The Sixth Sense

The Sixth Sense is a 1999 American supernatural horror film written and directed by M. Night Shyamalan. The film tells the story of Cole Sear (Haley Joel Osment), a boy who is able to see and talk to the dead, and Malcolm Crowe (Bruce Willis), a child psychologist who tries to help him. The film established Shyamalan as a writer and director, and introduced the cinema public to his traits, most notably his affinity for surprise endings.[2]

Released by Hollywood Pictures on August 6, 1999, the film was well-received by critics; praise was given to its acting performances (particularly Willis, Osment, and Toni Collette), atmosphere, and twist conclusion. The Sixth Sense was the second-highest-grossing film of 1999 (behind Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace), taking about $293 million in the US and $379 million in other markets. This made it the highest-grossing horror film (in unadjusted dollars) until 2017, when it was surpassed by It.

The film was nominated for six Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Director and Best Original Screenplay for Shyamalan, Best Supporting Actor for Osment, and Best Supporting Actress for Collette.

The Sixth Sense
The Sixth Sense poster
Theatrical release poster
Directed byM. Night Shyamalan
Produced by
Written byM. Night Shyamalan
Starring
Music byJames Newton Howard
CinematographyTak Fujimoto
Edited byAndrew Mondshein
Production
company
Distributed byBuena Vista Pictures Distribution
Release date
Running time
107 minutes
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Budget$40 million[1]
Box office$672.8 million[1]

Plot

Malcolm Crowe, a child psychologist in Philadelphia returns home one night with his wife Anna after having been honored for his work. A young man appears in their bathroom and accuses Malcolm of failing him. Malcolm recognizes him as Vincent, a former patient whom he treated as a child for hallucinations but is shot before he can talk him down.

The next fall, Malcolm begins working with Cole Sear, feeling he must help him in order to rectify his failure and reconcile with his wife. Cole's mother Lynn worries about his social skills, especially after seeing signs of physical harm. Cole eventually confides his secret to Malcolm: he sees ghosts walking around like the living, unaware that they are dead.

Initially, Malcolm thinks Cole is delusional and considers dropping his case. After listening to an audiotape from a session with Vincent, Malcolm hears a weeping man begging for help in Spanish and believes that Cole is telling the truth. He suggests to Cole that he should try to find a purpose for his gift by communicating with the ghosts and perhaps aid them with their unfinished business. At first, Cole is unwilling but he finally decides to attempt to help.

Cole awakens one night and discovers a ghost girl vomiting. After finding out who she is, Cole goes with Malcolm to her funeral reception at her home. There, Cole is directed to a box holding a videotape, which he then gives to her father. The tape shows the girl's mother poisoning her daughter's food. By doing this, Cole has saved the girl's younger sister from the same fate.

Learning to live with the ghosts he sees, Cole begins to fit in at school and is cast as the lead in the school play. Before departing, Cole suggests to Malcolm that he should try speaking to Anna while she is asleep. While stuck in traffic, Cole confesses his secret to his mother, saying that someone died in an accident ahead of their traffic. Although at first Lynn does not believe him, Cole proves his ability to her by talking about how his grandmother visits him; describing how she saw Lynn in a dance performance.

Malcolm returns home, where he finds his wife asleep with their wedding video playing. While still asleep, Anna asks why he left her and drops Malcolm's wedding ring. Remembering being shot, Malcolm finds his gunshot wound still there, revealing that he has been dead the whole time. Malcolm tells his wife she was never second to anything and that he loves her. Because of Cole's efforts, Malcolm's unfinished business is finally complete and his spirit departs in a flash of light.

Cast

Production

David Vogel, then-president of production of The Walt Disney Studios, read Shyamalan's spec script and instantly loved it. Without obtaining corporate approval, Vogel bought the rights to the script, despite the high price of $3 million and the stipulation that Shyamalan could direct the film.[3] Disney later dismissed Vogel from his position at the studio, with Vogel leaving the company shortly thereafter.[4] Disney—apparently in a show of little confidence in the film—sold the production rights to Spyglass Entertainment, while retaining the distribution rights and 12.5% of the film's box office receipt.[5]

The colour red is intentionally absent from most of the film, but it is used prominently in a few isolated shots for "anything in the real world that has been tainted by the other world"[6] and "to connote really explosively emotional moments and situations".[7] Examples include the door of the church where Cole seeks sanctuary; the balloon, carpet, and Cole's sweater at the birthday party; the tent in which he first encounters Kyra; the volume numbers on Crowe's tape recorder; the doorknob on the locked basement door where Malcolm's office is located; the shirt that Anna wears at the restaurant; Kyra's mother's dress at the wake; and the shawl wrapped around the sleeping Anna.

All of the clothes Malcolm wears during the film are items he wore or touched the evening before his death, which included his overcoat, his blue rowing sweatshirt and the different layers of his suit. Though the filmmakers were careful about clues of Malcolm's true state, the camera zooms slowly towards his face when Cole says, "I see dead people." In a special feature, the filmmakers mention they initially feared this would be too much of a giveaway, but decided to leave it in.[8]

Marisa Tomei was considered for the role of Lynn Sear.[9]

Reception

Box office

The film had a production budget of approximately $40 million (plus $25 million for prints and advertising). It grossed $26.6 million in its opening weekend and spent five weeks as the No. 1 film at the U.S. box office.[1] It earned $293,506,292 in the United States and a worldwide gross of $672,806,292, ranking it 35th on the list of box-office money earners in the U.S. as of April 2010.[10] Box Office Mojo estimates that the film sold over 57.5 million tickets in the US.[11] In the United Kingdom, it was given at first a limited release at 9 screens, and entered at No. 8 before climbing up to No. 1 the next week with 430 theatres playing the film.[12][13]

Home media

After a 6-month online promotion campaign[14], The Sixth Sense was released on VHS and DVD by Hollywood Pictures Home Video on March 28, 2000. It would go on to become the top-selling DVD of 2000, with more than 2.5 million units shipped, as well as the top video rental title of all-time.[15]

Critical response

The Sixth Sense received positive reviews;[16] Osment in particular was widely praised for his performance.[17] Rotten Tomatoes, a review aggregator, reports that 85% of 151 surveyed critics gave the film a positive review and an average rating of 7.6/10. The site's consensus reads: "M. Night Shayamalan's The Sixth Sense is a twisty ghost story with all the style of a classical Hollywood picture, but all the chills of a modern horror flick."[18] Metacritic rated it 64 out of 100 based on 35 reviews, meaning “generally favorable reviews”.[19] Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "A-" on an A+ to F scale.[20]

By vote of the members of the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America, The Sixth Sense was awarded the Nebula Award for Best Script during 1999.[21] The film was No. 71 on Bravo's 100 Scariest Movie Moments, for the scene where Cole encounters a female ghost in his tent. It was named the 89th best American film of all time in a 2007 poll by the American Film Institute.

The line "I see dead people" from the film became a popular catchphrase after its release, scoring No. 44 on AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes. There have been various parodies of this quote.

The Sixth Sense also scored 60th place on AFI's 100 Years...100 Thrills, honoring America's most "heart pounding movies".

Accolades

The Sixth Sense has received numerous awards and nominations, with Academy Award nomination categories ranging from those honouring the film itself (Best Picture), to its writing, editing, and direction (Best Director, Best Editing, and Best Original Screenplay), to its cast's performance (Best Supporting Actor and Best Supporting Actress). Especially lauded was the supporting role of actor Haley Joel Osment, whose nominations include an Academy Award,[22] a Broadcast Film Critics Association Award,[23] and a Golden Globe Award.[24] Overall, The Sixth Sense was nominated for six Academy Awards and four British Academy Film Awards, but won none.[22][25] The film received three nominations from the People's Choice Awards and won all of them, with lead actor Bruce Willis being honored for his role.[26] The Satellite Awards nominated the film in four categories, with awards being received for writing (M. Night Shyamalan) and editing (Andrew Mondshein).[27] Supporting actress Toni Collette was nominated for both an Academy Award and a Satellite award for her role in the film.[22][27] James Newton Howard was honored by the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers for his composition of the music for the film.[28]

In 2013, the Writers Guild of America ranked the screenplay #50 on its list of 101 Greatest Screenplays ever written.[29]

American Film Institute lists

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "The Sixth Sense (1999)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved December 27, 2012.
  2. ^ Howard, Michael (August 8, 2014). "Why The Sixth Sense Ending Has Never Been Matched". Esquire. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
  3. ^ Weiner, Allison Hope (June 2, 2008). "Shyamalan's Hollywood Horror Story, With Twist". The New York Times. Retrieved December 30, 2014.
  4. ^ Bart, Peter (July 2, 2012). "Moguls make switch after power turns off: Is there life after Hollywood?". Variety. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved December 30, 2014.
  5. ^ Stewart, James B. (2005). DisneyWar: The Battle for the Magic Kingdom. New York: Simon & Schuster
  6. ^ Screenwriter/director M. Night Shyamalan, "Rules and Clues" bonus featurette on the DVD.
  7. ^ Producer Barry Mendel, "Rules and Clues" bonus featurette on the DVD.
  8. ^ Producer Frank Marshall, "Rules and Clues" bonus featurette on the DVD.
  9. ^ Cormier, Roger (6 August 2016). "15 Twisted Facts About The Sixth Sense". Mental Floss. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
  10. ^ "The Sixth Sense – Box Office Data". Retrieved 2008-03-09.
  11. ^ "The Sixth Sense (1999)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved May 31, 2016.
  12. ^ "United Kingdom Box Office Returns for the weekend starting 5 November 1999". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2008-01-27.
  13. ^ "United Kingdom Box Office Returns for the weekend starting 12 November 1999". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2008-01-27.
  14. ^ "The Secrets of the Sixth Sense". Buena Vista Home Entertainment. Archived from the original on October 16, 2000. Retrieved November 8, 2018.
  15. ^ 2000 Annual Report (Report). The Walt Disney Company. 2001.
  16. ^ Natale, Richard (1999-08-09). "'Sense' Shows Its Powers". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2015-04-08.
  17. ^ King, Susan (1999-08-13). "Actor Has a Sense for Spooky Role". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2015-04-08.
  18. ^ "The Sixth Sense (1999)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 2014-10-28.
  19. ^ "The Sixth Sense". Metacritic. Retrieved 2014-10-28.
  20. ^ "CinemaScore". cinemascore.com.
  21. ^ "Nebula Awards Winners by Category". Locus. Archived from the original on December 4, 2014. Retrieved October 28, 2014.
  22. ^ a b c "The Sixth Sense – 1999 Academy Awards Profile". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved December 23, 2010.
  23. ^ Ellen A. Kim (December 22, 1999). "Another Day, Another Movie Award". Hollywood.com. Retrieved December 23, 2010.
  24. ^ "The Sixth Sense". Hollywood Foreign Press Association. Archived from the original on September 29, 2006. Retrieved December 23, 2010.
  25. ^ "Awards Database". British Academy Film Awards. Retrieved December 23, 2010.
  26. ^ "'Sixth Sense' tops People's Choice Awards". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Associated Press. January 10, 2000. Retrieved December 23, 2010.
  27. ^ a b "2000 4th Annual SATELLITE Awards". International Press Academy. Archived from the original on January 6, 2010. Retrieved December 23, 2010.
  28. ^ Don Heckman (April 27, 2000). "Howard, Donen Honored by ASCAP". Los Angeles Times.
  29. ^ Savage, Sophia (February 27, 2013). "WGA Lists Greatest Screenplays, From 'Casablanca' and 'Godfather' to 'Memento' and 'Notorious'". Retrieved June 9, 2017.

External links

26th Saturn Awards

The 26th Saturn Awards, honoring the best in science fiction, fantasy and horror film and television in 1999, were held on June 6, 2000.Below is a complete list of nominees and winners. Winners are highlighted in bold.

53rd British Academy Film Awards

The 53rd British Film Awards, given by the British Academy of Film and Television Arts on 9 April 2000, honoured the best in film for 1999.

Sam Mendes's American Beauty won the award for Best Film (also won the Academy Award for Best Picture), Actor (Kevin Spacey; had won the Academy Award) and Actress (Annette Bening), Cinematography, Editing and Film Music. Jude Law (The Talented Mr. Ripley) and Maggie Smith (Tea with Mussolini) won the awards for Best Supporting Actor and Actress. Pedro Almodóvar, director of Todo sobre mi madre (All About My Mother), won the BAFTA Film Award for Best Directing. East Is East was voted Best British Film.

The ceremony took place at the Odeon Leicester Square in London and was hosted by Jack Docherty.

5th Empire Awards

The 5th Empire Awards ceremony, presented by the British film magazine Empire, honored the best films of 1999 and took place on 17 February 2000 at the Park Lane Hotel in London, England. During the ceremony, Empire presented Empire Awards in nine categories as well as five honorary awards. The honorary Contribution to Cinema award was introduced and presented for the only time this year. The honorary Movie Masterpiece Award was presented for the last time, having been presented for the first and only other time at the 4th Empire Awards in 1999. The awards were sponsored by Stella Artois for the third consecutive year.Notting Hill won the most awards with three including Best British Film and Best British Director for Roger Michell. Other winners included The Matrix with two awards including Best Film and East Is East, Fight Club, Shakespeare in Love, The Sixth Sense and The World Is Not Enough with one. Kenneth Branagh received the Empire Inspiration Award, Michael Caine received the Lifetime Achievement Award, Industrial Light & Magic received the Contribution to Cinema award and Oliver Stone received the Movie Masterpiece Award for JFK.

72nd Academy Awards

The 72nd Academy Awards ceremony, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), honored films released in 1999 and took place on March 26, 2000, at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles, beginning at 5:30 p.m. PST / 8:30 p.m. EST. During the ceremony, the AMPAS presented Academy Awards (commonly referred to as Oscars) in 23 categories. The ceremony, televised in the United States by ABC, was produced by husband-and-wife producing team Richard and Lili Fini Zanuck and was directed by Louis J. Horvitz. Actor Billy Crystal hosted the show for the seventh time. He first presided over the 62nd ceremony held in 1990 and had last hosted the 70th ceremony held in 1998. Three weeks earlier in a ceremony at the Regent Beverly Wilshire Hotel in Beverly Hills, California held on March 4, the Academy Awards for Technical Achievement were presented by host Salma Hayek.American Beauty won five awards, including Best Picture. Other winners included The Matrix with four awards, The Cider House Rules and Topsy-Turvy with two, and All About My Mother, Boys Don't Cry, Girl, Interrupted, King Gimp, My Mother Dreams the Satan's Disciples in New York, The Old Man and the Sea, One Day in September, The Red Violin, Sleepy Hollow, and Tarzan with one. The telecast garnered almost 47 million viewers in the United States.

Barry Mendel

Barry Mendel (born 1963) is an American film producer. Two of the films he worked on, The Sixth Sense from 1999 and Munich from 2005, were nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture.

Donnie Wahlberg

Donald Edmond Wahlberg Jr. (born August 17, 1969) is an American singer, songwriter, actor, record producer, and film producer. He is a founding member of the boy band New Kids on the Block. Outside music, he has had roles in the Saw films, Dreamcatcher, The Sixth Sense, Righteous Kill, and Ransom, as well as appearing in the World War II miniseries Band of Brothers as Carwood Lipton. From 2002 to 2003, he starred in the crime drama Boomtown. He has been starring in the drama series Blue Bloods as Danny Reagan since 2010, and since 2014 is an executive producer of the TNT reality television show Boston's Finest. He was nominated for Choice Scream at the 2006 Teen Choice Awards for his work in the Saw films. He has also produced and starred in Rock this Boat, Donnie Loves Jenny and Return of the Mac on Pop TV. He also produces and stars in Wahlburgers on A&E TV.

Haley Joel Osment

Haley Joel Osment (born April 10, 1988) is an American actor. After a series of roles in television and film during the 1990s, including a major part in Forrest Gump playing the title character's son (also named Forrest Gump), Osment rose to fame for his performance as a young unwilling medium in M. Night Shyamalan's thriller film The Sixth Sense, which earned him a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. He subsequently appeared in leading roles in several high-profile Hollywood films, including Steven Spielberg's A.I. Artificial Intelligence and Mimi Leder's Pay It Forward.

He made his Broadway debut in 2008 in a short-lived revival of David Mamet's play American Buffalo, starring John Leguizamo and Cedric the Entertainer. Osment is also known for his voice-roles of Sora and Vanitas in the Kingdom Hearts video games, as well as his more recent roles in comedies such as Sex Ed and The Spoils of Babylon.

List of 1999 box office number-one films in the United States

This is a list of films which have placed number one at the weekend box office in the United States during 1999.

M. Night Shyamalan

Manoj Nelliyattu "M. Night" Shyamalan ( SHAH-mə-lahn; born August 6, 1970) is an American filmmaker and actor. He is known for making films with contemporary supernatural plots and twist endings. He was born in Mahé, Puducherry, India, and raised in Penn Valley, Pennsylvania.

He made his directorial debut in 1992 with his first movie Praying with Anger. His second movie was the comedy-drama film Wide Awake (1998). His most well-received films include the supernatural thriller The Sixth Sense (1999), the superhero thriller Unbreakable (2000), the science fiction thriller Signs (2002) and the period-piece thriller The Village (2004). For The Sixth Sense, Shyamalan received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Director and the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay. Afterward, Shyamalan released a series of poorly received but sometimes financially successful movies, including the dark fantasy Lady in the Water (2006), the eco-thriller The Happening (2008), The Last Airbender (2010) (an adaptation of the animated TV series Avatar: The Last Airbender), and the science fiction film After Earth (2013). Following the financial failure of After Earth, Shyamalan's career was revived with the release of the found footage horror film The Visit (2015) and the psychological thriller Split (2016). His latest film is the superhero thriller Glass (2019), which is the third and final chapter of his Unbreakable film series.

In addition to his directorial work, Shyamalan was a producer for the horror film Devil (2010). He was also instrumental in the creation of the Fox science fiction series Wayward Pines (2015–2016), for which he executive produced and directed the pilot episode. He also appeared in an episode of the series Entourage. Shyamalan was also called in for an uncredited rewrite for the teen film She's All That (1998) and also served as a writer for the film Stuart Little (1999).

Shyamalan is also known for filming and setting his films in and outside of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Most of his commercially successful films were co-produced and released by the Walt Disney Studios' Touchstone and Hollywood film imprints. In 2008, Shyamalan was awarded the Padma Shri by the government of India.

Olivia Williams

Olivia Haigh Williams (born 26 July 1968) is an English film, stage, and television actress who has appeared in British and American films and television.

After studying drama at the Bristol Old Vic Theatre School for two years followed by three years at the Royal Shakespeare Company, her first significant role was as Jane Fairfax in the British television film Emma (1996), based on Jane Austen's novel. She made her film debut in 1997's The Postman, followed by Rushmore (1998) and The Sixth Sense (1999). Williams then appeared in several British films, including Lucky Break (2001), The Heart of Me (2002) and An Education (2009). In 2010, she won acclaim for her performance as Ruth Lang in Roman Polanski's The Ghost Writer. Since 2017, she has played Emily Silk(s), on the television series Counterpart.

Stir of Echoes

Stir of Echoes is a 1999 American supernatural horror film directed by David Koepp. Koepp's screenplay is based on the novel A Stir of Echoes by Richard Matheson. It stars Kevin Bacon, Kathryn Erbe, Illeana Douglas and Kevin Dunn. In the story, Tom Witzky (Bacon) begins experiencing a series of frightening visions after insisting he be hypnotized by his sister-in law, Lisa (Douglas). It was released in the U.S. on September 10, 1999.

The Sixth Sense (Lee Morgan album)

The Sixth Sense is an album by jazz trumpeter Lee Morgan, released on the Blue Note label in 1970. The album features performances by Morgan, Jackie McLean, Frank Mitchell, Cedar Walton, Victor Sproles and Billy Higgins. The CD reissue added three tracks featuring Harold Mabern and Mickey Bass.

The Sixth Sense (TV series)

The Sixth Sense is an American paranormal thriller television series featuring Gary Collins and Catherine Ferrar. Based on the 1971 television movie Sweet, Sweet Rachel, the series was produced by and filmed at Universal Studios, and broadcast by ABC from January 15 to December 23, 1972.

Toni Collette

Toni Collett (born 1 November 1972), credited professionally as Toni Collette, is an Australian actress and musician, known for her acting work on stage, television, and film, as well as a secondary career as the lead singer of the band Toni Collette & the Finish. She has received six AACTA Awards, one Primetime Emmy Award, one Golden Globe Award and one Screen Actors Guild Award, and has been nominated twice for a British Academy Film Award and both once for an Academy Award and a Tony Award.

Collette's acting career began in the early 1990s with comedic roles in films such as Spotswood (1992) and Muriel's Wedding (1994). For the latter, she earned a Golden Globe nomination for Best Actress. In 1999, she achieved international recognition as a result of her Oscar-nominated portrayal of Lynn Sear in The Sixth Sense, and a year later made her Tony Award-nominated Broadway debut with the lead role in the musical The Wild Party. In the 2000s, she received acclaim for her roles in independent features such as About a Boy (2002), for which she was nominated for a BAFTA, and Little Miss Sunshine (2006), which earned her an SAG Award as well as her second Golden Globe and BAFTA nominations. Her other films include: Emma (1996), Clockwatchers (1997), Velvet Goldmine (1998), Changing Lanes, The Hours (both 2002), In Her Shoes (2005), The Night Listener (2006), Fright Night (2011), Mental, Hitchcock (both 2012), Lucky Them, Enough Said (both 2013), Tammy (2014), Miss You Already, Krampus (both 2015), Imperium (2016), XXX: Return of Xander Cage (2017), and Hereditary (2018).

From 2009 to 2011, she played the lead roles on the television series United States of Tara, for which she won Primetime Emmy and Golden Globe awards for Best Actress. Collette returned to Broadway in 2014 in The Realistic Joneses, for which she earned a Drama Desk Special Award.

Trevor Morgan (actor)

Trevor John Morgan (born November 26, 1986) is an American actor. He has appeared in the films Genius, The Sixth Sense, The Patriot, A Rumor of Angels, Jurassic Park III, The Glass House, Chasing 3000, Mean Creek, Barney's Great Adventure based on the popular children’s television series, Local Color, Family Plan, and Uncle Nino.

Unbreakable (film)

Unbreakable is a 2000 American superhero thriller film written, produced, and directed by M. Night Shyamalan, and starring Bruce Willis and Samuel L. Jackson, alongside Robin Wright, Spencer Treat Clark, and Charlayne Woodard. It is the first installment in the Unbreakable film series. In Unbreakable, a security guard named David Dunn survives a horrific train crash.

Shyamalan organized the narrative of Unbreakable to parallel a comic book's traditional three-part story structure. After settling on the origin story, Shyamalan wrote the screenplay as a speculative screenplay with Bruce Willis already set to star in the film and Jackson in mind to portray Elijah Price. Filming began in April 2000 and was completed in July.

Unbreakable was released on November 22, 2000. It received positive reviews, with critics praising its aesthetics, the performances, the emotional weight of the story, and the score by James Newton Howard. The film has subsequently gained a strong cult following. A deconstruction of the superhero genre, many regard it as one of Shyamalan's best films, and one of the best superhero films. In 2011, Time listed it as one of the top ten superhero films of all time, ranking it number four. Quentin Tarantino also included it on his list of the top 20 films released since 1992.After years of development on a follow-up film, a thematic sequel, Split, with Willis reprising his role as David Dunn in a cameo role, was released in January 2017. After the financial and critical success of Split, Shyamalan immediately began working on a third film, titled Glass, which was released January 18, 2019, thus making Unbreakable the first installment in the Unbreakable film series.

Victor Sproles

Victor Sproles (born November 18, 1927 in Chicago, Died May 13, 2005.) was a US jazz bassist.

Sproles worked in the 1950s with Red Rodney and Ira Sullivan and appears on the Sun Ra recordings Super-Sonic Jazz, Sound of Joy and Deep Purple.

In 1957 he appeared on the Verve recording Stan Meets Chet with Stan Getz and Chet Baker.

In 1960 he joined Johnny Griffin's Big Soul Band and in 1961 played in Muhal Richard Abrams' Experimental Band.

In 1964 he joined Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers, recording the album 'SMake It for Limelight; Lee Morgan and his old Sun Ra bandmate John Gilmore were in the group. He recorded two more albums with the Messengers after Gilmore left.

He subsequently appeared Lee Morgan's Blue Note albums The Rumproller and The Sixth Sense.

In 1974 he played in Clark Terry's big band and appeared on Buddy DeFranco's album Free Fall.

Films directed by M. Night Shyamalan
Films
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Nebula Award
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Ray Bradbury Award
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