The World Factbook

The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook,[1] is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world. The official print version is available from the Government Printing Office. Other companies—such as Skyhorse Publishing—also print a paper edition. The Factbook is available in the form of a website that is partially updated every week. It is also available for download for use off-line. It provides a two- to three-page summary of the demographics, geography, communications, government, economy, and military of each of 267 international entities[2] including U.S.-recognized countries, dependencies, and other areas in the world.

The World Factbook is prepared by the CIA for the use of U.S. government officials, and its style, format, coverage, and content are primarily designed to meet their requirements.[3] However, it is frequently used as a resource for academic research papers and news articles.[4] As a work of the U.S. government, it is in the public domain in the United States.[5]

The World Factbook
CIA World Factbook Cover
Cover of the U.S. government print edition of The World Factbook (2016–17 edition)
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
SubjectGeneral
GenreAlmanac about the countries of the world
PublisherCentral Intelligence Agency
Publication date
See frequency of updates and availability, no longer published in paper book form by the CIA
Websitewww.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/

Sources

In researching the Factbook, the CIA uses the sources listed below. Other public and private sources are also consulted.[3]

Copyright

Wfb webby
The World Factbook website as it appeared in December 2014

Because the Factbook is in the public domain, people are free under United States law to redistribute it or parts of it in any way that they like, without permission of the CIA.[3] However, the CIA requests that it be cited when the Factbook is used.[5] Copying the official seal of the CIA without permission is prohibited by U.S. federal law—specifically, the Central Intelligence Agency Act of 1949 (50 U.S.C. § 403m).

Frequency of updates and availability

Before November 2001 The World Factbook website was updated yearly;[6] from 2004 to 2010 it was updated every two weeks;[6] since 2010 it has been updated weekly.[7] Generally, information currently available as of January 1 of the current year[8] is used in preparing the Factbook.

Government edition of the Factbook

The first, classified, edition of Factbook was published in August 1962, and the first unclassified version in June 1971.[9] The World Factbook was first available to the public in print in 1975.[9] In 2008 the CIA discontinued printing the Factbook themselves, instead turning printing responsibilities over to the Government Printing Office.[10] This happened due to a CIA decision to "focus Factbook resources" on the online edition.[11] The Factbook has been on the World Wide Web since October 1994.[12] The web version receives an average of 6 million visits per month;[4] it can also be downloaded.[13] The official printed version is sold[14] by the Government Printing Office and National Technical Information Service. In past years, the Factbook was available on CD-ROM,[15] microfiche,[16] magnetic tape,[16] and floppy disk.[16]

Reprints and older editions online

Many Internet sites use information and images from the CIA World Factbook.[17] Several publishers, including Grand River Books,[18] Potomac Books (formerly known as Brassey's Inc.),[19] and Skyhorse Publishing[20] have re-published the Factbook in recent years.

Entities listed

As of July 2011, The World Factbook consists of 267 entities.[2] These entities can be divided into categories.[21] They are:

Independent countries
This category has independent countries, which the CIA defines as people "politically organized into a sovereign state with a definite territory".[21] In this category, there are 195 entities.
Others
The Other category is a list of other places set apart from the list of independent countries. Currently there are two: Taiwan and the European Union.
Dependencies and Areas of Special Sovereignty
This category is a list of places affiliated with another country. They may be subdivided into categories using the country they are affiliated with:
Miscellaneous
This category is for Antarctica and places in dispute. There are six entities.
Other entities
This category is for the World and the oceans. There are five oceans and the World (the World entry is intended as a summary of the other entries).[4]

Territorial issues and controversies

Political

Areas not covered
Specific regions within a country or areas in dispute among countries, such as Kashmir, are not covered,[22] but other areas of the world whose status is disputed, such as the Spratly Islands, have entries.[22][23] Subnational areas of countries (such as U.S. states or the Canadian provinces and territories) are not included in the Factbook. Instead, users looking for information about subnational areas are referred to "a comprehensive encyclopedia" for their reference needs.[24] This criterion was invoked in the 2007[25] and 2011[26] editions with the decision to drop the entries for French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Reunion. They were dropped because besides being overseas departments, they were now overseas regions, and an integral part of France.[25][26]
Kashmir
Maps depicting Kashmir have the Indo-Pakistani border drawn at the Line of Control, but the region of Kashmir administered by China drawn in hash marks.[27]
Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus, which the U.S. considers part of the Republic of Cyprus, is not given a separate entry because "territorial occupations/annexations not recognized by the United States Government are not shown on U.S. Government maps."[28]
Taiwan/Republic of China
The name "Republic of China" is not listed as Taiwan's official name under the "Government" section,[29] due to U.S. acknowledgement of Beijing's One-China policy according to which there is one China and Taiwan is a part of it.[30] The name "Republic of China" was briefly added on January 27, 2005,[31] but has since been changed back to "none".[29] Of the Factbook's two maps of China, one highlights the island of Taiwan highlighted as part of the country[27] while the other does not.[32] (See also: Political status of Taiwan, Legal status of Taiwan)
Disputed South China Sea Islands
The Paracel Islands and Spratly Islands, subjects of territorial disputes, have entries in the Factbook where they are not listed as the territory of any one nation. The disputed claims to the islands are discussed in the entries.[33][34]
Burma/Myanmar
The U.S. does not recognize the renaming of Burma by its ruling military junta to Myanmar and thus keeps its entry for the country under the Burma name.[35]
Republic of Macedonia
The Republic of Macedonia was entered as Macedonia,[36] the name used in its first entry in the Factbook upon independence in 1992.[37] In the 1994 edition, the name of the entry was changed to the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, as it is recognised by the United Nations (pending resolution of the Macedonia naming dispute).[38][39] For the next decade, this was the name the nation was listed under. In the 2004 edition of the Factbook, the name of the entry was changed back to Macedonia, following a November 2004 U.S. decision to refer to the country using this name.[40][41] On February 19, 2019, the entry was renamed to North Macedonia following the country's name change to the Republic of North Macedonia.
European Union
On December 16, 2004, the CIA added an entry for the European Union (EU) for the first time.[42][43] The "What's New" section of the 2005 Factbook states: "The European Union continues to accrue more nation-like characteristics for itself and so a separate listing was deemed appropriate."[30]
United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges and Iles Eparses
In the 2006 edition of The World Factbook, the entries for Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Kingman Reef, Johnston Atoll, Palmyra Atoll and the Midway Islands were merged into a new United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges entry.[44] The old entries for each individual insular area remain as redirects on the Factbook website.[45] On September 7, 2006, the CIA also merged the entries for Bassas da India, Europa Island, the Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island into a new Iles Eparses entry.[46] As with the new United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges entry, the old entries for these five islands remained as redirects on the website.[47] On July 19, 2007, the Iles Eparses entry and redirects for each island were dropped due to the group becoming a district of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands in February.[48]
Serbia and Montenegro/Yugoslavia
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) broke apart in 1991. The following year, it was replaced in the Factbook with entries for each of its former constituent republics.[37] In doing this, the CIA listed the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), proclaimed in 1992, as Serbia and Montenegro, as the U.S. did not recognize the union between the two republics.[49][50] This was done in accordance with a May 21, 1992, decision[51] by the U.S. not to recognize any of the former Yugoslav republics[52] as successor states to the recently dissolved SFRY.
FRYugoMap2k
A map of Serbia and Montenegro from the 2000 edition of The World Factbook.[53] Notice how the disclaimer is printed in the upper right hand corner. One can see how the capital cities of both republics are individually labeled on the map.
These views were made clear in a disclaimer printed in the Factbook: "Serbia and Montenegro have asserted the formation of a joint independent state, but this entity has not been recognized as a state by the United States."[54] Montenegro and Serbia were treated separately in the Factbook data, as can be seen on the map.[55] In October 2000, Slobodan Milošević was forced out of office after a disputed election.[56] This event led to democratic elections and U.S. diplomatic recognition. The 2001 edition of the Factbook thus referred to the state as Yugoslavia.[57] On March 14, 2002, an agreement was signed to transform the FRY into a loose state union called Serbia and Montenegro;[58] it took effect on February 4, 2003.[59] The name of the Yugoslavia entity was altered in the Factbook the month after the change.[60]
Kosovo
On February 28, 2008, the CIA added an entry for Kosovo, which declared independence on February 17 of the same year.[61] Before this, Kosovo was excluded in the Factbook.[22] Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute; Serbia continues to claim Kosovo as part of its own sovereign territory. Kosovo's independence has been recognised by 113 out of 193 United Nations member states, including the United States.[62]
East Timor/Timor-Leste
On July 19, 2007, the entry for East Timor was renamed Timor-Leste following a decision of the United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN).[63]

Factual

The Factbook is full of usually minor errors, inaccuracies, and out-of-date information, which are often repeated elsewhere due to the Factbook's widespread use as a reference. For example, Albania was until recently, described in the Factbook as 70% Muslim, 20% Eastern Orthodox, and 10% Roman Catholic, which was based on a survey conducted in 1939, before World War II; numerous surveys conducted since the fall of the Communist regime since 1990 have given quite different figures. Another example is Singapore, which the Factbook states has a total fertility rate of 0.78 children per woman, despite figures in Statistics Singapore which state that the rate has been about 1.2–1.3 children per woman for at least the past several years, and it is unclear when, or even whether, it ever dropped as low as 0.78.[64] This low and inaccurate value then gets cited in news articles which state that Singapore has the world's lowest fertility, or at least use the figure for its shock value.[65][66] Another serious problem is that the Factbook never cites its sources, making verification of the information it presents difficult if not impossible.

In June 2009, National Public Radio (NPR), relying on information obtained from the CIA World Factbook, put the number of Israeli Jews living in settlements in the West Bank and Israeli-annexed East Jerusalem at 250,000. However, a better estimate, based on State Department and Israeli sources put the figure at about 500,000. NPR then issued a correction. Chuck Holmes, foreign editor for NPR Digital, said, "I'm surprised and displeased, and it makes me wonder what other information is out-of-date or incorrect in the CIA World Factbook."[67]

Scholars have acknowledged that some entries in the Factbook are out of date.[68]

See also

Alternative publications

References

Citations

  1. ^ a b Directorate of Intelligence (2011-07-12). "CIA – World Factbook". Retrieved 2011-07-14. The World Factbook provides information on the history, people, government, economy, geography, communications, transportation, military, and transnational issues for 267 world entities.
  2. ^ a b c Directorate of Intelligence. "The World Factbook – Contributors and Copyright Information". Retrieved 2006-09-23. The World Factbook is prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency for the use of US Government officials, and the style, format, coverage, and content are designed to meet their specific requirements. Information is provided by other public and private sources. The Factbook is in the public domain. Accordingly, it may be copied freely without permission of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
  3. ^ a b c "CIA World Factbook 2006 Now Available" (Press release). Central Intelligence Agency. 2006-04-05. Retrieved 2007-01-11. The World Factbook remains the CIA's most widely disseminated and most popular product, now averaging almost 6 million visits each month. In addition, tens of thousands of government, commercial, academic, and other Web sites link to or replicate the online version of the Factbook. * * * Included among the 271 geographic entries is one for the "World," which incorporates data and other information summarized where possible from the other 270 country listings.
  4. ^ a b Directorate of Intelligence. "The World Factbook – Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): Can I use some or all of The World Factbook for my Web site (book, research project, homework, etc.)?". Retrieved 2006-09-23. The World Factbook is in the public domain and may be used freely by anyone at anytime without seeking permission.* * * As a courtesy, please cite The World Factbook when used.
  5. ^ a b Directorate of Intelligence. "The World Factbook – Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): How often is The World Factbook updated?". Retrieved 2009-01-26. Formerly our Web site (and the published Factbook) were only updated annually. Beginning in November 2001 we instituted a new system of more frequent online updates. The World Factbook is currently updated every two weeks.
  6. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (2010-11-24). "World Factbook Updates – October 22, 2010". Retrieved 2010-12-01. Since 2004, The World Factbook website has been updated on a bi-weekly schedule. Culminating a three-month trial effort, we are pleased to announce that the Factbook will now be updated on a weekly basis.
  7. ^ Directorate of Intelligence. "The World Factbook – Notes and Definitions: Date of information". Retrieved 2006-09-23. In general, information available as of 1 January 2007 was used in the preparation of this edition.
  8. ^ a b Directorate of Intelligence. "The World Factbook – History". Retrieved 2007-03-03. The first classified Factbook was published in August 1962, and the first unclassified version was published in June 1971.
  9. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (2009-06-08). "CIA – The World Factbook – About :: History: 2008". Retrieved 2009-06-08. Printing of the Factbook turned over to the Government Printing Office.
  10. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (2008). CIA – The World Factbook 2008: Purchasing Information. Retrieved 2015-04-19. The Government Printing Office has assumed production of The World Factbook print edition. The CIA has decided to focus Factbook resources exclusively on the World Wide Web online edition...
  11. ^ Miller, Jill Young. "CIA puts data on the internet." Fort Lauderdale Sun-Sentinel 12 December 1994.
  12. ^ Central Intelligence Agency. "CIA Download Page". Retrieved 2007-06-10.
  13. ^ Directorate of Intelligence. "The World Factbook – Purchasing Information". Retrieved 2006-09-23. Other users may obtain sales information about printed copies from the following: Superintendent of Documents...National Technical Information Service
  14. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (1999). "The World Factbook 1999 – Purchasing Information (mirror)". Retrieved 2006-09-24. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) prepares The World Factbook in printed, CD-ROM, and Internet versions.
  15. ^ a b c Directorate of Intelligence (1995). "Publication Information for The World Factbook 1995 (mirror)". Retrieved 2006-09-24. This publication is also available in microfiche, magnetic tape, or computer diskettes.
  16. ^ Directorate of Intelligence. "The World Factbook – Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): I am using the Factbook online and it is not working. What is wrong?". Retrieved 2006-09-24. Hundreds of "Factbook" look-alikes exist on the Internet. The Factbook site at: www.cia.gov is the only official site.
  17. ^ Texas A&M University Libraries. "Introduction to Comparative Politics POLS 329". Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved 2008-01-02. The world factbook (Handbook of the Nations). Detroit, Mich.: Grand River Books, 1981–.
  18. ^ Potomac Books. "The World Factbook 2008 CIA's 2007 Edition". Archived from the original on 2009-06-20. Retrieved 2008-01-02.
  19. ^ Skyhorse Publishing. "CIA World Factbook 2008, The". Archived from the original on 30 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-22.
  20. ^ a b Directorate of Intelligence. "The World Factbook – Notes and Definitions: Entities". Retrieved 2011-07-12. "Independent state" refers to a people politically organized into a sovereign state with a definite territory. * * * There are a total of 266 separate geographic entities in The World Factbook that may be categorized as follows...
  21. ^ a b c Directorate of Intelligence. "The World Factbook – Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): Why don't you include information on entities such as Tibet or Kashmir?". Retrieved 2008-08-24. Also included in the Factbook are entries on parts of the world whose status has not yet been resolved (e.g., West Bank, Spratly Islands). Specific regions within a country or areas in dispute among countries are not covered.
  22. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (2006-09-19). "The World Factbook – Spratly Islands". Retrieved 2006-09-24.
  23. ^ Directorate of Intelligence. "The World Factbook – Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): Why doesn't The World Factbook include information on states, departments, provinces, etc., in the country format?". Retrieved 2007-05-26. The World Factbook provides national-level information on countries, territories, and dependencies, but not subnational administrative units within a country. A comprehensive encyclopedia might be a source for state/province-level information.
  24. ^ a b Directorate of Intelligence. "The World Factbook – Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): Why has The World Factbook dropped the four French departments of Guadeloupe, Martinique, Reunion, and French Guiana?". Retrieved 2007-05-26. The reason the four entities are no longer in The World Factbook is because their status has changed. While they are overseas departments of France, they are also now recognized as French regions, having equal status to the 22 metropolitan regions that make up European France.
  25. ^ a b Directorate of Intelligence (2011-04-08). "World Factbook Updates – April 8, 2011". Retrieved 2011-04-11. The Indian Ocean island entity of Mayotte became an overseas department of France on 31 March. The change in status makes it an integral part of France and so its description is now included in the France country profile of The World Factbook. (Archived by WebCite at )
  26. ^ a b Directorate of Intelligence (2006-09-19). "The World Factbook – China (map)". Retrieved 2009-12-27.
  27. ^ Directorate of Intelligence. "The World Factbook – Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): Why are the Golan Heights not shown as part of Israel or Northern Cyprus with Turkey?". Retrieved 2006-09-23. Territorial occupations/annexations not recognized by the United States Government are not shown on US Government maps.
  28. ^ a b Directorate of Intelligence (2006-09-19). "The World Factbook – Taiwan". Retrieved 2006-09-23.
  29. ^ a b Directorate of Intelligence. "The World Factbook – Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): Why are Taiwan and the European Union listed out of alphabetical order at the end of the Factbook entries?". Retrieved 2006-09-23. Taiwan is listed after the regular entries because even though the mainland People's Republic of China claims Taiwan, elected Taiwanese authorities de facto administer the island and reject mainland sovereignty claims. * * * The European Union (EU) is not a country, but it has taken on many nation-like attributes and these are likely to be expanded in the future.
  30. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (2005-01-27). "The World Factbook – Taiwan". Archived from the original on 2005-01-30. Retrieved 2010-10-17.
  31. ^ "China". CIA World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved February 2, 2013.
  32. ^ "Paracel Islands". CIA World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved February 2, 2013.
  33. ^ "Spratly Islands". CIA World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved February 2, 2013.
  34. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (2006-09-19). "The World Factbook – Burma". Archived from the original on November 4, 2010. Retrieved 2006-09-23. since 1989 the military authorities in Burma have promoted the name Myanmar as a conventional name for their state; this decision was not approved by any sitting legislature in Burma, and the US Government did not adopt the name, which is a derivative of the Burmese short-form name Myanma Naingngandaw
  35. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (2006-09-19). "The World Factbook – Macedonia". Retrieved 2006-09-23.
  36. ^ a b Directorate of Intelligence (1992). "The World Factbook 1992 – Notes, Definitions, and Abbreviations". Retrieved 2006-09-23. Bosnia and Hercegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro, and Slovenia have replaced Yugoslavia.
  37. ^ "Official site of the U.N., List of UN Member States". Un.org. Retrieved 2013-03-29.
  38. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (1994). "The World Factbook 1994 – Notes, Definitions, and Abbreviations". Retrieved 2006-09-23. The name of Macedonia was changed to The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM).
  39. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (2004-11-30). "The World Factbook – Macedonia)". Archived from the original on 2004-12-07. Retrieved 2010-10-17.
  40. ^ Staff reporter (2004-11-04). "US snubs Greece over Macedonia". BBC News. Retrieved 2006-09-23. Greece has protested strongly at a decision by the US to refer to the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) simply as "Macedonia".
  41. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (2006-09-19). "The World Factbook – European Union". Retrieved 2006-09-23.
  42. ^ Directorate of Intelligence. "The World Factbook – Why doesn't The World Factbook include information on states, departments, provinces, the European Union, etc., in the country format? (mirror)". Retrieved 2007-06-02. The World Factbook provides national-level information on countries, territories, and dependencies, but not on subnational administrative units within a country or supranational entities like the European Union.
  43. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (2006-09-19). "The World Factbook – United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges". Retrieved 2006-09-23.
  44. ^ For an example of a redirect, see what happens with the profile for Kingman Reef.
  45. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (2006-09-19). "The World Factbook – Iles Eparses (mirror)". Retrieved 2007-11-10.
  46. ^ For an example of a redirect, see what happens with the profile for Juan de Nova Island (mirror).
  47. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (2007-07-19). "CIA – The World Factbook 2007: What's New". Retrieved 2007-07-20. The five former entities of Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island, previously grouped as Iles Eparses (Scattered Islands), now constitute a district of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands.
  48. ^ Department of State (August 1999). "Serbia and Montenegro (08/99) (See Yugoslavia)". Archived from the original on January 14, 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-03. (Serbia and Montenegro have asserted the formation of a joint independent state, but this entity has not been recognized as a state by the United States.)
  49. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (1992). "1992 CIA World Factbook: Serbia and Montenegro (mirror)". Retrieved 2006-10-29.
  50. ^ Department of State. "Chiefs of Mission by Country, 1778–2005: Serbia and Montenegro". Retrieved 2006-10-30. On May 21, 1992, the United States announced that it did not recognize the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which was composed of the Republics of Serbia and Montenegro, as a successor state of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
  51. ^ White, Mary Jo (2000-01-31). "767 Third Avenue Associates v. United States: Brief For Amicus Curiae United States of America Supporting Appellees and Supporting Affirmance in Part and Reversal in Part" (MS Word). Retrieved 2010-10-17. Since 1992, the United States has taken the position that the SFRY has ceased to exist, that there is no state representing the continuation of the SFRY, and that five successors have arisen—the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) ("FRY(S&M)"), the Republic of Slovenia ("Slovenia"), the Republic of Croatia ("Croatia"), the Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina ("Bosnia-Herzegovina"), and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia ("FYROM")
  52. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (2000). "CIA World Factbook 2000 – Country Maps (mirror)". Retrieved 2007-02-06.
  53. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (1999). "CIA – The World Factbook 1999 – Serbia and Montenegro". Archived from the original on 1999-11-09. Retrieved 2010-10-17. Serbia and Montenegro have asserted the formation of a joint independent state, but this entity has not been formally recognized as a state by the US. The US view is that the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) has dissolved and that none of the successor republics represents its continuation.
  54. ^ For an example, see the profile for the FRY in the 1999 World Factbook.
  55. ^ Staff reporter (2000-10-07). "Kostunica sworn in as president of Yugoslavia". CNN. Archived from the original on September 22, 2006. Retrieved 2006-10-30.
  56. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (2001). "CIA – The World Factbook – Notes and Definitions". Archived from the original on 2002-08-03. Retrieved 2010-10-17. The entity of Serbia and Montenegro is now officially known as Yugoslavia.
  57. ^ Staff reporter (2002-03-14). "Yugoslav partners sign historic deal". BBC News. Retrieved 2006-10-30. Serbia and Montenegro have signed an accord which will consign the name Yugoslavia to history and shelve any immediate plans for Montenegrin independence.
  58. ^ Staff reporter (2003-02-04). "Yugoslavia consigned to history". BBC News. Retrieved 2006-11-17. From now on it will be called just Serbia and Montenegro—the two remaining republics joined in a loose union.
  59. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (2003-03-19). "CIA – The World Factbook 2002: What's new". Archived from the original on 2003-04-08. Retrieved 2010-10-17. Yugoslavia has been renamed Serbia and Montenegro as of 4 February 2003.
  60. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (2008-02-28). "The World Factbook – Kosovo". Retrieved 2008-02-29.
  61. ^ "Kosovo's parliament declares independence". CTV.ca. 2008-02-17. Archived from the original on 2008-12-27. Retrieved 2008-08-24. Serbia opposes the declaration of independence* * *
  62. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (2007-07-19). "CIA – The World Factbook 2007: What's New". Retrieved 2007-07-20. The US Board on Geographic Names (BGN) now recognizes Timor-Leste as the short form name for East Timor* * *
  63. ^ Statistics Singapore – Latest Data Archived 2014-11-05 at the Wayback Machine. Singstat.gov.sg. Retrieved on 2014-04-28.
  64. ^ Sapere, Aude (2013-03-12). "What Happens When Half The World Stops Making Babies". The Global Mail. Archived from the original on 2013-03-26. Retrieved 2013-03-29.
  65. ^ "How Japan stood up to old age". The Financial Times. 2014-01-17. Retrieved 2014-01-17.
  66. ^ Alicia Shepard (2 June 2010). "NPR Ombudsman CIA get numbers wrong on Jewish Settlers". National Public Radio. Retrieved 30 October 2010.
  67. ^ Richard Collin & Pamela L. Martin. An Introduction to World Politics: Conflict and Consensus on a Small Planet (Rowman & Littlefield, 2013), p. 41.
  68. ^ Central Intelligence Agency. "World Leaders". Retrieved 2007-10-25.

Sources

External links

Mobile versions of the Factbook

The Factbook by year

1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008
Central Africa

Central Africa is the core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda. Middle Africa (as used by the United Nations when categorising geographic subregions) is an analogous term that includes Angola, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, the Republic of the Congo, and São Tomé and Príncipe. All of the states in the UN subregion of Middle Africa, plus those otherwise commonly reckoned in Central Africa (11 states in total), constitute the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS). Since its independence in 2011, South Sudan has also been commonly included in the region.

Demographics of Bhutan

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Bhutan, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Elections by country

For each de jure and de facto sovereign state and dependent territory an article on elections in that entity has been included and information on the way the head of state, head of government, and the legislature is selected. Merged cells for "head of state" and "head of government" indicate the office is the same for that country; merged cells for "lower house" and "upper house" indicate a unicameral legislature. The linked articles include the results of the elections. For a chronological order, see the electoral calendar.

Geography of Slovakia

Slovakia is a landlocked Central European country with mountainous regions in the north and flat terrain in the south.

History of Andorra

Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra (Catalan: Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (Catalan: Principat de les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate in Southwestern Europe, located in the eastern Pyrenees mountains and bordered by Spain and France.

International rankings of Taiwan

The following are the international rankings of Taiwan.

Islam by country

Adherents of Islam constitute the world's second largest religious group. According to a study in 2015, Islam has 1.8 billion adherents, making up about 24.1% of the world population. Most Muslims are either of two denominations: Sunni (80–90%, roughly 1.5 billion people) or Shia (10–20%, roughly 170–340 million people). Islam is the dominant religion in Central Asia, Indonesia, Middle East, North Africa, the Sahel and some other parts of Asia. The diverse Asia-Pacific region contains the highest number of Muslims in the world, easily surpassing the Middle East and North Africa.About 31% of all Muslims are of South Asian origin, therefore South Asia contains the largest population of Muslims in the world. Within this region, however, Muslims are second in numbers to Hindus, as Muslims are a majority in Pakistan and Bangladesh, but not India.

The various Hamito-Semitic (including Arab, Berber), Turkic, and Iranic countries of the greater Middle East-North Africa (MENA) region, where Islam is the dominant religion in all countries other than Israel, hosts 23% of world Muslims.

The country with the single largest population of Muslims is Indonesia in Southeast Asia, which on its own hosts 13% of the world's Muslims. Together, the Muslims in the countries of Southeast Asia constitute the world's third largest population of Muslims. In the countries of the Malay Archipelago Muslims are majorities in each country other than Singapore, the Philippines, and East Timor.

About 15% of Muslims reside in Sub-Saharan Africa, and sizeable Muslim communities are also found in the Americas, the Caucasus, China, Europe, the Philippines and Russia.Western Europe hosts many Muslim immigrant communities where Islam is the second largest religion after Christianity, where it represents 6% of the total population or 24 million people. Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world.

Languages of Africa

The languages of Africa are divided into six major language families:

Afroasiatic languages are spread throughout Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa and parts of the Sahel.

Austronesian languages are spoken in Madagascar.

Indo-European languages are spoken in South Africa and Namibia (Afrikaans, English, German) and are used as lingua francas in the former colonies of Britain and Liberia (English), former colonies of France and of Belgium (French), former colonies of Portugal and remaining Afro-Portuguese islands (Portuguese), former colonies of Italy (Italian), former colonies of Spain (Spanish) and the current Spanish territories of Ceuta, Melilla and the Canary Islands (Spanish).

Niger–Congo languages (Bantu and non-Bantu) cover West, Central, Southeast and Southern Africa.

Nilo-Saharan languages (unity debated) are spoken from Tanzania to Sudan and from Chad to Mali.There are several other small families and language isolates, as well as languages that have yet to be classified. In addition, Africa has a wide variety of sign languages, many of which are language isolates (see below).

The total number of languages natively spoken in Africa is variously estimated (depending on the delineation of language vs. dialect) at between 1,250 and 2,100, and by some counts at "over 3,000".Nigeria alone has over 500 languages (according to the count of SIL Ethnologue), one of the greatest concentrations of linguistic diversity in the world. However, "One of the notable differences between Africa and most other linguistic areas is its relative uniformity. With few exceptions, all of Africa’s languages have been gathered into four major phyla."Around a hundred languages are widely used for inter-ethnic communication. Arabic, Somali, Berber, Amharic, Oromo, Igbo, Swahili, Hausa, Manding, Fulani and Yoruba are spoken by tens of millions of people. Twelve dialect clusters (which may group up to a hundred linguistic varieties) are spoken by 75 percent, and fifteen by 85 percent, of Africans as a first or additional language. Although many mid-sized languages are used on the radio, in newspapers and in primary-school education, and some of the larger ones are considered national languages, only a few are official at the national level. The African Union declared 2006 the "Year of African Languages".

Languages of Gibraltar

As Gibraltar is a British overseas territory, its sole official language is English, which is used by the Government and in schools. The eponymous Gibraltarian English accent is spoken in the territory.

Most locals are bilingual, also speaking Spanish, because of Gibraltar's proximity to Spain. Most Gibraltarians converse in Llanito, their vernacular which is mostly based on Andalusian Spanish but with numerous loanwords from English as well other Mediterranean languages. However, because of the varied mix of ethnic groups which reside there, other languages such as Moroccan Berber, Moroccan Arabic and Hindi are also spoken on The Rock.

List of countries by external debt

This is a list of countries by external debt, which is the total public and private debt owed to nonresidents repayable in internationally accepted currencies, goods or services, where the public debt is the money or credit owed by any level of government, from central to local, and the private debt the money or credit owed by private households or private corporations based in the country under consideration.

For informational purposes, several non-sovereign entities are also included in this list.

Note that while a country may have a relatively large external debt (either in absolute or per capita terms) it could actually be a "net international creditor" if its external debt is less than the total of the external debt of other countries held by it. For example, although the UK has more external debt than France, it has more external assets giving it a stronger NIIP.

List of countries by labour force

This is a list of countries by size of the labour force mostly based on The World Factbook.

List of religious populations

This is a list of religious populations by number of adherents and countries.

Muslims

Muslims (Arabic: مُسلِم‎) are people who follow or practice Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion. Muslims consider the Quran, their holy book, to be the verbatim word of God as revealed to the Islamic prophet and messenger Muhammad. The majority of Muslims also follow the teachings and practices of Muhammad (sunnah) as recorded in traditional accounts (hadith). "Muslim" is an Arabic word meaning "submitter" (to God).The beliefs of Muslims include: that God (Arabic: الله‎ Allāh) is eternal, transcendent and absolutely one (tawhid); that God is incomparable, self-sustaining and neither begets nor was begotten; that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that has been revealed before through many prophets including Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Moses, and Jesus; that these previous messages and revelations have been partially changed or corrupted over time (tahrif) and that the Qur'an is the final unaltered revelation from God (Final Testament).

Religion in Africa

Religion in Africa is multifaceted and has been a major influence on art, culture and philosophy. Today, the continent's various populations and individuals are mostly adherents of Christianity, Islam, and to a lesser extent several Traditional African religions. In Christian or Islamic communities, religious beliefs are also sometimes characterized with syncretism with the beliefs and practices of traditional religions.

Telecommunications in Antarctica

This article is about telecommunications in Antarctica.

Telecommunications in Aruba

This article is about communications systems in Aruba.

Telecommunications in Georgia (country)

Telecommunications in Georgia include radio, television, fixed and mobile telephones, and the Internet.

Telecommunications in Switzerland

Extensive telecommunication facilities exist in Switzerland. They include the telephone system, internet, and broadcast media.

Transport in Ecuador

Transportation in Ecuador uses six transportation methods to transport passengers and freight (more specifically, oil). They are aviation, highways, pipelines, ports and harbors, railways, and waterways

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