The Sun was a New York newspaper published from 1833 until 1950. It was considered a serious paper, like the city's two more successful broadsheets, The New York Times and the New York Herald Tribune. The Sun was the most politically conservative of the three.
|It Shines for All|
|Owner(s)||Frank Munsey (1916)|
|Editor||Benjamin Day (1833)|
|Founded||September 3, 1833|
|Ceased publication||January 4, 1950|
|Relaunched||The New York Sun (2002)|
|Headquarters||New York City|
In New York, The Sun began publication September 3, 1833, as a morning newspaper edited by Benjamin Day (1810-1889), with the slogan "It Shines for All". It only cost one penny (equivalent to 26¢ in 2018), was easy to carry, and its illustrations and crime reporting were popular with working-class readers. It inspired a new genre across the nation in various cities which followed known as the penny press making the news more available to lower-income readers at a cheaper price when most papers cost five cents to purchase.
The Sun was the first newspaper to report crimes and personal events such as suicides, deaths, and divorces. Day printed the first newspaper account of a suicide. This story was significant because it was the first about an ordinary person. It changed journalism forever, making the newspaper an integral part of the community and the lives of the readers. Prior to this, all stories in newspapers were about politics or reviews of books or the theater. Day was the first to hire reporters to go out and collect stories. Prior to this, newspapers relied on readers sending in items, and on reprinting making unauthorized copies of stories from other newspapers in the days before the organization of syndicates like the Associated Press (AP) and United Press International (UPI). His focus on crime is the beginning of "the craft of reporting and storytelling". If not the inventor, The Sun was nonetheless the newspaper which demonstrated conclusively that a newspaper could be substantially supported by advertisements and not subscription fees, and could be sold on the street instead of delivered to each subscriber. In addition, The Sun was aimed not at the elite but at the common masses of working people. Day and The Sun recognized that the masses were fast becoming literate, and demonstrated that a profit could be made selling to the larger numbers of them. Prior to The Sun, printers produced the newspapers, often at a loss, making their living selling printing services.
An evening edition was introduced in 1887 known as The Evening Sun.
The newspaper magnate Frank Munsey bought both editions in 1916 and merged the Evening Sun with his New York Press. The morning edition of The Sun was merged for a time with Munsey's New York Herald as The Sun and New York Herald, but in 1920, Munsey separated them again, killed The Evening Sun, and switchedThe Sun to an evening publishing format.
The Sun moved its offices to the historic A.T. Stewart Company Building at 280 Broadway between Chambers and Reade Streets in 1917, site of America's first department store, renaming it "The Sun Building" with a landmark clock featuring its name and slogan on the Broadway facade.
It continued until January 4, 1950, when it merged with the New York World-Telegram to form a new paper called the New York World-Telegram and Sun for 16 years; in 1966, this paper joined with the New York Herald Tribune to briefly became part of the World Journal Tribune preserving the names of three of the most historic city newspapers, which folded amid disagreements with the labor union the following year.
The Sun first gained notice for its central role in the Great Moon Hoax of 1835, a fabricated story of life and civilization on the Moon which the paper falsely attributed to British astronomer John Herschel and never retracted. On April 13, 1844, The Sun published as factual a story by Edgar Allan Poe now known as "The Balloon-Hoax", retracted two days after publication. The story told of an imagined Atlantic crossing by hot-air balloon.
John B. Bogart, city editor of The Sun between 1873 and 1890, made what is perhaps the most frequently quoted definition of the journalistic endeavor: "When a dog bites a man, that is not news, because it happens so often. But if a man bites a dog, that is news." (The quotation is frequently attributed to Charles Dana, The Sun editor and part-owner between 1868 and his death in 1897.)
In 1926, The Sun published a review by John Grierson of Robert Flaherty's film Moana, in which Grierson said the film had "documentary value." This is considered the origin of the term "documentary film"
In 1947–48, The Sun featured a groundbreaking series of articles by Malcolm Johnson, "Crime on the Waterfront," that won the Pulitzer Prize for Local Reporting in 1949. The series served as the basis for the 1954 movie On the Waterfront.
The Sun's first female reporter was Emily Verdery Bettey, hired in 1868. Eleanor Hoyt Brainerd was hired as a reporter and fashion editor in the 1880s; she was one of the first women to become a professional editor, and perhaps the first full-time fashion editor in American newspaper history.
The film Deadline – U.S.A. (1952) is a story about the death of a New York newspaper called The Day, loosely based upon the old New York Sun, which closed in 1950. The original Sun newspaper was edited by Benjamin Day, making the film's newspaper name a play on words (not to be confused with the real-life New London, Connecticut newspaper of the same name).
The masthead of the original Sun is visible in a montage of newspaper clippings in a scene of the 1972 film The Godfather. The newspaper's offices were a converted department store at 280 Broadway, between Chambers and Reade streets in lower Manhattan, now known as "The Sun Building" and famous for the clocks that bear the newspaper's masthead and motto. They were recognized as a New York City landmark in 1986.
In 2002, a new broadsheet was launched, styled The New York Sun, and bearing the old newspaper's masthead and motto. It was intended as a "conservative alternative" and local-news focused alternative to the more liberal/progressive The New York Times and other New York newspapers. It was published by Ronald Weintraub and edited by Seth Lipsky, and ceased publication on September 30, 2008.
Events from the year 1897 in the United States.22nd Arizona Territorial Legislature
The 22nd Arizona Territorial Legislative Assembly was a session of the Arizona Territorial Legislature which convened in Phoenix, Arizona. The session ran from January 19, 1903, until March 19, 1903.A. Hamilton Gibbs
Arthur Hamilton Gibbs (9 March 1888 – 24 May 1964) was an English-American novelist. He was the brother of Cosmo Hamilton and Sir Philip Gibbs.Born in London, Gibbs wrote 16 novels and two books of poetry. His novels include The Persistent Lovers (1915) (which was adapted into a 1922 film of the same name), Soundings (1925) (the best-selling book in the United States that year), and Chances (1930).
Gibbs became a United States citizen in 1931, and thereafter lived primarily in Lakeville, Massachusetts. He died in Boston in 1964, survived by his wife Jeanette (Philips), a writer and lawyer.Alfred Edward Turner
Major-General Sir Alfred Edward Turner, (3 March 1842 – 20 November 1918) was a British Army officer of the late nineteenth century, who served in administrative posts in Ireland.Alice Claypoole Vanderbilt
Alice Claypoole Gwynne Vanderbilt (November 11, 1845 – April 24, 1934) was the wife of Cornelius Vanderbilt II and reigned as the matriarch of the Vanderbilt family for over 60 years.Bert Kelly (jazz musician)
Bert Kelly (June 2, 1882 in Cedar Rapids, Iowa – January 1968 in Long Beach, New York) was an American musician, who pioneered jazz as a banjoist, bandleader, educator, promoter, night club owner, and night club operator. After professional stints in Seattle and San Francisco, Kelly moved to Chicago in 1914 where he flourished a banjoist, bandleader, and promoter. In 1915 — before the U.S. prohibition — he founded and operated a Chicago speakeasy called "Bert Kelly's Stables," where patrons were introduced to early jazz.Canadian Car and Foundry
Canadian Car and Foundry (CC&F), also variously known as "Canadian Car & Foundry" or more familiarly as "Can Car", manufactured buses, railroad rolling stock and later aircraft for the Canadian market. CC&F history goes back to 1897, but the main company was established in 1909 from an amalgamation of several companies and later became part of Hawker Siddeley Canada through the purchase by A.V. Roe Canada in 1957. Today the remaining factories are part of Bombardier Transportation Canada.Euclid Avenue (IND Fulton Street Line)
Euclid Avenue is an express station on the IND Fulton Street Line of the New York City Subway, located at the intersection of Euclid and Pitkin Avenues in East New York, Brooklyn. It is served by the A train at all times and is the southern terminal for the C train at all times except nights. During nights, this is the northern terminal for the Lefferts Boulevard shuttle train from Ozone Park, Queens.
Construction on the Euclid Avenue station started in 1938, but this part of the Fulton Street Line did not open until 1948. The Fulton Street Line was extended to the east in 1956, connecting to the Fulton Street Elevated via a branch line that runs through the Grant Avenue station. Elevators were installed at Euclid Avenue circa 2000.
The station has four tracks and two island platforms. In terms of railroad directions, this is the southernmost station on the Fulton Street Line. The line was originally planned to extend further east as a four-track underground line; however, the four-track extension was never built. East of the station, there are connections to the Pitkin Yard as well as to the Fulton Street Elevated. The tracks themselves dead-end after the Fulton Street elevated spur diverges.Head (Csaky)
Head, also known as Tête d'homme, or Portrait d'homme, is an early Cubist sculpture created in 1913 by the Hungarian avant-garde sculptor Joseph Csaky. This black and white photograph from the Csaky family archives (AC.111) shows a frontal view of the original 1913 plaster. Head was exhibited at Galerie Clovis Sagot, 46, rue Laffitte, Paris, 1913-14, and at the 1914 Salon des Indépendants titled Tête d'homme (n. 814 or 815). It was subsequently exhibited at Galerie Moos, Geneva, 1920, titled Buste.The work was published in The Sun (New York City), 15 March 1914. It was then reproduced in Ricciotto Canudo's Montjoie! Montparnasse, André Salmon, numéro spécial consacré au XXXème Salon, Artistes Indépendants, 3rd issue, 18 March, 1914.The dimensions and whereabouts of Tête d'homme are unknown, and the work is presumed destroyed.Heinrich Kleinschroth
Heinrich Kleinschroth (German pronunciation: [ˈhaɪnʁɪç klaɪ̯nʃrɔ́ːth]) (15 March 1890 – 10 January 1979) was an amateur German tennis player who found success in the early 20th century, mainly in doubles competitions.Henry C. Gooding
Henry Clay Gooding (June 14, 1838 – September 13, 1913) was an American jurist who served as Chief Justice on the Arizona Territorial Supreme Court from 1890 till 1893.Hiram Truesdale
Hiram Calvin Truesdale (February 8, 1860 – October 28, 1897) was an American jurist who served as Chief Justice on the Arizona Territorial Supreme Court from July till October 1897.John A. Hartwell
John Augustus "Josh" Hartwell (September 27, 1869 – November 30, 1940) was an American football player and coach, military officer, and physician. Hartwell attended Yale University, where he played end for Walter Camp's Bulldogs football team from 1888 to 1891. In 1891, Hartwell was named an All-American for a season in which Yale was unbeaten, untied, unscored against, and later recognized as a national champion by a number of selectors.
Hartwell graduated from Yale in 1892, holding both PhD and MD degrees, and began a career as a surgeon in New York City. He also continued with football as a coach. He served as the head football coach at Lehigh University in 1892, the United States Naval Academy in 1893, New York University in 1894, and at his alma mater in 1895, compiling a career college football coaching record of 21–12–2. Hartwell's 1895 Yale squad went 13–0–2 and was later recognized as a national champion by Parke H. Davis.
In 1918, Hartwell was commissioned a major in the U.S. Army Medical Corps, with which he served in France during World War I. From 1910 until his retirement in 1938, he was a professor of clinical surgery at Cornell University Medical College. Hartwell was a pioneer of thoracic surgery and an early champion of safe and effective contraception. He was a well-known outdoorsman throughout his life and a friend and caregiver to Theodore Roosevelt.John B. Schoeffel
John Baptist Schoeffel (11 May 1846 - d. Boston, 31 August 1918), was an American theatre manager and producer, and hotel owner. With Henry E. Abbey he was involved presenting European theatrical stars in the US, including Sarah Bernhardt, Henry Irving and Ellen Terry: and with Maurice Grau he and Abbey managed opera singers as Adelina Patti, Christina Nilsson, Ernestine Schumann-Heink, Francesco Tamagno and Fyodor Chaliapin in their tours of opera houses in Boston, Chicago and New York.Laurence Gronlund
Laurence Gronlund (1846–1899) was a Danish-born American lawyer, writer, lecturer, and political activist. Gronlund is best remembered for his pioneering work in adapting the International Socialism of Karl Marx and Ferdinand Lassalle to the American idiom in his popular 1884 book, The Cooperative Commonwealth, and for his influence upon the thinking of utopian novelist Edward Bellamy, newspaper publisher Julius Wayland, and the American socialist movement of the 1880s and 1890s.Leon P. Alford
Leon Pratt Alford (Jan. 3, 1877 – Feb. 2, 1942) was an American mechanical engineer, organizational theorist, and administrator for the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. known for his seminal work in the field of industrial management.Mr. Adam
Mr. Adam (1946) is the first novel written by Pat Frank, dealing with the effects of a nuclear mishap causing worldwide male infertility. Published by J. B. Lippincott Company, it was also released as a paperback by Pocket Books in 1948, and again in 1959 by Pocket Books with the tag Mr. Adam Was Wanted By Every Woman in the World. All tolled, it sold over 2 million copies.New York and Boston Rapid Transit Company
The New York and Boston Rapid Transit Company planned to build a rapid transit line between New York City and Boston, Massachusetts.
Charles F. Conant acted as financial agent for the group of investors.
The idea was to start the railroad at the Boston and Lowell Railroad's terminal in Boston (now part of North Station), and run it along the B&L's new alignment (which had been made obsolete by the 1887 merger with the Boston and Maine Railroad), splitting at the merge with the old alignment, and heading southwest across Cambridge parallel to the Grand Junction Railroad. After crossing the Charles River the path continued through rural Massachusetts to Willimantic, New Haven and Bridgeport, Connecticut, entering Manhattan at High Bridge and going down the west side of Central Park to a terminal at Columbus Circle.USS Kentucky (BB-6)
USS Kentucky (BB-6) was the second and final Kearsarge-class pre-dreadnought battleship built for the United States Navy in the 1890s. Designed for coastal defense, Kearsarge-class battleships had a low freeboard and heavy armor. The ships carried an armament of four 13-inch (330 mm) and four 8-inch (203 mm) guns in an unusual two-story turret arrangement. The Newport News Shipbuilding Company of Virginia laid down her keel on 30 June 1896. She was launched on 24 March 1898 and was commissioned on 15 May 1900.
In her twenty years of service, Kentucky participated in no combat. Between 1901 and 1904, she served in East Asia, and from 1904 to 1907 she cruised the Atlantic. In 1907, she joined the Great White Fleet on its world tour, returning to the United States in 1909. She was modernized between 1909 and 1911, but did not operate again until 1915, when she sailed to the Mexican coast to participate in the American intervention in the Mexican Revolution, where she stayed until 1916. From 1917 until her decommissioning on 29 May 1920, she served as a training ship. She was sold for scrap on 24 March 1923.