Thealogy views divine matters with feminine perspectives including but not only feminism. Valerie Saiving, Isaac Bonewits (1976) and Naomi Goldenberg (1979) introduced the concept as a neologism (new word) in feminist terms.[1] Its use then widened to mean all feminine ideas of the sacred, which Charlotte Caron usefully explained in 1993: "reflection on the divine in feminine or feminist terms".[2] By 1996, when Melissa Raphael published Thealogy and Embodiment, the term was well established.[3]

As a neologism, the term derives from two Greek words: thea, θεά, meaning "goddess", the feminine equivalent of theos, "god" (from PIE root *dhes-);[4] and logos, λόγος, plural logoi, often found in English as the suffix -logy, meaning "word", "reason" or "plan", and in Greek philosophy and theology the divine reason implicit in the cosmos.[5][6]

Thealogy has areas in common with feminist theology, the study of God from a feminist perspective, often emphasising monotheism. Thus the relation is an overlap as thealogy is not limited to deity in spite of its etymology;[7][8] the two fields have been described as both related and interdependent.[9]

Ceres statue
Statue of Ceres, the Roman goddess of agriculture

History of the term

The term's origin and initial use is open to continuing debate. Patricia 'Iolana traces the early use of the neologism to 1976 crediting both Valerie Saiving and Isaac Bonewits for its initial use.[10] The coinage of 'thealogian' on record by Bonewits in 1976 has been promoted,[11][12]

In the 1979 book Changing of the Gods, Naomi Goldenberg introduces the term as a future possibility with respect to a distinct discourse, highlighting the masculine nature of theology.[13] Also in 1979, in the first revised edition of "Real Magic", Bonewits defined "thealogy" in his Glossary as "Intellectual speculations concerning the nature of the Goddess and Her relations to the world in general and humans in particular; rational explanations of religious doctrines, practices and beliefs, which may or may not bear any connection to any religion as actually conceived and practiced by the majority of its members." Also in the same glossary, he defined "theology" with nearly identical words, changing the feminine pronouns with masculine pronouns appropriately.[14]

Carol P. Christ used the term in "Laughter of Aphrodite" (1987), claiming that those creating thealogy could not avoid being influenced by the categories and questions posed in Christian and Jewish theologies.[15] She further defined thealogy in her 2002 essay, "Feminist theology as post-traditional thealogy," as "the reflection on the meaning of the Goddess".[16]

In her 1989 essay "On Mirrors, Mists and Murmurs: Toward an Asian American Thealogy", Rita Nakashima Brock defined thealogy as "the work of women reflecting on their experiences of and beliefs about divine reality".[17] Also in 1989, Ursula King notes thealogy's growing usage as a fundamental departure from traditional male-oriented theology, characterized by its privileging of symbols over rational explanation.[18]

In 1993, Charlotte Caron's inclusive and clear definition of thealogy as "reflection on the divine in feminine and feminist terms" appeared in "To Make and Make Again".[19] By this time, the concept had gained considerable status among Goddess adherents.

As academic discipline

Situated in relationship to the fields of theology and religious studies, thealogy is a discourse that critically engages the beliefs, wisdom, practices, questions, and values of the Goddess community, both past and present.[20] Similar to theology, thealogy grapples with questions of meaning, include reflecting on the nature of the divine,[21] the relationship of humanity to the environment,[22] the relationship between the spiritual and sexual self,[23] and the nature of belief.[24] However, in contrast to theology, which often focuses on an exclusively logical and empirical discourse, thealogy embraces a postmodern discourse of personal experience and complexity.[25]

The term suggests a feminist approach to theism and the context of God and gender within Paganism, Neopaganism, Goddess Spirituality and various nature-based religions. However, thealogy can be described as religiously pluralistic, as thealogians come from various religious backgrounds that are often hybrid in nature. In addition to Pagans, Neopagans, and Goddess-centred faith traditions, they are also Christian, Jewish, Buddhist, Muslim, Quakers, etc. or define themselves as Spiritual Feminists.[26] As such, the term thealogy has also been used by feminists within mainstream monotheistic religions to describe in more detail the feminine aspect of a monotheistic deity or trinity, such as God/dess Herself, or the Heavenly Mother of the Latter Day Saint movement.

In 2000, Melissa Raphael wrote the text Introducing Thealogy: Discourse on the Goddess for the series Introductions in Feminist Theology. Written for an academic audience, it purports to introduce the main elements of thealogy within the context of Goddess feminism. She situates thealogy as a discourse that can be engaged with by Goddess feminists—those who are feminist adherents of the Goddess who may have left their church, synagogue, or mosque—or those who may still belong to their originally established religion.[27] In the book, Raphael compares and contrasts thealogy with the Goddess movement.[28] In 2007, Paul Reid-Bowen wrote the text "Goddess as Nature: Towards a Philosophical Thealogy", which can be regarded as another systematic approach to thealogy, but which integrates philosophical discourse.[29]

In the past decade, other thealogians like Patricia 'Iolana and D'vorah Grenn have generated discourses that bridge thealogy with other academic disciplines. 'Iolana's Jungian thealogy bridges analytical psychology with thealogy, and Grenn's metaformic thealogy is a bridge between matriarchal studies and thealogy.[30]

Contemporary Thealogians include Carol P. Christ, Melissa Raphael, Asphodel Long, Beverly Clack, Charlotte Caron, Naomi Goldenberg, Paul Reid-Bowen, Rita Nakashima Brock, and Patricia 'Iolana.


At least one Christian theologist dismisses thealogy as the creation of a new deity made up by radical feminists.[31] Paul Reid-Bowen and Chaone Mallory point out that essentialism is a problematic slippery slope when Goddess feminists argue that women are inherently better than men or inherently closer to the Goddess.[32][33] In his book Goddess Unmasked: The Rise of Neopagan Feminist Spirituality, Philip G. Davis levies a number of criticisms against the Goddess movement, including logical fallacies, hypocrisies, and essentialism.[34]

Thealogy has also been criticized for its objection to empiricism and reason.[35] In this critique, thealogy is seen as flawed by rejecting a purely empirical worldview for a purely relativistic one.[36] Meanwhile, scholars like Harding[37] and Haraway[38] seek a middle ground of feminist empiricism.

See also


  1. ^ Saiving had been developing feminist views of theology since the 1950s. Bonewits referred to "thealogian" 1976. Goldenberg used "thealogy" to mean "goddess-talk" expressing the hope that the word would come into use. For full references on all three see under 'History of the Term.
  2. ^ Charlotte Caron, To Make and Make Again: Feminist Ritual Thealogy (Crossroad, 1993) p. 281.
  3. ^ Melissa Raphael, Thealogy and Embodiment: The Post-Patriarchal Reconstruction of Female Sacrality (Sheffield Academic Press:1996)
  4. ^ Online Etymology <>
  5. ^ Britannica <>
  6. ^ Raphael, Melissa (2005). "Thealogy". In Jones, Lindsay (ed.). Encyclopedia of Religion. 13 (2nd ed.). Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA. ISBN 0028659821.
  7. ^ Raphael, Melissa (2000). Introducing Thealogy: Discourse on The Goddess. Introductions in Feminist Theology. Cleveland, Ohio: Pilgrim Press. p. 10. ISBN 0829813799. Retrieved 7 December 2012. Although the boundary between feminist theology and thealogy can be a permeable one, the basic division between radical/Pagan and reformist/biblical feminism is a historical product and a microcosm of this internal dissension in the feminist community.
  8. ^ 'Iolana, Patricia (January 2012). "Divine Immanence: A Psychodynamic Study in Women's Experience of Goddess" (PDF). Claremont Journal of Religion. 1 (1): 86–107 [90]. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-07-09. While seemingly inclusive in scope, theology often has a focal handicap – it is monotheistic in its thinking, examining God from a narrow and often monocular lens often concretised by its own dogma, and often exclusivist and hampered by truth claims. Thealogy, on the other hand, is pluralistic, syncretistic and inclusive. It is fluid and comprehensive, able to contain many different belief systems and ways of being. Thealogy does not stand in opposition to, but as a complement to, Theology as a branch of religious study.
  9. ^ Clack, Beverly (May 1999). "Thealogy and Theology: Mutually Exclusive or Creatively Interdependent?". Feminist Theology. 7 (21): 21–38. doi:10.1177/096673509900002103. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
  10. ^ 'Iolana, Patricia (2011). "Radical Images of the Feminine Divine: Women's Spiritual Memoirs Disclose a Thealogical Shift". In 'Iolana, Patricia; Tongue, Samuel (eds.). Testing the Boundaries: Self, Faith, Interpretation and Changing Trends in Religious Studies. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 15. ISBN 9781443826693. According to my research Thealogy or Thealogian was first used in publications by both Isaac Bonewits ("The Druid Chronicles - Evloved") and Valerie Saiving ("Androcentrism in Religious Studies") in 1976. Naomi Goldenberg continued this new thread by using the term in The Changing of the Gods (Goldenberg 1979b, 96). Since then, many have attempted to define "thealogy".
  11. ^ Bonewits, Isaac (2007). Neopagan Rites: A Guide to Creating Public Rituals That Work. Llewellyn Worldwide. p. 222. ISBN 9780738711997. 86. In 1974 I wrote, and in 1976 published, the word thealogian in The Druid Chronicles (Evolved), a book about the Reformed Druids of North America and their offshoots.
  12. ^ Scharding, Philip Emmons Isaac (1996). "The Second Epistle of Isaac". A REFORMED DRUID ANTHOLOGY: Being an unofficial and unauthorized historical collection of some of the spiritual writings from the various Reformed Druid movements in North America; and being mostly a 20th anniversary reprint of The Druid Chronicles (Evolved) first published in August 1976 c.e., which was edited by Isaac Bonewits and Robert Larson; but prepared for reprinting with some new additions and historical commentary by the current associate editor, Michael Scharding, in August 1996 c.e. Northfield, Minnesota, USA: The Drynemetum Press. p. 67. ...C. Taliesin Edwards (the leading thealogian in the Neopagan movements has called “The Da Mind” (in his Essays Towards a Metathealogy of the Goddess), and that others have called by a variety of names.
  13. ^ Goldenberg, Naomi (1979). Changing of the gods: Feminism and the end of traditional religions. Boston: Beacon Press. p. 96. The word theology has also come to be used almost exclusively in regard to Christian god-talk. The advent of witchcraft, with its colorful goddess-talk, requires a new term. I hope witches and scholars of feminist religion will adopt my suggestion and name themselves thealogians.
  14. ^ Bonewits, Isaac (1989). Real Magic: An Introductory Treatise on the Basic Principles of Yellow Magic (Revised/reprint ed.). York Beach, ME: Weiser Books. ISBN 0877286884.
  15. ^ Christ, Carol P (1987). Laughter of Aphrodite: Reflections on a Journey to the Goddess. San Francisco: Harper & Row. p. xii. ISBN 9780062501462.
  16. ^ Christ, Carol P (2002). The Cambridge Companion to Feminist Theology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  17. ^ Brock, Rita Nakashima (1989). Plaskow, Judith; Christ, Carol P. (eds.). Weaving the Visions: New Patterns in Feminist Spirituality. San Francisco: HarperCollins. p. 236. ISBN 9780060613839.
  18. ^ King, Ursula (1989). Women and spirituality: voices of protest and promise. New Amsterdam. pp. 126–127. ISBN 9780941533539. So far however, most writing on the Goddess, when not historical, is either inspirational or devotional, and a systematically ordered body of thought, even with reference to symbols, is only slowly coming into existence.
  19. ^ Caron, Charlotte (1993). To make and make again: feminist ritual thealogy. Crossroad. ISBN 9780824512491.
  20. ^ Hope, Angela; Morgain, Shan. "What Is Goddess Thealogy & Deasophy?". Institute for Thealogy and Deasophy. Archived from the original on 8 May 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2012. Goddess thealogy and deasophy are reflections on both past and contemporary Goddess communities' beliefs, wisdom, embodied practices, questions, and values.
  21. ^ Christ, Carol P. (2003). She Who Changes: Re-imagining the Divine in the World. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 11–12. ISBN 9781403960832. Retrieved 10 December 2012. The common thread in all of these examples is that feminist spiritual practice raises philosophical questions about the nature of divine power and its relation to our lives. Feminist theology and thealogy began as radical challenges to traditional ways of thinking about God and the world.
  22. ^ Crist, Carol P. (2012). Rebirth of the Goddess: Finding Meaning in Feminist Spirituality. Psychology Press. p. 153. ISBN 9780415921862. Retrieved 10 December 2012. Goddess thealogy affirms that we all come from one course while stating that diversity is the great principle of the earth body.... We are both different and related in the web of life.
  23. ^ Clack, Beverly (September 1995). "The Denial of Dualism: Thealogical Reflections on the Sexual and the Spiritual". Feminist Theology. 4 (10): 102–115. doi:10.1177/096673509500001009. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  24. ^ Eller, Cynthia (1995). Living In The Lap of Goddess: The Feminist Spirituality Movement in America. Beacon Press. pp. 140–141. ISBN 9780807065075. Retrieved 10 December 2012. "Believing" in goddess is more a matter of adopting a new term for an old experience to call attention to its sacredness and its femininity. This is the closest thing one gets to a consensus thealogy in feminist spirituality, but it does not truly do justice to the thealogies that grow up all around it.
  25. ^ Raphael, Melissa (1996). Thealogy and Embodiment: The Post-Patriarchal Reconstruction of Female Sacrality. Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. 228–229. ISBN 9781850757573. Retrieved 10 December 2012. The postmodern theological/thealogical shift from a God of law presiding over a cosmic machine to a divinity holding creation in a nexus of complex relations has -- like one of its forerunners, process theology -- brought the divine into the very heart of change: the Goddess does not sit and watch the cosmos but is dancing at its very centre.
  26. ^ Raphael, Melissa. "Thealogy". Encyclopedia of Religion. Ed. Lindsay Jones. 2nd ed. Vol. 13. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. pp. 9098–9101. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 6 Dec. 2012. "There are those on the gynocentric or woman-centered left of Jewish and Christian feminism who would want to term themselves theo/alogians because they find the vestiges of the Goddess or 'God-She' within their own traditions as Hochmah, Shekhinah, Sophia, and other 'female faces' of the divine."
  27. ^ Raphael, Melissa (2000). Introducing Thealogy: Discourse on The Goddess. Introductions in Feminist Theology. Cleveland, Ohio: Pilgrim Press. p. 16. ISBN 0829813799. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
  28. ^ Raphael, Melissa (2000). Introducing Thealogy: Discourse on The Goddess. Introductions in Feminist Theology. Cleveland, Ohio: Pilgrim Press. p. 10. ISBN 0829813799. Retrieved 7 December 2012. [T]his book is not an empirical study of the feminist wing of the Goddess movement. Rather, it is an exposition of a body of thought—thealogy—that derives from Goddess women's experience and from a broader history of emancipatory ideas and which can be defined as feminist reflection on the femaleness of the divine and the divinity of femaleness, and, more generally, spiritual, eithical and political reflection on the meaning(s) of both.
  29. ^ Reid-Bowen, Paul (2007). Goddess as Nature: Towards a Philosophical Thealogy. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 200. ISBN 9780754656272.
  30. ^ Grenn, Deborah J. (n.d.). "Connecting With Deity Through a Feminist Metaformic Thealogy" (PDF). Metaformia: A Journal of Menstruation and Culture. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  31. ^ Damian, Constantin-Iulian (January 2009). "Radical Feminist Theology: From Protest to the Goddess". Scientific Annals of the "Alexandru Ioan Cuza" University of Iasi – Orthodox Theology (1): 171–186. Retrieved 11 December 2012. Finally, we point out the antichristian character that animates the construction of this new deity, created "after the image and likeness of man".
  32. ^ Reid-Bowen, Paul (2007). Goddess As Nature: Towards a Philosophical Thealogy. Ashgate Publishing. p. 156. ISBN 9780754656272. Retrieved 10 December 2012. First, there are those feminist thealogical claims that suggest that women are essentially caring, nurturing and biophilic, while men are essential violent, destructive and necrophilic.... Second, there are those claims that suggest that women are somehow closer to the Goddess and/or nature than men.
  33. ^ Mallory, Chaone (2010). "The Spiritual is Political: Gender, Spirituality,and Essentialism in Forest Defense". Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture. 4 (1): 48–71. doi:10.1558/jsrnc.v4il.48. ISSN 1363-7320. Retrieved 11 December 2012. The deployment of such textual imagery in theservice of a woman-centered environmentalism that strongly sug-gested—at times even explicitly asserted and celebrated—that womenhave an inherent, likely biological connection with nature that men donot generated the typical criticisms of ecofeminism already noted.
  34. ^ Davis, Philip G. (1998). "The Foundations of "Theology"". Goddess Unmasked: The Rise of Neopagan Feminist Spirituality. Dallas: Spence Publishing Company. pp. 86–100. ISBN 0965320898.
  35. ^ Graham, Elaine L. (2002). Representations of the Post/Human: Monsters, Aliens and Others in Popular Culture. Rutgers University Press. p. 215. ISBN 9780813530598. Retrieved 10 December 2012. While this valorization of experience and suspicion of reason is a valuable corrective, the danger comes when as a result women deny themselves a stake in rational thought. Critics of thealogy have pointed out its lack of rigour, as for example over the issue of valid historical evidence.
  36. ^ Fang-Long, Shih (2010). "Women, Religions, and Feminism". In Bryan S. Turner (ed.). The New Blackwell Companion to the Sociology of Religion. John Wiley & Sons. p. 234. ISBN 9781444320794. One the one hand, there are social constructivists, postmodernists and relativists for whom there are no facts, only rhetoric and power, and on the other, there are positivists and empiricists for whom facts are value-free and given directly to experience, waiting patiently to be discovered.
  37. ^ Harding, Sandra G. (1991). Whose Science? Whose Knowledge?: Thinking from Women's Lives. Cornell University Press. p. 142. ISBN 9780801497469. Retrieved 10 December 2012. A feminist standpoint epistemology requires strengthened standards of objectivity.... They call for the acknowledgement that all human beliefs - including our best scientific beliefs - are socially situated, but they also require a critical evaluation to determine which social situations tend to generate the most objective knowledge claims.
  38. ^ Haraway, Donna J. (1991). "Situated Knowledges: The Science Question in Feminism and the Privilege of Partial Perspective". Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature. New York: Routledge. p. 312. ISBN 9780415903875. Archived from the original on 23 July 2008. Retrieved 10 December 2012. So, I think my problem and 'our' problem is how to have simultaneously an account of radical historical contingency for all knowledge claims and knowing subjects, a critical practice for recognizing our own 'semiotic technologies' for making meanings, and a no-nonsense commitment to faithful accounts of a 'real' world

Further reading

  • Goldenberg, Naomi (1990) Returning Words to Flesh: Feminism, Psychoanalysis, and the Resurrection of the Body. Boston: Beacon Press.
  • Miller, David L. (1974) The New Polytheism: Rebirth of the Gods and Goddesses. New York: Harper & Row.
  • Raphael, Melissa (1997) ‘Thealogy, Redemption and the Call of the Wild’ from Feminist Theology: The Journal of the Britain and Ireland School of Feminist Theology No. 15, May 1997 Lisa Isherwood, et al. (eds) (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press) p. 55-72.
After the Development of Agriculture

After the Development of Agriculture (A.D.A.) is a system for counting years forward from 8000 BCE, making 2019 the year 10019 ADA. It was developed in feminist thealogy. It is not often used.

A.D.A. is similar to the Holocene calendar system, with which the year 2019 is written as 12019 HE.

Agnostic existentialism

Agnostic existentialism is a type of existentialism which makes no claim to know whether there is a "greater picture"; rather, it simply asserts that the greatest truth is that which the individual chooses to act upon. It feels that to know the greater picture, whether there is one or not, is impossible, or impossible so far, or of little value. Like the Christian existentialist, the agnostic existentialist believes existence is subjective.

Buddhist feminism

Buddhist feminism is a movement that seeks to improve the religious, legal, and social status of women within Buddhism. It is an aspect of feminist theology which seeks to advance and understand the equality of men and women morally, socially, spiritually, and in leadership from a Buddhist perspective. The Buddhist feminist Rita Gross describes Buddhist feminism as "the radical practice of the co-humanity of women and men."


Feminazi is a pejorative term for feminists, which was popularized by politically conservative American radio talk show host Rush Limbaugh.

Feminism in Taiwan

Taiwan has a complex history of feminist and women's-rights movements with periods of progressiveness where feminism and strong female icons flourished and periods of strict authoritarianism where equality and individual rights were devalued.

Feminist theology

Feminist theology is a movement found in several religions, including Buddhism, Christianity, Judaism, and New Thought, to reconsider the traditions, practices, scriptures, and theologies of those religions from a feminist perspective. Some of the goals of feminist theology include increasing the role of women among the clergy and religious authorities, reinterpreting male-dominated imagery and language about God, determining women's place in relation to career and motherhood, and studying images of women in the religion's sacred texts and matriarchal religion.

Index of feminism articles

This is an index of articles related to the issue of feminism, women's liberation, the women's movement, and women's rights.

Islamic monarchy

Islamic monarchies are a type of Islamic state which are monarchies. Historically known by various names, such as Mamlakah ("Kingdom"), Caliphate, Sultanate, or Emirate, current Islamic monarchies include:

Kingdom of Morocco

Kingdom of Bahrain

Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Sultanate of Oman

Monarchies of Malaysia

Nation of Brunei, Abode of Peace

State of Kuwait

State of Qatar

United Arab Emirates

List of Jewish feminists

This is an alphabetical list of Jewish feminists.

List of ecofeminist authors

An alphabetized list of ecofeminist writers includes the following:

Carol J. Adams

Carol P. Christ

Chris Cuomo

Mary Daly

Françoise d'Eaubonne

Barbara Ehrenreich

Clarissa Pinkola Estes

Alice Fulton

Greta Gaard

Chellis Glendinning

Mary Grey

Susan Griffin

Donna Haraway

Allison Hedge Coke

Stephanie Kaza

Petra Kelly

Anna Kingsford

Winona LaDuke

Joanna Macy

Wangari Muta Maathai

Maria Mies

Carolyn Merchant

Gloria Feman Orenstein

Judith Plaskow

Val Plumwood

Arundhati Roy

Rosemary Radford Ruether

Ariel Salleh

Carol Lee Sanchez

Vandana Shiva

Charlene Spretnak


Merlin Stone

Sheri S. Tepper

Douglas Vakoch

Anne Waldman

Alice Walker

Barbara Walker

Marilyn Waring

Karen J. Warren

Laura WrightLiterature/Poetry

Margaret Atwood

Jean Auel

Marion Zimmer Bradley

Octavia Butler

Annie Dillard

Charlotte Perkins Gilman

Sue Monk Kidd

Ursula K. Le Guin

Barbara Kingsolver

Toni Morrison

Mary Oliver

Alice Walker

Nandini Sahu

List of women's studies journals

This is a list of peer-reviewed, academic journals in field of women's studies.

Note: there are many important academic magazines that are not true peer-reviewed journals. They are not listed here.

Matriarchal religion

A matriarchal religion is a religion that focuses on a goddess or goddesses. The term is most often used to refer to theories of prehistoric matriarchal religions that were proposed by scholars such as Johann Jakob Bachofen, Jane Ellen Harrison, and Marija Gimbutas, and later popularized by second-wave feminism. In the 20th century, a movement to revive these practices resulted in the Goddess movement.

Native American feminism

Native American feminism or Native feminism is an intersectional feminist movement rooted in the lived experiences of Native American and First Nations women. As a branch of the broader Indigenous feminism, it similarly prioritizes decolonization, indigenous sovereignty, and the empowerment of indigenous women and girls in the context of Native American and First Nations cultural values and priorities, rather than white, mainstream ones. A central and urgent issue for Native feminists is the Missing and murdered Indigenous women crisis.


Purplewashing is a compound word modelled on the term whitewash. In the context of feminism, it is used to describe a variety of political and marketing strategies aimed at promoting countries, people, companies and other organisations through an appeal to gender equality.The term is commonly used to denounce the use of feminism to justify what is perceived as xenophobic or Islamophobic policies.The word is also used to criticise how Western countries, that have not achieved complete gender equality, justify this by pointing out that other countries (often majority muslim) or cultures still have a worse quality of life for women.

Reclaiming (Neopaganism)

Reclaiming is a modern witchcraft tradition, aiming to combine the Goddess movement with feminism and political activism (in the peace and anti-nuclear movements). Reclaiming was founded in 1979, in the context of the Reclaiming Collective (1978–1997), by two Neopagan women of Jewish descent, Starhawk and Diane Baker, in order to explore and develop feminist Neopagan emancipatory rituals.Today, the organization focuses on progressive social, political, environmental and economic activism. Guided by a shared, "Principles of Unity, a document that lists the core values of the tradition: personal authority, inclusivity, social and environmental justice and a recognition of intersectionality".

Timeline of first women's suffrage in majority-Muslim countries

This timeline lists the dates of the first women's suffrage in Muslim majority countries. Dates for the right to vote, suffrage, as distinct from the right to stand for election and hold office, are listed.

Some countries with majority Muslim populations established universal suffrage upon national independence, such as Bangladesh, Indonesia, and Malaysia. In most North Africa countries, women participated in the first national elections or soon following. Some dates relate to regional elections and, where possible, the second date of general election has been included. Even countries listed may not have universal suffrage for women, and some may have regressed in women's rights since the initial granting of suffrage.

Two House theology

Two House Theology primarily focuses on the division of the ancient United Monarchy of Israel into two kingdoms, Israel and Judah. Two House Theology raises questions when applied to modern peoples who are thought to be descendants of the two ancient kingdoms, both Jews (of the Kingdom of Judah) and the ten lost tribes of the Kingdom of Israel. The phrase "the two houses of Israel" is found in the Isaiah 8:14.


Tahereh (Tāhirih) (Persian: طاهره‎, "The Pure One," also called Qurrat al-ʿAyn (Arabic: قرة العين‎ "Solace/Consolation of the Eyes") are both titles of Fatimah Baraghani/Umm-i-Salmih (1814 or 1817 – August 16–27, 1852), an influential poet and theologian of the Bábí faith in Iran. She was one of the Letters of the Living, the first group of followers of the Báb. Her life, influence and execution made her a key figure of the religion. The daughter of Muhammad Salih Baraghani, she was born into one of the most prominent families of her time. Táhirih led a radical interpretation that, though it split the Babi community, wedded messianism with Bábism.As a young girl she was educated privately by her father and showed herself a talented writer. Whilst in her teens she married the son of her uncle, with whom she had a difficult marriage. In the early 1840s she became familiar with the teachings of Shaykh Ahmad and began a secret correspondence with his successor Kazim Rashti. Táhirih travelled to the Shi'i holy city of Karbala to meet Kazim Rashti, but he died a number of days before her arrival. In 1844 aged about 27, in search of the Qa'im through the Islamic teachings she figured his whereabouts. Independent to any individual she became acquainted with the teachings of the Báb and accepted his religious claims as Qa'im. She soon won renown and infamy for her zealous teachings of his faith and "fearless devotion". Subsequently, exiled back to Iran, Táhirih taught her faith at almost every opportunity. The Persian clergy grew resentful of her and she was detained several times. She battled with her family throughout her life who wanted her to return to their traditional beliefs.

Táhirih was probably best remembered for unveiling herself in an assemblage of men during the Conference of Badasht. The unveiling caused a great deal of controversy and the Báb named her "the Pure One" to show his support for her. She was soon arrested and placed under house arrest in Tehran. In mid-1852 she was executed in secret on account of her Bábí faith. Since her death Bábí and Bahá’í literature venerated her to the level of martyr, being described as "the first woman suffrage martyr". As a prominent Bábí (she was the seventeenth disciple or "Letter of the Living" of the Báb) she is highly regarded by Bahá'ís and Azalis and often mentioned in Bahá'í literature as an example of courage in the struggle for women's rights. Her date of birth is uncertain as birth records were destroyed at her execution.

White feminism

White feminism is an epithet used to describe feminist theories that focus on the struggles of white women without addressing distinct forms of oppression faced by ethnic minority women and women lacking other privileges.

Academic fields
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Feminist theorists

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