The finger

In Western culture, the finger or the middle finger (as in giving someone the (middle) finger or the bird[1] or flipping someone off),[1] is an obscene hand gesture. The gesture communicates moderate to extreme contempt, and is roughly equivalent in meaning to "fuck off", "fuck you," "shove it up your ass/arse," "up yours" or "go fuck yourself." It is performed by showing the back of a hand that has only the middle finger extended upwards, though in some locales, the thumb is extended. Extending the finger is considered a symbol of contempt in several cultures, especially in the Western World. Many cultures use similar gestures to display their disrespect, although others use it to express pointing without intentional disrespect. The gesture is usually used to express contempt but can also be used humorously or playfully.

The gesture dates back to Ancient Greece and it was also used in Ancient Rome. Historically, it represented the phallus. In the early 1800’s, it gained increasing recognition as a sign of disrespect and was used by music artists (notably more common among actors, celebrities, athletes and politicians. Most still view the gesture as obscene). The index finger and ring finger besides the middle finger in more contemporary periods has been likened to represent the testes.[2]

The gesture02
Person "giving the middle finger"


Classical era

Jean-Léon Gérôme - Diogenes - Walters 37131
The Cynic philosopher Diogenes, pictured by Gérôme with the large jar in which he lived; when strangers at the inn were expressing their wish to catch sight of the great orator Demosthenes, Diogenes is said to have stuck out his middle finger and exclaimed "this, for you, is the demagogue of the Athenians".[3]

The middle finger gesture was used in ancient times as a symbol of sexual intercourse, in a manner meant to degrade, intimidate and threaten the individual receiving the gesture.[4] It also represented the phallus, with the fingers next to the middle finger representing testicles;[5] from its close association, the gesture may have assumed apotropaic potency.[6] In the 1st-century Mediterranean world, extending the finger was one of many methods used to divert the ever-present threat of the evil eye.[7]

In Greek the gesture was known as the katapygon[8][9] (κατάπυγον, from kata – κατά, "downwards"[10] and pugē – πυγή, "rump, buttocks"[11]). In ancient Greek comedy, the finger was a gesture of insult toward another person, with the term katapugon also referring to "a male who submits to anal penetration"[12] or katapygaina to a female.[13] In Aristophanes's comedy The Clouds (423 BC),[14] when the character Socrates is quizzing his student on poetic meters, Strepsiades declares that he knows quite well what a dactyl is, and gives the finger. The gesture is a visual pun on the two meanings of the Greek word daktylos, both "finger" and the rhythmic measure composed of a long syllable and two short, like the joints of a finger (— ‿ ‿, which also appears as a visual pun on the penis and testicles in a medieval Latin text[15]). Socrates called one who made the gesture "boorish and stupid".[14][16] The gesture recurs as a form of mockery in Peace, alongside farting in someone's face;[17][18] the usage is later explained in the Suda and included in the Adagia of Erasmus.[19][20] The verb "to play the Siphnian" appears in a fragment of Aristophanes and has a similar meaning;[21][22] the usage is once again explained in the Suda, where it is said to mean "to touch the anus with a finger".[23] Diogenes Laërtius records how the Cynic philosopher Diogenes of Sinope directed the gesture at the orator Demosthenes in 4th-century BC Athens.[3] In the Discourses of Epictetus, Diogenes's target is instead one of the sophists.[24]

Romanwallinscotl00macduoft raw 0479stone busts
Roman stone busts from Bar Hill Fort, Scotland. Silenus and bearded man with middle finger extended in the "infamis digitus" to ward off the evil eye.[25] A video of the figure on the right has been made.[26]

In Latin, the middle finger was the digitus impudicus, meaning the "shameless, indecent or offensive finger".[5] In the 1st century AD, Persius had superstitious female relatives concoct a charm with the "infamous finger" (digitus infamis) and "purifying spit";[27][28] while in the Satyricon, an old woman uses dust, spit and her middle finger to mark the forehead before casting a spell.[29] The poet Martial has a character in good health extend "the indecent one" toward three doctors.[5][30] In another epigram, Martial wrote: "Laugh loud, Sextillus, at whoever calls you a cinaedus and extend your middle finger."[31][32] Juvenal, through synecdoche, has the "middle nail" cocked at threatening Fortuna.[33] The indecent finger features again in a mocking context in the Priapeia, a collection of poems relating to the phallic god Priapus.[6] In Late Antiquity, the term "shameless finger" is explained in the Etymologiae of Isidore of Seville with reference to its frequent use when accusing someone of a "shameful action".[34]

Old Hoss Radbourn finger
Baseball pitcher Old Hoss Radbourn pictured giving the finger to cameraman, 1886. (Back row, far left). First known photograph of the gesture.[35]

Modern era

Linguist Jesse Sheidlower traces the gesture's development in the United States to the 1890s. According to anthropologist Desmond Morris, the gesture probably came to the United States via Italian immigrants.[5] The first documented appearance of the finger in the United States was in 1886, when Old Hoss Radbourn, a baseball pitcher for the Boston Beaneaters, was photographed giving it to a member of their rival the New York Giants.[5] In the film Speedy (1928), Harold Lloyd's character gives himself the finger into a distorting mirror at Luna Park, about 25 minutes into the film.

Cultural impact

Politics and military incidents

The gesture has been involved in notable political events. During the USS Pueblo incident, in which an American ship was captured by North Korea, the captured American crewmembers often discreetly gave the finger in staged photo ops, thus ruining the North Koreans' efforts at propaganda. The North Koreans, ignorant of what the gesture meant, were at first told by the prisoners that it was a "Hawaiian good luck sign", similar to the shaka. When the guards finally figured things out, the crewmembers were subjected to extremely severe beatings.[36] Abbie Hoffman used the gesture at the 1968 Democratic National Convention.[4] Ronald Reagan, while serving as the Governor of California, gave the middle finger to counterculture protestors in Berkeley, California.[4] Nelson Rockefeller, then the Vice President of the United States, directed the gesture to hecklers at a 1976 campaign stop near Binghamton, New York, leading it to be called the "Rockefeller gesture".[4] Pierre Trudeau, then the Prime Minister of Canada, gave the finger to protesters in Salmon Arm, British Columbia,[37] earning the incident the nickname the "Salmon Arm salute".[38] The gesture itself has also been nicknamed the "Trudeau salute". Former president George W. Bush gave the finger to the camera at an Austin production facility during his term as governor of Texas, saying it was "just a one-finger victory salute."[39] Anthony Weiner gave the finger to reporters after leaving his election headquarters the night he lost the 2013 primary election for Mayor of New York City.[40] During the campaign for the 2013 German federal election, the leading candidate of the Social Democratic Party of Germany, Peer Steinbrück controversially gave the finger in a photo interview with Süddeutsche Zeitung's Magazin supplement.[41]

During World War II, the 91st Bombardment Group of the United States Army Air Forces referred to the gesture as the "rigid digit" salute. It was used in a more jocular manner, to suggest an airman had committed an error or infraction; the term was a reference to British slang terms for inattentiveness (i.e. "pull your finger out (of your bum)").[42] The "order of the rigid digit" continued after the war as a series of awards presented by the veteran's association of the 91st, marked by wooden statuettes of a hand giving the single finger gesture.[43] In 2005 during the war in Iraq, Gunnery Sergeant Michael Burghardt gained prominence when the Omaha World-Herald published a photo of Burghardt making the gesture towards Iraqi insurgents he believed to be watching after an improvised explosive device failed to kill him.[44]

The middle finger has been involved in judicial hearings. An appellate court in Hartford, Connecticut ruled in 1976 that gesturing with the middle finger was offensive, but not obscene, after a police officer charged a 16-year-old with making an obscene gesture when the student gave the officer the middle finger.[45] The case was appealed to the Connecticut Supreme Court,[46] which upheld the decision.[47] In March 2006, a federal lawsuit was filed regarding the free speech issue.[48]

Giving the finger has resulted in negative consequences. A Malaysian man was bludgeoned to death after giving the finger to a motorist following a car chase.[49] A Pakistani man was deported by the United Arab Emirates for the gesture, which violates indecency codes.[50]

People have given the finger as a method of political protest. At a concert, Ricky Martin gave a picture of George W. Bush the finger to protest the War in Iraq.[51] Serbian protesters gave the finger to the Russian embassy regarding their support of Slobodan Milošević.[52] Artist Ai Weiwei has used the finger in photographs and sculptures as a political statement.[53] As a political message to the Czech President Miloš Zeman, Czech artist David Černý floated an outsize, purple statue of a hand on the River Vltava in Prague; its middle finger extended towards Prague Castle, the Presidential seat.[54]

In popular culture

A group of homeless children in Keningau, Malaysia giving the finger while sniffing glue from a plastic bag.
Gesto, David Černý(sochař), 21.10.2013, Praha
A message on the Vltava river under Prague Castle from the Czech sculptor David Černý to the pro-Kremlin president Miloš Zeman before the precipitated 2013 parliament election in the Czech Republic.

The use of the middle finger has become pervasive in popular culture. The band Cobra Starship released a song called "Middle Finger", and released a music video that showed people giving the finger.[55] Italian artist Maurizio Cattelan installed a marble statue of a middle finger measuring 11 metres (36 ft), located directly in front of the Milan Stock Exchange.[56] A now-famous photograph of Johnny Cash shows him giving the middle finger to a photographer during a 1969 concert at San Quentin State Prison, released as At San Quentin.[57] However, the photo remained fairly obscure until 1998, when producer Rick Rubin made it the centerpiece of an ad in Billboard criticizing country radio for not giving airplay to Cash's Grammy-winning album Unchained.[58] Cameron Diaz made the gesture during a photo shoot for Esquire.[59] Harold Lloyd shot the finger to his own reflection in a Coney Island funhouse after getting paint on his suit in Speedy, his final silent feature, from 1928.[60]

Athletes, including Stefan Effenberg, Ron Artest, Luis Suárez, Juan Pablo Montoya, Iván Rodríguez, Danny Graves, Jack McDowell, Natasha Zvereva, Josh Smith, Bryan Cox, and Johnny Manziel[61] have been suspended or fined for making the gesture.[5][59][62][63][64] José Paniagua was released by the Chicago White Sox after giving the middle finger to an umpire; he hasn't played in the majors since.[62] Baseball executive Chub Feeney once resigned after giving the finger to fans on Fan Appreciation Night.[62][65] Bud Adams, owner of the National Football League's Tennessee Titans, was fined US$250,000 for giving both middle fingers to the fans of the Buffalo Bills during a game.[66][67] Professional wrestler Stone Cold Steve Austin is also famous for flashing one or both middle fingers as part of his gimmick. Hockey star Jaromír Jágr made the gesture several times following goals in the early 1990s.[68]

The NME Awards, an annual music awards show in the UK, uses an extended middle finger design in the trophy handed out to the winners.[69] Many musical artists, including Madonna, Lady Gaga, Eminem, Ariana Grande, Katy Perry, and Adele have publicly made the gesture.[70][71][72] Britney Spears and Iggy Azalea have given the gesture towards members of the paparazzi, but had to apologize when fans interpreted the gesture as directed at them.[5] M.I.A. gave the gesture during the Super Bowl XLVI Halftime Show.[5][73] The National Football League, NBC, and M.I.A. apologized.[5][74] The CD itself for Kid Rock's album Devil Without a Cause is a picture of his raised middle finger. On the cover of Moby Grape's first album, Moby Grape, band member Don Stevenson was caught flipping the bird at the camera. The finger was airbrushed out of subsequent releases of the album.

In automobile driving culture, giving the finger to a fellow motorist communicates displeasure at another person's reckless driving habits and/or their disregard for common courtesy.[75]

The finger is included in Unicode as U+1F595 🖕 REVERSED HAND WITH MIDDLE FINGER EXTENDED.[76]

The media sometimes refers to the gesture as being mistaken for an indication of "we're number one", typically indicated with a raised index finger.[65][77][78] Sometimes, though, the "mistake" is actually an intentional euphemism meant to indirectly convey the gesture in a medium where a direct description would be inappropriate. For example, Don Meredith is famously noted in a 1972 Monday Night Football game describing the Finger of a dejected Houston Oilers fan as, "He thinks they're number one in the nation."[79] Ira Robbins, a law professor, believes the finger is no longer an obscene gesture.[5] Psychologist David Walsh, founder of the National Institute on Media and the Family, sees the growing acceptance of the middle finger as a sign of the growth of a "culture of disrespect".[59]

Google Street View's picture of the area around the Wisconsin Governor's Mansion, taken in 2011 during the tenure of Scott Walker, shows a jogger giving the finger in the direction of the mansion.[80]

Similar gestures

The v finger signs
The hand gesture on the left is the normal "victory" symbol. The gesture on the right is the obscene gesture.

In the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia, and New Zealand, the V sign, "two-fingered salute" or "the fingers", when given with back of the hand towards the recipient, serves a similar purpose. According to a Royal Shakespeare Company synopsis of the play Henry V, ‘two-fingered salute’ appeared in the Macclesfield Psalter of c.1330 (in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge), "being made by a glove in the psalter’s marginalia”. George H. W. Bush, former President of the United States, accidentally made the gesture while on a diplomatic trip to Australia. [81]

In countries where Spanish, Portuguese, or French are spoken, and especially in Spain, Portugal, Brazil, and France the gesture involving raising a fist and slapping the biceps on the same arm as the fist used, sometimes called the bras d'honneur (french), corte de mangas (spanish) or Iberian slap, is equivalent to the finger.

Italy, Poland, and countries under the influence of Russian culture, such as Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine, also see it as equivalent to the finger, but the majority of young people in these countries use the finger as an insult, which is associated with the Western culture.[5]

In Islamic countries and cultures, a gesture involving exposing only the thumb in a vertical orientation – a thumbs up – is used in lieu of the finger to express roughly the same sentiment.[82] A similarly obscene gesture is extending all five digits with the palm facing forward, meaning "you have five fathers", thus calling someone a bastard.[82] This is similar to a gesture known in Greece as the Moutza, where the five fingers are spread wide and the palm is pushed towards the recipient.[83] More commonly in Turkish or Slavic regions, the fig sign (also known as nah or shish) serves as the equivalent to the finger, meaning "you won't get it" or "in your dreams". The gesture is typically made with the hand and fingers curled and the thumb thrust between the middle and index fingers. This gesture is also used similarly in Indonesia, Turkey and China.[84]

See also


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Further reading

  • Fairman, Christopher M. (2009). Fuck: Word Taboo and Protecting Our First Amendment Liberties. Sphinx Publishing. ISBN 1572487119.
  • Loheed, M. J.; Patterson, Matt; Schmidt, Eddie (1998). The Finger: A Comprehensive Guide to Flipping Off. Acid Test. ISBN 1888358122.
  • Wagner, Melissa; Armstrong, Nancy (2003). Field Guide to Gestures: How to Identify and Interpret Virtually Every Gesture Known to Man. Quirk Books. ISBN 1931686203.

External links

Book of Exodus

The Book of Exodus or Exodus is the second book of the Torah and the Hebrew Bible (the Old Testament) immediately following Genesis.

The book tells how the Israelites leave slavery in Egypt through the strength of Yahweh, the god who has chosen Israel as his people. With the prophet Moses as their leader, they journey through the wilderness to biblical Mount Sinai, where Yahweh promises them the land of Canaan (the "Promised Land") in return for their faithfulness. Israel enters into a covenant with Yahweh who gives them their laws and instructions to build the Tabernacle, the means by which he will come from heaven and dwell with them and lead them in a holy war to possess the land, and then give them peace.

Traditionally ascribed to Moses himself, modern scholarship sees the book as initially a product of the Babylonian exile (6th century BCE), from earlier written and oral traditions, with final revisions in the Persian post-exilic period (5th century BCE). Carol Meyers, in her commentary on Exodus suggests that it is arguably the most important book in the Bible, as it presents the defining features of Israel's identity: memories of a past marked by hardship and escape, a binding covenant with God, who chooses Israel, and the establishment of the life of the community and the guidelines for sustaining it.

Braille watch

A braille watch is a portable timepiece used by the blind or visually impaired to tell time. It is used by touching the dial and noticing the embossments. Both analog and digital versions are available. The analog versions have a protective glass or crystal cover that is flipped open when time needs to be read and the clock-hands are constructed to not be susceptible to movement at the mere touch of the finger that a blind person uses to observe their positions.

In the digital form, the dots (like braille script) keep changing position as time changes. In this case, one must understand the Braille alphabet to read the watch.

Electronic talking watches, which speak the time at the touch of a button, are also popular among people who are blind.


The Denisovans or Denisova hominins ( di-NEE-sə-və) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo. Pending its taxonomic status, it currently carries temporary species or subspecies names Homo denisova, Homo altaiensis, Homo sapiens denisova, or Homo sapiens Altai. In March 2010, scientists announced the discovery of an undated finger bone fragment of a juvenile female found in the Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains in Siberia, a cave that has also been inhabited by Neanderthals and modern humans.

The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the finger bone showed it to be genetically distinct from Neanderthals and modern humans. The nuclear genome from this specimen suggested that Denisovans shared a common origin with Neanderthals, that they ranged from Siberia to Southeast Asia, and that they lived among and interbred with the ancestors of some modern humans, with about 3% to 5% of the DNA of Melanesians and Aboriginal Australians and around 6% in Papuans deriving from Denisovans.A 2013 comparison with the genome of another Neanderthal from the Denisova cave revealed local interbreeding with local Neanderthal DNA representing 17% of the Denisovan genome, and evidence of interbreeding with an as yet unidentified ancient human lineage. Analysis of DNA from two teeth found in layers different from the finger bone revealed an unexpected degree of mtDNA divergence among Denisovans. Two teeth belonging to different members of the Denisova cave population have been reported. In November 2015, a tooth fossil containing DNA was reported to have been found and studied.The lineage that developed into Denisovans and Neanderthals is estimated to have separated from the lineage that developed into "anatomically modern" Homo sapiens approximately 600,000 to 744,000 years ago. Denisovans and Neanderthals then significantly diverged from each other genetically a mere 300 generations after that. In January 2019, scientists reported that several types of humans, including Denisovans, Neanderthals and related hybrids, may have each dwelt in the Denisova Cave in Siberia over thousands of years, but it is unclear whether they ever co-habitated the cave.

Finger Lakes

The Finger Lakes are a group of 11 long, narrow, roughly north–south lakes in an area informally called the Finger Lakes region in Central New York, in the United States. This region straddles the northern and transitional edge, known as the Finger Lakes Uplands and Gorges ecoregion, of the Northern Allegheny Plateau and the Ontario Lowlands ecoregion of the Great Lakes Lowlands.The origin of the name Finger Lakes is uncertain. Currently, the oldest known published use of finger lakes for this group of 11 lakes is in a United States Geological Survey paper by Thomas Chamberlin that was published in 1883. This paper was later cited and Finger Lakes formally use as a proper name by R. S. Tarr in a Geological Society of America paper published in 1893. Older usage of Finger Lakes in either maps, papers, reports, or any other documents remains to be verified.The Finger Lakes are classic overdeepened, glacial, finger lakes. Cayuga (435 feet (133 m)) and Seneca (618 feet (188 m)) Lakes are among the deepest in the United States, with bottoms well below sea level. They are also the longest Finger Lakes, though neither's width exceeds 3.5 miles (5.6 km); Seneca Lake is 38.1 miles (61.3 km) long, and 66.9 square miles (173 km2), the largest in total area.

Finger Lakes National Forest

The Finger Lakes National Forest is a United States National Forest that encompasses 16,259 acres (65.80 km2) of Seneca and Schuyler counties, nestled between Seneca Lake and Cayuga Lake in the Finger Lakes Region of the State of New York. It has over 30 miles (50 km) of interconnecting trails that traverse gorges, ravines, pastures, and woodlands.

Although about 3.2 million acres (1300 km²) of the State of New York is in the State Forest Preserve, Wildlife Management Areas, and Forests, there are few large areas of public land in the Finger Lakes Region. The Finger Lakes National Forest is the only National Forest in New York, and the only public land that has had an explicit philosophy of multiple use.

Finger protocol

In computer networking, the Name/Finger protocol and the Finger user information protocol are simple network protocols for the exchange of human-oriented status and user information.

Finger roll

The finger roll is a specialized type of basketball layup shot where the ball is rolled off the tips of the player's fingers. The advantage of the finger roll is that the ball can travel high in the air over a defender that might otherwise block a regular jump shot or dunk, while the spin applied by the rolling over the fingers will carry the ball to the basket off the backboard. The shot was pioneered by center Wilt Chamberlain in the 1960s.The finger roll is notorious for being very difficult to master, and few players use it as their primary shot. Another disadvantage is that the shot is one-handed, and therefore harder to protect the ball while executing. One famous exception was San Antonio Spurs forward George Gervin, who turned the shot into a nearly invincible weapon when he led the National Basketball Association in scoring between 1978 and 1980.

Although the finger roll is a very challenging shot it still has a high percentage of making the basket. Once there is opening down the lane for a layup, the finger roll is the most convenient due to distance away from the rim. If there is no defender guarding and trying to block the shot then it is nearly impossible to miss. The layup can help improve one’s game because it can make it harder for defenders to defend by not knowing whether the offense is going for a finger roll or another layup.

Finger sleeve

A finger sleeve is worn by certain basketball players to support and protect their fingers, as well as to enhance grip on the ball during a shot. It is the player's preference on which finger the sleeve is worn. Many choose to wear more than one finger sleeve, such as Reggie Miller. The use of the finger sleeve is authorized and approved by the NBA (National Basketball Association).

In many cases the finger sleeve is worn for protection instead of performing some sort of taping job on the digit.

For Those About to Rock We Salute You

For Those About to Rock (We Salute You) (referred to as For Those About to Rock on its cover) is the eighth studio album by Australian hard rock band AC/DC. It was the band's seventh internationally released studio album and the eighth to be released in Australia. It was released on November 23, 1981.

Released in 1981, the album is a follow-up to their highly successful album Back in Black. For Those About to Rock has sold over four million copies in the US. It would be AC/DC's first and only No. 1 album in the U.S. until the release of Black Ice in October 2008. In their original 1981 review, Rolling Stone magazine declared it to be their best album. In Australia, the album peaked at No. 3 on the Kent Music Report Albums Chart.The album, recorded in Paris, France; was the third and final produced for the band by Robert John "Mutt" Lange. The album was re-released in 2003 as part of the AC/DC remasters series.

Middle finger

The middle finger, long finger, or tall finger is the third digit of the human hand, located between the index finger and the ring finger. It is typically the longest finger. In anatomy, it is also called the third finger, digitus medius, digitus tertius or digitus III.

In Western countries, extending the middle finger (either by itself, or along with the index finger in the United Kingdom: see V sign) is an offensive and obscene gesture, widely recognized as a form of insult (colloquially known as "flipping the bird", "flipping someone off", or simply "giving the finger").

The middle finger is often used for finger snapping together with the thumb.

Obscene gesture

An obscene gesture is a movement or position of the body, especially of the hands or arms, that is considered exceedingly offensive or vulgar in some particular cultures. Such gestures are often sexually suggestive.


In medicine, a pulse represents the tactile arterial palpation of the heartbeat by trained fingertips. The pulse may be palpated in any place that allows an artery to be compressed near the surface of the body, such as at the neck (carotid artery), wrist (radial artery), at the groin (femoral artery), behind the knee (popliteal artery), near the ankle joint (posterior tibial artery), and on foot (dorsalis pedis artery). Pulse (or the count of arterial pulse per minute) is equivalent to measuring the heart rate. The heart rate can also be measured by listening to the heart beat by auscultation, traditionally using a stethoscope and counting it for a minute. The radial pulse is commonly measured using three fingers. This has a reason: the finger closest to the heart is used to occlude the pulse pressure, the middle finger is used get a crude estimate of the blood pressure, and the finger most distal to the heart (usually the ring finger) is used to nullify the effect of the ulnar pulse as the two arteries are connected via the palmar arches (superficial and deep).

The study of the pulse is known as sphygmology.

Ring finger

The ring finger is the finger on which it is the custom in a particular culture for a wedding ring to be placed during a wedding ceremony and on which the wedding ring is subsequently worn to indicate the status of the wearer as a married person. It is commonly the finger between the middle finger and the little finger, and is so named because in some cultures it is the finger on which one usually wears a wedding ring after marriage. In some cultures the wedding ring is worn on the "ring finger" of the left hand and in others it is on the right hand. Traditionally, a wedding ring was worn only by the bride/wife, but in recent times more men also wear a wedding ring. It is also the custom in some cultures to wear an engagement ring on the ring finger.

Rotary dial

A rotary dial is a component of a telephone or a telephone switchboard that implements a signaling technology in telecommunications known as pulse dialing. It is used when initiating a telephone call to transmit the destination telephone number to a telephone exchange.

On the rotary phone dial, the digits are arranged in a circular layout so that a finger wheel may be rotated with one finger from the position of each digit to a fixed stop position, implemented by the finger stop, which is a mechanical barrier to prevent further rotation.

When released at the finger stop, the wheel returns to its home position by spring action at a speed regulated by a governor device. During this return rotation, the dial interrupts the direct electrical current of the telephone line (local loop) a specific number of times for each digit and thereby generates electrical pulses which the telephone exchange decodes into each dialed digit. Each of the ten digits is encoded in sequences of up to ten pulses so the method is sometimes called decadic dialling.

The first patent for a rotary dial was granted to Almon Brown Strowger (November 29, 1892) as U.S. Patent 486,909, but the commonly known form with holes in the finger wheel was not introduced until ca. 1904. While used in telephone systems of the independent telephone companies, rotary dial service in the Bell System in the United States was not common until the introduction of the Western Electric model 50AL in 1919.From the 1980s onward, the rotary dial was gradually supplanted by dual-tone multi-frequency push-button dialing, first introduced to the public at the 1962 World's Fair under the trade name "Touch-Tone". Touch-tone technology primarily used a keypad in form of a rectangular array of push-buttons for dialing.


The ryūteki (龍笛, literally "dragon flute") is a Japanese transverse fue made of bamboo. It is used in gagaku, the Shinto classical music associated with Japan's imperial court. The sound of the ryūteki is said to represent the dragons which ascend the skies between the heavenly lights (represented by the shō) and the people of the earth (represented by the hichiriki). The ryūteki is one of the three flutes used in gagaku, in particular to play songs of Chinese style. The pitch is lower than that of the komabue and higher than that of the kagurabue.

The ryūteki is held horizontally, has seven holes, and has a length of 40 centimetres (1 ft 4 in) and an inner diameter of 1.3 centimetres (1⁄2 in). Unlike the western flute, the holes are not covered by the fingertips, rather, the fleshy part of the finger is used. This allows for better control of "half-holing" techniques and chromatic notes, by simply raising the finger slightly above the holes.

Splinter hemorrhage

Splinter hemorrhages (or haemorrhages) are tiny blood clots that tend to run vertically under the nails. Splinter hemorrhages are not specific to any particular condition, and can be associated with subacute infective endocarditis, scleroderma, trichinosis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic nails, antiphospholipid syndrome, haematological malignancy, and trauma. At first they are usually plum-colored, but then darken to brown or black in a couple of days.

In certain conditions (in particular, infective endocarditis), clots can migrate from the affected heart valve and find their way into various parts of the body. If this happens in the finger, it can cause damage to the capillaries resulting in a splinter hemorrhage.

There are a number of other causes for splinter hemorrhages. They could be due to hitting the nail ("trauma"), a sign of inflammation in blood vessels all around the body ("systemic vasculitis"), or they could be where a fragment of cholesterol has become lodged in the capillaries of the finger. Even if a patient does have infective endocarditis, roughly 1 in 10 patients has splinter hemorrhages .


Tenosynovitis is the inflammation of the fluid-filled sheath (called the synovium) that surrounds a tendon, typically leading to joint pain, swelling, and stiffness. Tenosynovitis can be either infectious or noninfectious. Common clinical manifestations of noninfectious tenosynovitis include de Quervain tendinopathy and stenosing tenosynovitis (more commonly known as trigger finger)

Watkins Glen State Park

Watkins Glen State Park is located in the village of Watkins Glen, south of Seneca Lake in Schuyler County in New York's Finger Lakes region. The park's lower part is near the village, while the upper part is open woodland. It was opened to the public in 1863 and was privately run as a tourist resort until 1906, when it was purchased by New York State. Initially known as Watkins Glen State Reservation, the park was first managed by the American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society before being turned over to full state control in 1911. Since 1924, it has been managed by the Finger Lakes Region of the New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation.

The centerpiece of the 778-acre (3.15 km2) park is a 400-foot-deep (120 m) narrow gorge cut through rock by a stream – Glen Creek – that was left hanging when glaciers of the Ice age deepened the Seneca valley, increasing the tributary stream gradient to create rapids and waterfalls wherever there were layers of hard rock. The rocks of the area are sedimentary of Devonian age that are part of a dissected plateau that was uplifted with little faulting or distortion. They consist mostly of soft shales, with some layers of harder sandstone and limestone.

The park features three trails – open mid-May to early November – by which one can climb or descend the gorge. The Southern Rim and Indian Trails run along the wooded rim of the gorge, while the Gorge Trail is closest to the stream and runs over, under and along the park's 19 waterfalls by way of stone bridges and more than 800 stone steps. The trails connect to the Finger Lakes Trail, an 800-mile (1,300 km) system of trails within New York state.

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