A painted reproduction created by the Polygraphic Society in London in the 1700s, by a process also known as "pollaplasiasmos"

A 1988 play at the Theatre of Canada by Robert Lepage


Tartuffe, or The Impostor, or The Hypocrite (; French: Tartuffe, ou l'Imposteur, pronounced [taʁtyf u lɛ̃pɔstœʁ]), first performed in 1664, is one of the most famous theatrical comedies by Molière. The characters of Tartuffe, Elmire, and Orgon are considered among the greatest classical theatre roles.

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Theatre of North America
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other territories

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