The San Diego Union-Tribune

The San Diego Union-Tribune is an American metropolitan daily newspaper, published in San Diego, California.

Its name derives from a 1992 merger between the two major daily newspapers at the time, The San Diego Union and the San Diego Evening Tribune. The name changed to U-T San Diego in 2012 but was changed again to The San Diego Union-Tribune in 2015.[2] In 2015, it was acquired by Tribune Publishing, later renamed tronc. In February 2018 it was announced to be sold, along with the Los Angeles Times, to Patrick Soon-Shiong's investment firm Nant Capital LLC for $500 million plus $90m in pension liabilities.[3] The sale closed on June 18, 2018. [4]

The San Diego Union-Tribune
The San Diego Union-Tribune
May 23, 2015, front page
TypeDaily newspaper
FormatBroadsheet
Owner(s)Patrick Soon-Shiong
Founder(s)William Jeff Gatewood
PublisherJeff Light
Founded1868 as The San Diego Union
LanguageEnglish
Headquarters600 B Street
San Diego, California, United States
Circulation121,321 daily (2017)
160,154 Sunday (2017)[1]
ISSN1063-102X
Websitesandiegouniontribune.com

History

San Diego Union newspaper building (c. 1870s)
San Diego Union building, c. 1870s
San Diego Sun newspaper building (1908)
San Diego Sun building, 1908
San Diego Daily Bee newspaper building (1908)
San Diego Daily Bee building, 1908
The San Diego Union-Tribune (2012-08-13)
Logo between 2012 and 2015

Predecessors

The predecessor newspapers of the Union-Tribune were:[5][6]

  • San Diego Herald, founded 1851 and closed April 7, 1860; John Judson Ames was its first editor and proprietor[7]
  • San Diego Sun, founded 1861 and merged with the Evening Tribune in 1939
  • San Diego Union, founded October 10, 1868
  • San Diego Evening Tribune, founded December 2, 1895

In addition, the San Diego Union purchased the San Diego Daily Bee in 1888, and for a brief time the combined newspaper was named the San Diego Union and Daily Bee.[8]

Acquisition and merger by Copley Press (and subsequent sale to Platinum Equity)

Both the Union and the Tribune were acquired by Copley Press in 1928[9] and were merged on February 2, 1992. The merged newspaper was sold to the private investment group Platinum Equity of Beverly Hills, California, on March 18, 2009.[10]

Redesign

On August 17, 2010, the Union-Tribune changed its design to improve "clarity, legibility, and ease of use". Changes included being printed on thinner, 100 percent recycled paper, moving the comics to the back of the business section, and abbreviating the title The San Diego Union-Tribune on the front page to U-T San Diego.[11] The U-T nameplate was created by Jim Parkinson, a type designer who also created nameplates for The Rolling Stone, Esquire, and Newsweek.[12]

Purchase by MLIM Holdings

In November 2011, Platinum Equity sold the newspaper to MLIM Holdings, a company led by Doug Manchester, a San Diego real estate developer and "an outspoken supporter of conservative causes". The purchase price was reportedly in excess of $110 million.[13] Manchester built two landmark downtown hotels, the Manchester Grand Hyatt Hotel and the San Diego Marriott Hotel and Marina. His group also owns the Grand Del Mar luxury resort in San Diego.[14]

Rebranding to U-T San Diego

On January 3, 2012, the newspaper announced that it would use the name U-T San Diego "on all of our media products and communications"; the newspaper's website (formerly SignOnSanDiego.com) would use the name UTSanDiego.com. The official announcement explained the change as being intended to "unify our print and digital products under a single brand with a clear and consistent expectation of quality".[15][16][17]

Acquisition of the North County Times

U-T San Diego bought the North County Times in 2012.[18] On October 15, 2012, the North County Times ceased publication and became the U-T North County Times, which was an edition of the U-T with some North County–specific content.[19] Six months later the U-T North County Times name was dropped and the newspaper became a North County edition of the U-T.

U-T TV

In June 2012, U-T San Diego launched U-T TV, a television news channel. The network featured news, lifestyle, and editorial content produced by the newspaper's staff, and was created as part of the newspaper's growing emphasis on multi-platform content under Manchester.

By October 2013, just over a year after its launch, the network re-formatted with a focus on news, amidst a number of major departures among the channel's staff.

On February 19, 2014, U-T TV was discontinued, but the network's remaining staff was retained to produce video content for the newspaper's digital properties.[20][21]

Acquisition of weekly newspapers

In November 2013, the newspaper bought eight more local weekly newspapers in the San Diego area, which continued publication under their own names.[22]

Purchase by Tribune Publishing

On May 7, 2015, it was announced that the Tribune Publishing Company, publisher of the Los Angeles Times, the Chicago Tribune, and other newspapers, had reached a deal to acquire U-T San Diego and its associated properties for $85 million. The sale ended the newspaper's 146 years of private ownership.

The transaction was completed on May 21, 2015. On the same date, the newspaper reintroduced its previous branding as The San Diego Union-Tribune.[2]

The Union-Tribune and the Los Angeles Times became part of a new operating entity known as the California News Group, with both newspapers led by Times publisher and chief executive officer Austin Beutner. The two newspapers reportedly would retain distinct operations, but there would be a larger amount of synergy and content sharing between them.

The acquisition did not include the newspaper's headquarters, which was retained by Manchester and would be leased by the newspaper.[23][24]

On May 26, 2015, the newspaper announced it would lay off 178 employees, representing about thirty percent of the total staff, as it consolidated its printing operations with the Times in Los Angeles.[25]

In 2016, The San Diego Union Tribune acquired the monthly entertainment magazine Pacific San Diego.[26]

Closure of San Diego printing facilities

On June 13, 2015, at 10:02 p.m. PDT the final run of The San Diego Union Tribune was printed at the San Diego headquarters in Mission Valley began.[27] It was to print the Sunday edition newspaper for June 14, 2015. The following Monday's newspaper would be printed at the Los Angeles Times location. The dismantling of the printing presses in Mission Valley began in mid-September 2015.

Gannett offer and name change

In 2016 rival newspaper publisher Gannett Company offered to buy the Tribune Publishing Company. The offer was rejected by management, spurring some shareholder dissatisfaction and a shareholder lawsuit. Meanwhile, the Tribune Publishing Company renamed itself Tronc Inc. Tronc is an acronym for Tribune online content. Effective June 20, the renamed company will trade on the NASDAQ exchange under the symbol TRNC.[28]

Purchase by Patrick Soon-Shiong

In February 2018, a deal was reached to sell the Union-Tribune to Patrick Soon-Shiong, a medical doctor who has made billions as a biotech entrepreneur. The deal also included the Los Angeles Times and multiple community newspapers.[29] The sale closed on June 18, 2018. [4]

Headquarters

The newspaper was originally located in Old Town San Diego, and was moved to downtown San Diego in 1871. In 1973, it moved to a custom-built, brick and stone office and printing plant complex in Mission Valley.

The newspaper moved back downtown in May 2016, to offices on the 9th through 12th floor of a tower at 600 B Street. The Union-Tribune is to be the named tenant of the building, replacing Bridgepoint Education and, before that, Comerica.[30]

Awards

Pulitzer Prizes

  • 1979, Breaking News Reporting: San Diego Evening Tribune for its coverage of the PSA Flight 182 jetliner collision with a small plane over North Park[31]
  • 1987, Editorial Writing: San Diego Evening Tribune editorial writer Jonathan Freedman for his editorials urging passage of the first major immigration reform act in 34 years[32]
  • 2006, National Reporting: The San Diego Union-Tribune and Copley News Service (with notable work by Marcus Stern and Jerry Kammer), for their disclosure of bribe-taking that sent former Rep. Randy "Duke" Cunningham to prison "in disgrace".[33] They also received the George Polk Award[34] for these stories.
  • 2009, Editorial Cartooning: Steve Breen "for his agile use of a classic style to produce wide ranging cartoons that engage readers with power, clarity and humor".

Criticisms

Copleys and Platinum Equity

Under the Copleys' ownership, the newspaper had a reliably conservative editorial position, endorsing almost exclusively Republicans for elective office, and sometimes refusing to interview or cover Democratic candidates.

Under Platinum Equity, the newspaper's editorial position "skewed closer to the middle" and showcased multiple viewpoints.[35]

Manchester and Lynch

When Manchester and business partner John Lynch took ownership in 2011, they were open about their desire to use the newspaper to "promote their agenda of downtown development and politically conservative causes",[36] with Lynch stating on KPBS radio that he and Manchester "wanted to be cheerleaders for all that is good in San Diego".[37] Lynch expanded on this position in 2012, saying "We make no apologies. We are doing what a newspaper ought to do, which is to take positions. We are very consistent—pro-conservative, pro-business, pro-military—and we are trying to make a newspaper that gets people excited about this city and its future."[38]

This open promotion of certain viewpoints resulted in criticism from journalism professors and other newspaper editors, who worried that negative news about topics such as the military and business might not be covered.[39] Dean Nelson, director of the journalism program at Point Loma Nazarene University, argued, "Now if you're saying we're going to be the cheerleaders of the military, why would you report on this guy that's taking bribes?... Where's the cheerleading there?" a reference to the Union-Tribune's Pulitzer Prize winning coverage of the Duke Cunningham bribery scandal.[40] A New York Times writer added, "There is a growing worry that the falling value and failing business models of many American newspapers could lead to a situation where moneyed interests buy papers and use them to prosecute a political and commercial agenda. That future appears to have arrived in San Diego."[38]

Lynch said, "We totally respect the journalistic integrity of our paper and there is a clear line of demarcation between our editorials and our news. Our editor, Jeff Light, calls the shots." However, in November 2011 Lynch told the sports editor that the sports pages should advocate for a new football stadium; when a longtime sportswriter wrote skeptically about the idea, he was fired.[38]

Downtown redevelopment

In January 2012, two months after Manchester bought the U-T, the newspaper featured a front-page proposal for downtown redevelopment, to include a downtown football stadium and an expansion of the San Diego Convention Center.[41] Both properties are adjacent to hotels that Manchester owns.[42]

In September 2012, Investigative Newsource reporter Brooke Williams obtained articles that claimed Lynch "threatened" Port Commissioner Scott Peters, who was running for Congress, "with a newspaper campaign to dismantle the Unified Port of San Diego". In e-mails obtained by Williams, Lynch was quoted as indicating that if the Dole Food Company obtained a long-term contract, that the Port's independence governance would be questioned in editorial coverage. Williams said the effort showed "the extent to which the newspaper's new owners will go to push their vision for a football stadium on the Tenth Avenue Marine Terminal",[43]

Endorsements and polling

During the 2012 mayoral election the owners of the U-T donated to Republican City Council Member Carl DeMaio's campaign,[44] and the newspaper ran several prominent editorials favoring DeMaio. Those endorsements were wrapped around the front section of the newspaper on a separate page, "as though they were even more important" than the front page.[45]

In October 2012, a poll was taken by the U-T asking respondents to choose between DeMaio and Democratic Congressman Bob Filner in the mayoral election to be held in November. A rival news outlet noted that "Employees of a newspaper, television / radio station, marketing / public opinion research company or the city of San Diego—or who live with someone employed in one of those fields" were excluded from the poll results, which showed the Republican leading the Democrat, 46 percent to 36 percent. Reporter Kelly Davis of SDCityBeat.com wrote: "Common sense dictates that those votes [by city employees or those living with them] would swing in Filner's favor due to DeMaio's long-running feud with city-employee unions." But U-T assignment editor Michael Smolens replied that "city employees were excluded to avoid political entanglements" in other parts of the ballot as well as in the mayor's race.[46][47] Despite the newspaper's efforts, DeMaio lost to Filner.

Lynch handed day-to-day operations off to another executive in February 2014,[48] and Editor Jeff Light became company president in January 2015.[49] In 2016, Light was named publisher.[50]

Publishers

  • William Jeff Gatewood founded the newspaper, which first published October 10, 1868. He sold his interest to Charles P. Taggart in May 1869.[51]
  • Edward "Ned" Wilkerson Bushyhead, 1868–1873 with various partners, beginning with Taggart. Bushyhead (1832–1907) was a miner, publisher and lawman who was born in Tennessee. Part Cherokee, he was the son of a Baptist preacher, whom he accompanied from Georgia to Indian Territory on the Trail of Tears at the age of seven. Having moved to San Diego, he became the "silent" publisher of the San Diego Union. In 1873, he sold the newspaper. In 1882, he was elected sheriff of San Diego County.
  • Douglas Gunn, 1871–1886. Gunn (August 31, 1841 – November 26, 1891) was a scholar, publisher, pioneer and Republican politician from California.
  • John D. Spreckels, 1890–1926. The son of German-American industrialist Claus Spreckels, he founded a transportation and real estate empire in San Diego.
  • Col. Ira C. Copley, 1928–1947
  • James S. Copley, 1947–1973. He was a journalist and newspaper publisher. He published the San Diego Union, San Diego Union-Tribune and San Diego Evening Tribune from 1947 until his death in 1973.
  • Helen K. Copley, 1973–2001
  • David C. Copley, 2001–2009
  • Edward R. Moss, May 2009 – December 2011[52]
  • Doug F. "Papa Doug" Manchester, 2011–2015[53][54]
  • Austin Beutner, May–September 2015
  • Timothy E. Ryan, September 2015-March 2016[55]
  • Jeff Light, March 2016-

Notable people

See also

References

  1. ^ "U-T print circulation continues downward spiral". San Diego Reader. Retrieved November 29, 2018.
  2. ^ a b Beutner, Austin (March 15, 2015). "LA Times, Union-Tribune Combine Forces". The San Diego Union-Tribune.
  3. ^ "Billionaire Patrick Soon-Shiong reaches deal to buy L.A. Times, San Diego Union-Tribune". Retrieved February 7, 2018.
  4. ^ a b "tronc, Inc. Announces Closing of the Los Angeles Times and The San Diego Union-Tribune Sale" (Press release). Chicago: Tronc. June 18, 2018. Retrieved June 18, 2018.
  5. ^ Engstrand, Iris (2005). San Diego: California's Cornerstone. Sunbelt Publications. pp. 80–81. ISBN 978-0-932653-72-7.
  6. ^ "Guide to the San Diego Union-Tribune Photograph Collection". Online Archive of California.
  7. ^ "San Diego 120 Top Influential Pioneers". The Daily Transcript. Retrieved August 3, 2014.
  8. ^ "Part Five: Chapter III: Later Journalism and Literature". San Diego History Center.
  9. ^ "The Copley Legacy". The San Diego Union-Tribune. May 5, 2009.
  10. ^ Kupper, Thomas (March 18, 2009). "Union-Tribune Sold to Platinum Equity". The San Diego Union-Tribune.
  11. ^ Apple, Charles (August 17, 2010). "San Diego Union-Tribune Launches Redesign". Apple.copydesk.org. Retrieved October 31, 2010.
  12. ^ Vore, Adrian (May 26, 2015). "What's in a Nameplate? A Lot, Actually". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
  13. ^ "San Diego Union-Tribune Sold to Hotelier for More Than $100 Million". The New York Times. November 17, 2011.
  14. ^ "Manchester Grand Resorts". Manchester Financial Group. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
  15. ^ "To Our Readers". UTSanDiego.com. January 3, 2012.
  16. ^ Walters, Dan (January 3, 2012). "San Diego Union-Tribune Becomes 'U-T San Diego'". The Sacramento Bee.
  17. ^ Romenesko, Jim (January 3, 2012). "San Diego Union-Tribune Becomes U-T San Diego". JimRomanesko.com.
  18. ^ "U-T San Diego to Buy North County Times, Californian". North County Times. September 11, 2012. Archived from the original on September 13, 2012.
  19. ^ "U-T Combines with North County Times". KNSD-TV.
  20. ^ "A New Frontier for News". U-T San Diego. February 28, 2013. Retrieved May 8, 2015.
  21. ^ Malone, Michael (February 20, 2014). "U-T TV Goes Dark". Broadcasting & Cable. Retrieved February 20, 2014.
  22. ^ Horn, Jonathan (November 1, 2013). "U-T Buys 8 Local Community Newspapers". U-T San Diego.
  23. ^ "$85M Deal to Combine U-T, LA Times". U-T San Diego. May 7, 2015. Retrieved May 8, 2015.
  24. ^ "L.A. Times Parent to Buy San Diego Paper, Expanding Reach in Southern California". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 8, 2015.
  25. ^ Pfeifer, Stuart (May 27, 2015). "San Diego Union-Tribune Lays Off 178, Mostly in Printing, Delivery". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
  26. ^ "Union Tribune Acquires Pacific San Diego Magazine". Retrieved 2018-06-23.
  27. ^ Parente, Michele. "End of an era: U-T presses cease". sandiegouniontribune.com. Retrieved January 12, 2017.
  28. ^ Koren, James Rufus (June 2, 2016). "Tribune Publishing renames itself Tronc as its dispute with Gannett continues". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 5 June 2016.
  29. ^ Wilkens, John (February 11, 2018). "New U-T, Times owner joins ranks of billionaire buyers". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  30. ^ Showley, Roger (May 16, 2016). "U-T: Back downtown". The San Diego Union-Tribune. San Diego, CA. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
  31. ^ "1979 Winners". The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
  32. ^ "1987 Winners and Finalists". The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
  33. ^ McDonald, Jeff (April 18, 2006). "U-T, Copley News Win Pulitzer Prize". The San Diego Union-Tribune.
  34. ^ "George Polk Awards for Journalism press release". Long Island University. Retrieved November 15, 2006.
  35. ^ Raftery, Miriam (November 20, 2011). "Media Watchdog: Union Tribune Sale Raises Media Ethics Concerns". East County Magazine. Retrieved June 9, 2013.
  36. ^ Adams, Becket (October 22, 2012). "San Diego Media Baron Expands Business to Promote Conservatism". The Blaze.
  37. ^ Sharma, Anita (November 17, 2011). "Developer Doug Manchester Buys Union-Tribune". KPBS-FM.
  38. ^ a b c Carr, David (June 10, 2012). "Newspaper as Business Pulpit". The New York Times. Retrieved June 8, 2013.
  39. ^ Anderson, Erik; Burke, Megan; Cavanaugh, Maureen; Pico, Peggy (September 11, 2012). "It's Official: U-T San Diego Is Buying North County Times". KPBS-TV. City News Service.
  40. ^ Davis, Rob (September 11, 2012). "Manchester Consolidates Power with Second Newspaper Buy". Voice of San Diego.
  41. ^ "Think Big: New Vision Needed for Downtown Waterfront". San Diego Union-Tribune (Editorial). January 22, 2012. Retrieved June 9, 2013.
  42. ^ "Papa Doug Manchester". dougmanchester.com. Retrieved June 9, 2013.
  43. ^ "Port Commissioner: 'The UT Is Coming After Us,'". Investigative Newsource. September 27, 2012.
  44. ^ Lewis, Scott (October 22, 2012). "The Head-Spinning Polls in the Mayor's Race". Voice of San Diego.
  45. ^ Lewis, Scott (September 11, 2012). "The Two Faces of Papa Doug". Voice of San Diego. Retrieved October 13, 2013.
  46. ^ Davis, Kelly (October 25, 2012). "Why Were City Employees Excluded from the U-T Mayoral Poll?". San Diego CityBeat.
  47. ^ [1] Poll results
  48. ^ Lewis, Scott (February 7, 2014). "U-T San Diego CEO John Lynch Hands Reins to President Mike Hodges". Voice of San Diego.
  49. ^ Horn, Jonathan (January 12, 2015). "Light Named U-T President & COO". U-T San Diego.
  50. ^ Vore, Adrian. "U-T's news and business chief". sandiegouniontribune.com. Retrieved January 12, 2017.
  51. ^ San Diego and Imperial Counties California: A Record of Settlement, Organization, Progress and Achievement. Page 201. S.J. Clarke Publishing Co. 1913. Retrieved September 8, 2015.
  52. ^ Davis, Rob (October 30, 2009). "Doing More With Moss". Voice of San Diego. Retrieved November 8, 2009.
  53. ^ "Union-Tribune Returns to Local Hands". The San Diego Union-Tribune. December 6, 2011. Retrieved January 5, 2012.
  54. ^ "San Diego Developer Purchases City's Newspaper". Bloomberg Businessweek. Associated Press. December 6, 2011. Retrieved January 5, 2012.
  55. ^ Goffard, Christopher; Pfeifer, Stuart (September 9, 2015). "Publisher Austin Beutner Is Fired After a Yearlong Drive to Reshape The Times". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 22, 2016.

External links

2011 San Diego Padres season

The 2011 San Diego Padres season was the 43rd season in franchise history.

Anthony Rizzo

Anthony Vincent Rizzo (born August 8, 1989) is an American professional baseball first baseman for the Chicago Cubs of Major League Baseball (MLB). He has also played in MLB for the San Diego Padres. He is a three-time All-Star.

Rizzo was selected by the Boston Red Sox in the sixth round of the 2007 MLB draft and became a top minor league prospect in the Red Sox organization. He was traded to the San Diego Padres after the 2010 season along with three other prospects in exchange for All-Star first baseman Adrian Gonzalez. He made his MLB debut in 2011 with San Diego. After being traded to the Cubs in 2012, he developed into an All-Star player, appearing in the All-Star Game three consecutive times, from 2014 through 2016, and winning the Silver Slugger Award, Gold Glove Award and Roberto Clemente Award in 2016, when the Cubs won the World Series.

California State Route 52

State Route 52 (SR 52) is a state highway in San Diego County, California, that extends from La Jolla Parkway at Interstate 5 (I-5) in La Jolla, San Diego, to SR 67 in Santee. It is a freeway for its entire length and serves as a major east–west route through the northern part of the city of San Diego. The road connects the major north–south freeways of the county, including I-5, I-805, SR 163, I-15, SR 125, and SR 67. SR 52 passes north of the Rose Canyon Fault before traversing Marine Corps Air Station Miramar (MCAS Miramar). East of Santo Road and west of SR 125, the highway goes through Mission Trails Regional Park, a large open preserve. SR 52 is also known as the Soledad Freeway and the San Clemente Canyon Freeway.

Plans for a route between La Jolla and Santee date from 1959, and SR 52 was officially designated in the 1964 state highway renumbering. Construction began in 1966 at the I-5 interchange with Ardath Road leading to La Jolla. It continued with the building of San Clemente Canyon Road, which was later widened to become SR 52. The freeway was completed east to I-805 in 1970, and was built in two stages from there to Santo Road east of I-15; the last phase was completed in 1988.

The freeway east of Santo Road encountered delays from environmentalists over the endangered least Bell's vireo, a songbird which faced habitat destruction, as well as those concerned with the destruction of homes and businesses for the freeway right-of-way. The extension to Mission Gorge Road opened in 1993, and SR 52 was completed to SR 125 in 1998. Funding issues delayed the completion of the entire route until 2011, more than fifty years after construction began; until then, the city of Santee faced traffic snarls. A widening project was completed in 2007 between Santo Road and Mast Boulevard; further expansion has been put on hold due to state budget concerns.

California State Route 56

State Route 56 (SR 56) is an east–west state highway in the U.S. state of California. It runs 9.210 miles (14.822 km) from Interstate 5 (I-5) in the Carmel Valley neighborhood of San Diego to I-15. The eastern terminus of the highway is also the western end of the Ted Williams Parkway. SR 56 serves as an important connector between I-5 and I-15, being the only east–west freeway between SR 78 in north San Diego County, several miles away, and SR 52 near Marine Corps Air Station Miramar. It is also named the Ted Williams Freeway, after the San Diego-born baseball player.

SR 56 was added to the state highway system in 1959 as Legislative Route 278, and was renumbered SR 56 in the 1964 state highway renumbering. Plans in 1964 were to connect SR 56 to the north end of SR 125 and continue east to SR 67, but these plans did not come to fruition. The eastern end from Black Mountain Road to I-15 was completed in 1993; the western end from I-5 to Carmel Creek Road was completed in 1995 after several lawsuits filed by the Sierra Club and other community groups. The two ends were not connected until the middle portion of the freeway was completed in 2004. The delay was largely due to funding issues and environmental concerns.

California State Route 75

State Route 75 (SR 75) is a short, 13-mile (21 km) expressway in San Diego County, California. It is a loop route of Interstate 5 (I-5) that begins near Imperial Beach, heading west on Palm Avenue. The route continues north along the Silver Strand, a thin strip of land, through Silver Strand State Beach. SR 75 passes through the city of Coronado as Orange Avenue and continues onto the San Diego–Coronado Bay Bridge, which traverses the San Diego Bay, before joining back with I-5 near downtown San Diego at a freeway interchange.

The Silver Strand Highway was constructed and open to the public by 1924. What would become SR 75 was added to the state highway system in 1933, and designated Legislative Route 199 in 1935. SR 75 was not officially designated until the 1964 state highway renumbering. The Coronado Bay Bridge opened in 1969, and provided a direct connection between San Diego and Coronado. Since then, various proposals have taken place to relieve commuter traffic between San Diego and Naval Air Station North Island that traverses the city of Coronado. However, none of these proposals have gained support, including an attempt in 2010.

Copley Press

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Randall Harold Cunningham (born December 8, 1941), usually known as Randy or Duke, is a Republican politician and a convicted felon. He served as member of the United States House of Representatives from California's 50th Congressional District from 1991 to 2005. He resigned in 2005, after having pleaded guilty to bribery, fraud, and tax evasion.

Prior to his political career, Cunningham was an officer and pilot in the U.S. Navy for 20 years. Cunningham and Radar Intercept Officer (RIO) William P. "Irish" Driscoll, working as a flight crew, became the only Navy flying aces of the Vietnam War. He was one of the most highly decorated United States Navy pilots in the Vietnam War, receiving the Navy Cross once, the Silver Star twice, the Air Medal 15 times, and the Purple Heart.

Following the war, Cunningham became an instructor at the U.S. Navy's Fighter Weapons School, better known as TOPGUN, and commanding officer of Fighter Squadron 126 (VF-126), a shore-based adversary squadron at NAS Miramar, California.Cunningham resigned from the House on November 28, 2005, after pleading guilty to accepting at least $2.4 million in bribes and under-reporting his taxable income for 2004. He pleaded guilty to federal charges of tax evasion, and conspiracy to commit bribery, mail fraud, and wire fraud. He was sentenced to eight years and four months in prison and was ordered to pay $1.8 million in restitution. On June 4, 2013, Cunningham completed his prison sentence; he now lives in Arkansas.

Heath Bell

Heath Justin Bell (born September 29, 1977) is an American former professional baseball relief pitcher. As a closer with the San Diego Padres from 2009 to 2011, Bell was a three-time All-Star and twice won the Rolaids Relief Man Award. He was also awarded the DHL Delivery Man of the Year Award and The Sporting News Reliever of the Year Award.

Bell played multiple sports, including baseball, in high school. He moved on to community college, where he was an All-American. He began his professional career with the New York Mets, making his major league debut in 2004, and spending three seasons at both the minor and major league levels. In 2007, he was traded to San Diego, where he was a setup man before replacing Trevor Hoffman as the Padres' closer. From 2010 through 2011, Bell successfully converted 41 straight save opportunities, which tied Hoffman's team record. A free agent after the 2011 season, he signed with the Miami Marlins, and later played with the Arizona Diamondbacks and Tampa Bay Rays. He retired before the 2015 season.

Helix High School

Helix High School, in La Mesa, California, is a charter high school built in 1952. It received its charter in 1998. Part of the Grossmont Union High School District, it serves a mid-level socioeconomic community and has a student body of approximately 2,400 pupils. Helix serves parts of La Mesa, Lemon Grove, and Spring Valley; however, as a charter school, all high school students in the state of California are eligible to attend.

Helix High School is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC) and is a California Distinguished School in 2001 and 2009.

James Madison High School (California)

James Madison High School is a public high school in San Diego, California. It is part of the San Diego Unified School District. Madison's 50-acre (200,000 m2) campus opened in 1962. Serving almost 1,100 students in grades 9-12, it is located in the Clairemont Mesa neighborhood, north of Interstate 8 and west of Interstate 805.

José Pirela

José Manuel Pirela (born November 21, 1989) is a Venezuelan professional baseball second baseman and outfielder for the San Diego Padres of Major League Baseball (MLB). He previously played for the New York Yankees.

Ken Allen

Ken Allen (1971–2000) was a Bornean orangutan at the San Diego Zoo. He became one of the most popular animals in the history of the San Diego Zoo because of his many successful escapes from his enclosures. He was nicknamed "the hairy Houdini".Ken Allen was born in captivity at the San Diego Zoo in 1971. In 1988, the Wall Street brokerage firm Alex Brown & Company made a sizeable donation to the zoo and requested they name their "ugliest" orangutan after one of the firms equity traders. During the 1980s, Ken Allen gained worldwide attention for a series of three escapes from his enclosure, which had been thought to be escape-proof. Ken Allen's ability to outwit his keepers, as well as his docile demeanor during his escapes, resulted in fame. He had his own fan club and was the subject of T-shirts and bumper stickers (most reading "Free Ken Allen"). A song, The Ballad of Ken Allen, was written about him.

Ken Allen developed colon cancer and was euthanized in December 2000. He was 29 years old.

Los Angeles Chargers retired numbers

The Los Angeles Chargers are a professional American football team in the National Football League (NFL) based in the Greater Los Angeles Area. The club began play in 1960 as a charter member of the American Football League (AFL), and spent its first season in Los Angeles before moving to San Diego in 1961. They returned to Los Angeles in 2017. NFL teams assign each of their players a jersey number ranging from 1 through 99. The Chargers no longer issue four retired numbers. As of 2010, the team's policy was to have the Chargers Hall of Fame committee evaluate candidates for a player's number to retire after the player has retired from the league after five years. The committee consisted of Chargers Executive Vice President A. G. Spanos, Chargers public relations director Bill Johnston, San Diego Hall of Champions founder Bob Breitbard, and the presidents of the San Diego Sports Commission and the Chargers Backers Fan Club. There are few recognized guidelines in sports regarding retiring numbers, and the NFL has no specific league policy. "You have to have enough numbers for players to wear," said NFL spokesman Greg Aiello. The Chargers have rarely retired numbers. The San Diego Union-Tribune wrote, "The [Chargers] tend to honor their heritage haphazardly."Pro Football Hall of Fame offensive tackle Ron Mix in 1969 was the first Charger to have his number retired after he announced he was quitting football. However, he came out of retirement in 1971 to play for the Oakland Raiders. Then-Chargers owner Gene Klein, who hated the Raiders, unretired the number.Dan Fouts had his No. 14 retired in 1988, a year after his retirement. He was the first NFL quarterback to top the 4,000-yard passing mark in three consecutive seasons. He set a then-NFL single-season passing record in 1981, throwing for a career-high 4,802 yards. At the retirement of his number, Fouts asked for "more recognition of former players and a warmer relationship between Charger players and management. I'd like to see Lance Alworth's number retired, too. We've had some great players here."Alworth's No. 19 was retired in 2005, 35 years after he last played for the Chargers and 27 years after he was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame. He was still one of the most popular athletes in San Diego history. Nicknamed Bambi for his speed and graceful leaping skills, Alworth was a pioneer for the Chargers and the AFL in the 1960s. He was selected All-AFL seven times from 1963–1969 and averaged more than 50 catches and 1,000 yards a year with San Diego. He retired with the most career yards (9,584) in team history, a record that held for almost 45 years.The Union-Tribune in 2003 wrote that the Chargers no longer retired numbers, but Chargers president Dean Spanos said Junior Seau might be an exception. "If there's going to be another number retired, that's the one that's going to be retired," Spanos said. Seau made 12 consecutive Pro Bowl appearances with San Diego. He initially retired from the NFL in a 2006 ceremony with the Chargers, and the team planned to retire his number—as early as 2011—after his anticipated induction into the Pro Football Hall of Fame. However, Seau signed with the New England Patriots four days later, and continued playing until 2009. Seau's No. 55 was retired in 2012 posthumously at his memorial. "His play on the field combined with his leadership and charisma became the face of this team for more than a decade. I can't think of anyone more deserving of this honor," said Spanos.After LaDainian Tomlinson signed a one-day contract and retired as a Charger in 2012, Dean Spanos said his number would be retired in the future. On November 22, 2015, the Chargers retired Tomlinson's No. 21.

Bob Wick, the Chargers equipment manager since 2000, said he tried to keep Charlie Joiner's No. 18 out of circulation, even though it has not been officially retired.

Luis Torrens

Luis Alfonso Torrens Sáez (born May 2, 1996) is a Venezuelan professional baseball catcher for the San Diego Padres of Major League Baseball (MLB).

October 2007 California wildfires

The October 2007 California wildfires, also known as the Fall 2007 California firestorm, were a series of about thirty wildfires (17 of which became major wildfires) that began igniting across Southern California on October 20. At least 1,500 homes were destroyed and approximately 972,147 acres (about 3,934 km2, or 1,520 mi2) of land was burned from Santa Barbara County to the U.S.–Mexico border, surpassing the October 2003 California wildfires in scope, which were estimated to have burned 800,000 acres (3,200 km2). The wildfires killed a total of 14 people, with nine of them dying directly from the fires; 160 others were injured, including at least 124 firefighters. At their height, the raging fires were visible from space. These fires included the vast majority of the largest and deadliest wildfires of the 2007 California wildfire season. The only wildfire in 2007 that surpassed any of the individual October 2007 fires in size was the Zaca Fire.California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger declared a state of emergency in seven California counties where fires were burning. President George W. Bush concurred, and ordered federal aid to supplement state and local response efforts. Over 6,000 firefighters worked to fight the blazes; they were aided by units of the United States Armed Forces, United States National Guard, almost 3,000 prisoners convicted of non-violent crimes, and 60 firefighters from the Mexican cities of Tijuana and Tecate. The fires forced approximately 1,000,000 people to evacuate from their homes, becoming the largest evacuation in California's history.Major contributing factors to the extreme fire conditions were drought in Southern California, hot weather, and unusually strong Santa Ana winds, with gusts reaching 85 mph (140 km/h). California's "fire season," which traditionally runs from June to October, has become a year-round threat, due to a mixture of perennial drought and the increasing number of homes built in canyons and on hillsides, surrounded by brush and forest.The fires had numerous sources. Several were triggered by power lines damaged by the high winds. One fire started when a semi-truck overturned. Another was suspected to have been deliberately caused; the suspect was shot and killed in flight by state authorities. A 10-year-old boy admitted that he accidentally started the Buckweed Fire by playing with matches. Causes of the remaining fires remain under investigation. The last active fire, the Poomacha Fire, was fully contained on November 13, 2007, about 24 days after the series of wildfires had begun to ignite. The October 2007 wildfires caused over $2 billion (2007 USD) in insured property damages.

Searching for David's Heart

Searching for David's Heart is a young-adult novel by Cherie Bennett. The author is a screenwriter, novelist, playwright, and columnist for the San Diego Union-Tribune and other Copley newspapers.

Sherri Lightner

Sherri Schuler Lightner (born 1950) is a San Diego, California politician and community activist. She was the councilmember for San Diego City Council District 1, elected to a four-year term in November 2008 and re-elected in November 2012. She is a Democrat, although council positions are officially nonpartisan per California state law. She and her husband live in La Jolla Shores.According to the San Diego Association of Governments,

Lightner's district has a population of 188,625 people. Council District 1 includes the communities of Carmel Valley, Del Mar Heights, the North City Future Urbanizing Area (Black Mountain Ranch, Del Mar Mesa, Pacific Highlands Ranch, and Torrey Highlands), most of La Jolla and Bird Rock, Rancho Peñasquitos, Rose Canyon, the lower San Dieguito River Valley, Sorrento Hills, Sorrento Valley, Torrey Hills, Torrey Pines, University City, and the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) campus.

Tony Gwynn

Anthony Keith Gwynn Sr. (May 9, 1960 – June 16, 2014), nicknamed "Mr. Padre", was an American professional baseball right fielder, who played 20 seasons (1982–2001) in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the San Diego Padres. The left-handed hitting Gwynn won eight batting titles in his career, tied for the most in National League (NL) history. He is considered one of the best and most consistent hitters in baseball history. Gwynn had a .338 career batting average, never hitting below .309 in any full season. He was a 15-time All-Star, recognized for his skills both on offense and defense with seven Silver Slugger Awards and five Gold Glove Awards. Gwynn was the rare player in his era that stayed with a single team his entire career, and he played in the only two World Series appearances in San Diego's franchise history. He was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 2007, his first year of eligibility.

Gwynn attended San Diego State University (SDSU), where he played both college baseball and basketball for the Aztecs. He was an all-conference player in both sports in the Western Athletic Conference (WAC), but was honored as an All-American in baseball. Gwynn was selected by the Padres in the third round of the 1981 MLB draft, as the 58th overall pick. He made his major-league debut the following year, and captured his first batting title in 1984, when San Diego advanced to its first-ever World Series. A poor fielder in college, Gwynn's work on his defense was rewarded in 1986, when he received his first Gold Glove. The following year, he won the first of three consecutive batting titles. Beginning in 1990, Gwynn endured four straight seasons which ended prematurely due to injuries, particular to his left knee. However, he experienced a resurgence with four straight batting titles starting in 1994, when he batted a career-high .394 in a strike-shortened season. Gwynn played in his second World Series in 1998, before reaching the 3,000-hit milestone the following year. He played two more seasons, hampered by injuries in both, and retired after the 2001 season with 3,141 career hits.

A contact hitter, Gwynn excelled at hitting the ball to the opposite field. After meeting Hall of Famer Ted Williams in 1992, Gwynn became more adept at pulling the ball and using the entire field, as well as hitting for more power. He could also run early in his career, when he was a stolen base threat. Widely considered the greatest player in Padres history, Gwynn regularly accepted less money to remain with the small-market team. After he retired from playing, the Padres retired his No. 19 in 2004. Gwynn became the head baseball coach at his alma mater, and also spent time as a baseball analyst. Gwynn died of salivary gland cancer in 2014 at the age of 54.

Trevor Hoffman

Trevor William Hoffman (born October 13, 1967) is an American former baseball relief pitcher who played 18 years in Major League Baseball (MLB) from 1993 to 2010. A long-time closer, he pitched for the Florida Marlins, San Diego Padres, and the Milwaukee Brewers, including more than 15 years for the Padres. He was the major leagues' first player to reach the 500- and 600-save milestones, and was the all-time saves leader from 2006 until 2011. Hoffman was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame as part of its class of 2018. He currently serves as senior advisor for baseball operations for the Padres.

Hoffman played shortstop collegiately at the University of Arizona and was drafted in the 11th round by the Cincinnati Reds. After not having much success batting, Hoffman was converted to a pitcher, as he was able to throw up to 95 miles per hour (mph). The Marlins acquired him in the 1992 expansion draft, and he pitched in Florida until he was traded to the Padres mid-season in 1993 in a deal that sent star Gary Sheffield to the Marlins. Hoffman recorded 20 saves in 1994 in his first season as Padres closer, and in the following years, he became the face of the franchise after Tony Gwynn retired. He collected at least 30 saves each year for the next 14 years, except for 2003 when he missed most of the year recovering from shoulder surgery. After San Diego did not re-sign him following the 2008 season, Hoffman pitched for two years with the Brewers before retiring after the 2010 season.

Hoffman was selected for the All-Star team seven times, and twice he was the runner-up for the National League (NL) Cy Young Award, given annually to the top pitcher in the league. He retired with MLB records of fifteen 20-save seasons, fourteen 30-save seasons (including eight consecutive), and nine 40-save seasons (including two streaks of four consecutive). He also retired with the highest career strikeout rate of any reliever. Though he entered the majors with a powerful fastball, an injury after the 1994 season permanently sapped Hoffman's fastball velocity and forced him to reinvent his pitching style; he subsequently developed one of the best changeups in baseball. Hoffman's entrance at home games accompanied by the song "Hells Bells" was popular with fans.

After retiring as a player, Hoffman returned to the Padres as a special assistant in the front office. In 2014, he became the team's pitching coordinator at their upper minor league levels, which included working with the Padres general manager. The following year, his role expanded to overseeing pitching instruction at all levels in the minors.

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