The Right Honourable

The Right Honourable (The Rt Hon. or Rt Hon.) is an honorific style traditionally applied to certain persons and collective bodies in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, some other Commonwealth realms, the English-speaking Caribbean, Mauritius, Zimbabwe, and occasionally elsewhere. The term is predominantly used today as a style associated with the holding of certain senior public offices in the United Kingdom, Canada, and New Zealand.

Most uses of this style in the United Kingdom now indicate membership of the Privy Council.

"Right" in this context is an adverb meaning "thoroughly" or "very".

Collective entities

"The Right Honourable" is added as a prefix to the name of various collective entities such as:

  • The Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal (of the United Kingdom, etc.) in Parliament Assembled (the House of Lords)
  • The Right Honourable the Knights, Citizens and Burgesses (of the House of Commons/Commons House) in Parliament Assembled[1] (the House of Commons) (archaic, now simply The Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdom, etc.)[2]
  • The Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty (the former Board of Admiralty)
  • The Right Honourable the Lords of the Committee of the Privy Council appointed for the consideration of all matters relating to Trade and Foreign Plantations (the Board of Trade)

See also the collective use of "Most Honourable", as in "The Lords of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council" (the Privy Council).

Use of the honorific

The honorific is normally used only on the front of envelopes or other written documents.

In the House of Commons, Members of Parliament refer to members not as "the honourable member for ... (constituency)" but as "the right honourable member for ..." if they are Privy Councillors but now hold no ministry. To save having to recall constituency names in direct replies, the use of "the honourable lady/gentleman/member" or "the Minister (often, for department)/Chancellor/Prime Minister" is available to refer to members not in their own party (or coalition) where the person referred to has already spoken. Similarly, those in their own party are referred to as "my honourable friend" or, for Privy Councillors, "my right honourable friend". Other honorifics used in addition for those members in relevant professions (for example, "honourable and reverend",[3] "honourable and gallant"[4] and "honourable and learned"[5]) are also used in the Commons.[6]

Generally within the Commonwealth, ministers and judges are The Honourable unless they are appointed to the Privy Council of the United Kingdom, in which case they are The Right Honourable. Such persons generally include prime ministers and judges of the Court of Appeal of New Zealand, and several other Commonwealth prime ministers. Provided they are Commonwealth citizens, foreign judges appointed to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council are entitled to the honorific as well, although the appellation may be ignored in the judge's home country.

United Kingdom

The prefix is customarily abbreviated to "The" in many situations, but never for Privy Counsellors.[7] The following persons are entitled to the style in a personal capacity:

The following persons are entitled to the style ex officio. The style is added to the name of the office, not the name of the person:

All other Lord Mayors are "The Right Worshipful"; other Lords Provost do not use an honorific. By the 1920s, a number of city mayors, including that of Leeds,[13] were unofficially using the prefix "The Right Honourable", and the matter was consequently raised in Parliament. The Lord Mayor of Bristol at present still uses the prefix "Right Honourable", without official sanction.[14][15] The Chairman of the London County Council (LCC) was granted the style in 1935 as part of the celebrations of the silver jubilee of King George V.[16] The chairman of the Greater London Council, the body that replaced the LCC in 1965, was similarly granted the prefix,[17] but that body, and by extension the office of its chairman, was likewise abolished in 1986.

Privy Counsellors are appointed for life by the Monarch, on the advice of the prime minister. All members of the British Cabinet (technically a committee of the Privy Council) are appointed to the Privy Council, as are certain other senior ministers in the government and leaders of the major political parties. The Privy Council thus includes all current and former members of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom, excepting those who have resigned from the Privy Council. The First Ministers of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are also so appointed.

In order to differentiate peers who are Privy Counsellors from those who are not, the suffix "PC" should be added after the name (according to Debrett's Peerage (2015)[18][19][20]). This is not however considered correct by Who's Who (2002).[21]

Australia

In Australia some premiers of the Australian colonies in the 19th century were appointed members of HM Privy Council and were thus entitled to be called The Right Honourable. After federation in 1901, the Governor-General, the Chief Justice of the High Court of Australia, the Prime Minister and some other senior ministers held the title.

In 1972 Labor Prime Minister Gough Whitlam declined appointment to the Privy Council. The practice was resumed by Malcolm Fraser in 1975, but Bob Hawke declined the appointment in 1983. The last Governor-General to be entitled to the style was Sir Ninian Stephen. The last politician to be entitled to the style was Ian Sinclair, who retired in 1998. In 2001, Sir Robert May was elevated to the UK peerage as Baron May of Oxford, which carries with it the style The Right Honourable.

Australians holding certain hereditary peerages in the grades of Baron, Viscount and Earl also use the Right Honourable title. The Lord Mayors of Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane,[22] Perth, Adelaide and Hobart are styled the Rt Hon. The style (which has no connection with the Privy Council) attaches to the title of Lord Mayor, not to their names, and is relinquished upon leaving office.

Living Australians holding the title The Right Honourable Reason Formerly
Doug Anthony, AC, CH Member of the Privy Council Former Deputy Prime Minister of Australia
Ian Sinclair, AC Member of the Privy Council Former Speaker of the Australian House of Representatives
Sir William Heseltine, GCB, GCVO, AC Member of the Privy Council Former Private Secretary to the Sovereign
Robert May, Baron May of Oxford, OM, AC Life peer Former Chief Scientific Adviser to the UK Government
Trixie Gardner, Baroness Gardner of Parkes, AM, JP Life peer Former Councillor on the Westminster City Council
Malcolm Murray, 12th Earl of Dunmore Earl of Dunmore Former Member of the House of Lords
Robert Fiennes-Clinton, 19th Earl of Lincoln Earl of Lincoln
Simon Abney-Hastings, 15th Earl of Loudoun Earl of Loudoun
George Dawson-Damer, 7th Earl of Portarlington Earl of Portarlington
Keith Rous, 6th Earl of Stradbroke Earl of Stradbroke
Francis Grosvenor, 8th Earl of Wilton Earl of Wilton
Nicholas St John, 9th Viscount Bolingbroke, 10th Viscount St John Viscount Bolingbroke
Charles Cavendish, 7th Baron Chesham Baron Chesham
James Lindsay, 3rd Baron Lindsay of Birker Baron Lindsay of Birker
David Campbell, 7th Baron Stratheden and Campbell Baron Stratheden

Canada

In Canada, only occupants of the most senior public offices are styled as "The Right Honourable" (Le très honorable is the French term used by the federal government). Formerly, this was by virtue of their appointment to the Privy Council of the United Kingdom. However, Canadian appointments to the British Privy Council were ended by the government of Lester Pearson. Since then, individuals who hold, or have held, one of the following offices are awarded the style of Right Honourable for life:

The style may also be granted for life by the Governor General to eminent Canadians who have not held any of the offices that would otherwise entitle them to the style. It has been granted to the following individuals:

  • Paul Martin Sr. (1992) — cabinet minister (Minister of External Affairs), Member of Parliament, senator and diplomat
  • Martial Asselin (1992) — federal cabinet minister, Member of Parliament, senator (Speaker of the Senate) and Lieutenant Governor of Quebec
  • Ellen Fairclough (1992) — federal cabinet minister and Member of Parliament; first woman in Canadian politics ever appointed to cabinet
  • Jean-Luc Pépin (1992) — federal cabinet minister and Member of Parliament; chair of Anti-Inflation Board and co-chair of unity taskforce
  • Alvin Hamilton (1992) — federal cabinet minister and Member of Parliament
  • Don Mazankowski (1992) — deputy prime minister, federal cabinet minister and Member of Parliament
  • Jack Pickersgill (1992) — federal cabinet minister, Member of Parliament, and senior civil servant (Assistant Private Secretary and special assistant to the prime minister, Clerk of the Privy Council; chair of the Canadian Transport Commission)
  • Robert Stanfield (1992) — federal Opposition Leader and Member of Parliament, provincial MLA and Premier of Nova Scotia
  • Herb Gray (2002) — deputy prime minister, federal cabinet minister, and Member of Parliament; the longest-serving MP in Canadian history

Governors general also use the style "His/Her Excellency" during their term of office. Members of the Privy Council and the Senate receive the honorific "The Honourable". The style of Right Honourable does not apply to any official at the provincial level.

Living Canadians holding the title The Right Honourable
Person Birthplace Reason Born Granted
Justin Trudeau Ottawa, ON Prime Minister 1971 2015
Stephen Harper Toronto, ON Former Prime Minister 1959 2006
Paul Martin Windsor, ON Former Prime Minister 1938 2003
Jean Chrétien Shawinigan, QC Former Prime Minister 1934 1993
Kim Campbell Port Alberni, BC Former Prime Minister 1947 1993
Brian Mulroney Baie-Comeau, QC Former Prime Minister 1939 1984
John Turner United Kingdom Former Prime Minister 1929 1984
Joe Clark High River, AB Former Prime Minister 1939 1979
Julie Payette Montreal, QC Governor General 1963 2017
David Johnston Sudbury, ON Former Governor General 1941 2010
Michaëlle Jean Haiti Former Governor General 1957 2005
Adrienne Clarkson Hong Kong Former Governor General 1939 1999
Ed Schreyer Beausejour, MB Former Governor General 1935 1979
Richard Wagner Montreal, QC Chief Justice 1957 2017
Beverley McLachlin Pincher Creek, AB Former Chief Justice 1943 2000
Don Mazankowski Viking, AB Honorific 1935 1992

Over the years, a number of prominent Canadians became members of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom and thus were entitled to use the style of Right Honourable, either because of their services in Britain (e.g. serving as envoys to London) or as members of the Imperial War Cabinet, or due to their prominence in the Canadian Cabinet.

Before the style of Right Honourable came into use for all Canadian prime ministers, three prime ministers did not have the style as they were not members of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom. These three were the Hon. Alexander Mackenzie, the Hon. Sir John Abbott and the Hon. Sir Mackenzie Bowell.

Canadians who held the title before the Pearson government's reforms include:

Notes
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j As Prime Minister.
  2. ^ a b c d e f As Chief Justice of Canada
  3. ^ Duff did not become Chief Justice until 1933
  4. ^ Massey became Governor General over a decade later. He was made "Right Honourable" while serving as Canada's High Commissioner to London.
  5. ^ Tupper was appointed when he was no longer Prime Minister and St. Laurent was appointed when he was a cabinet minister under Mackenzie King.
  6. ^ As Governor General of Canada

Sri Lanka

In Sri Lanka (formerly known as Ceylon) the British practice was followed with Ceylonese members of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom were styled The Right Honourable and was referred to as "Mahamanya" in Sinhalese. Ceylonese appointees to the privy council include, D.S. Senanayake and Sir John Kotelawala.[29]

Ireland

Members of the Privy Council of Ireland were entitled to be addressed as The Right Honourable, even after the Privy Council ceased to have any functions or to meet on the creation of the Irish Free State in December 1922. Nevertheless, the Lord Mayor of Dublin, like some of his counterparts in Great Britain, retained the use of the honorific style as a result of its having been conferred separately by legislation; in 2001 it was removed, as a consequence of local government law reform.

New Zealand

In New Zealand, the prime minister and some other senior cabinet ministers were customarily appointed to the Privy Council of the United Kingdom and thus styled The Right Honourable.[30]

In her resignation honours, the former prime minister Helen Clark did not recommend the appointment of any new Privy Councillors, and at present Winston Peters is the sole Privy Councillor in the New Zealand parliament. Privy Councillors recently retired from parliament include Clark, the former Speaker of the House Jonathan Hunt, and the former prime minister Jenny Shipley.[31] In 2009 it was announced that the new Prime Minister John Key had decided not to make any further recommendations to the Crown for appointments to the Privy Council.[32]

In August 2010, the Queen of New Zealand announced that, with immediate effect, individuals who hold, and those persons who after the date of the signing of these rules are appointed to, the following offices are awarded the style The Right Honourable for life:[30]

This change was made because the practice of appointing New Zealanders to the Privy Council of the United Kingdom had ceased. However, the change had little immediate effect, as all but two of the holders or living former holders of the offices granted the style had already been appointed to the Privy Council.[33][34]

The living New Zealanders holding the style "The Right Honourable" as a result of membership of the Privy Council are:

The living New Zealanders holding the style "The Right Honourable" for life as a result of the 2010 changes are:

Name Title Date Appointed
Sir Anand Satyanand Former Governor-General 2 August 2010
Sir John Key Former Prime Minister
Sir Lockwood Smith Former Speaker of the House of Representatives
Sir Jerry Mateparae Former Governor-General 31 August 2011
David Carter Former Speaker of the House of Representatives 1 February 2013
Dame Patsy Reddy Governor-General 28 September 2016
Sir Bill English Former Prime Minister 12 December 2016
Jacinda Ardern Prime Minister 26 October 2017
Trevor Mallard Speaker of the House of Representatives 7 November 2017

Kenya

The second prime minister Raila Amolo Odinga (2008 - 2013) has been referred to as Rt. Honourable Raila Odinga.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Catalogue.nla.gov.au". nla.gov.au. Archived from the original on 1 November 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  2. ^ "Parliament.uk". parliament.uk. Archived from the original on 23 April 2010. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  3. ^ A use in the Commons in 1898 Archived 2014-05-06 at the Wayback Machine Hansard. HL Deb 02 May 1898 vol 57 c43 Retrieved 6 May 2014
  4. ^ A use by either House of Parliament in 2005 Archived 2012-12-22 at the Wayback Machine Hansard. HL Deb 14 March 2005 vol 670 cc399-468GC Retrieved 30-03-2013
  5. ^ "Mental Capacity Bill". Archived from the original on 2012-12-26.
  6. ^ "Re-elected Bercow dragged to Speaker's chair". BBC News. Archived from the original on 27 November 2017. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  7. ^ 'The Prefix "The"'. In Titles and Forms of Address, 21st ed., pp. 8–9. A & C Black, London, 2002.
  8. ^ "Earl and Countess". Archived from the original on 2014-09-27.
  9. ^ "Viscount and Viscountess". Archived from the original on 2014-07-31.
  10. ^ "Baron and Baroness". Archived from the original on 2014-05-13.
  11. ^ "Privy Council members". Privy Council Office. Archived from the original on 6 December 2014. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  12. ^ "Right Honourable". TheyWorkForYou. Archived from the original on 2017-09-06.
  13. ^ "Reception by the Right Hon. the LORD MAYOR OF LEEDS and LADY MAYORESS (Mr. and Mrs. HUGH LUPTON) to the B.N.O.C. on the occasion of their visit to the Theatre Royal, Leeds - 2LS Leeds, 6 November 1927". Copyright © 2016 BBC - Radio Times 1923-2009. Archived from the original on 9 March 2016. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  14. ^ The Title of Lord Mayor – Use of the Prefix "Right Honourable", in The Times, July 7, 1932, p. 16
  15. ^ "Lord Mayor of Bristol". Bristol City Council. Archived from the original on 21 March 2009. Retrieved 26 December 2008.
  16. ^ "Royal Guests of L.C.C. The Queen At The County Hall, Honour For Chairman". The Times. 1 June 1935. p. 16.
  17. ^ "No. 43613". The London Gazette. 30 March 1965. p. 3195.
  18. ^ Kidd, Charles, Debrett's Peerage & Baronetage 2015 Edition, London, 2015, Forms of Addressing Persons of Title, pp.56-60, p.60
  19. ^ Debrett's recommends the use of the post-nominal letters "PC" in a social style of address for a peer who is a Privy Counsellor."Privy Counsellors and Crown Appointments". Debrett’s. Archived from the original on 28 May 2016. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  20. ^ "Privy counsellors". Debretts. Archived from the original on 30 June 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  21. ^ ' Privy Counsellors'. In Titles and Forms of Address, 21st ed., pp. 72–73. A & C Black, London, 2002.
  22. ^ Yamashita, Kate (2014-03-12). "Lord Mayor Graham Quirk". www.brisbane.qld.gov.au. Archived from the original on 2017-04-18. Retrieved 2017-04-17.
  23. ^ D.S. Senanayake – A nation’s father, undisputed leader of all time
  24. ^ a b ""The Right Honourable"". www.dpmc.govt.nz. Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. Archived from the original on 8 April 2017. Retrieved 30 April 2017.
  25. ^ "The Privy Council". Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. Archived from the original on 2009-06-14. Retrieved 2009-06-16.
  26. ^ "Honours Q and A" (PDF). 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2011-06-03. Retrieved 2009-06-29.
  27. ^ "Use of the title 'The Right Honourable' in New Zealand, 2 August 2010". The Queen's Printer. 2 August 2010. Archived from the original on 5 August 2010. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
  28. ^ This did not apply to former Governor-Generals Sir Paul Reeves, Dame Catherine Tizard and Dame Silvia Cartwright and former Speakers Sir Kerry Burke, Sir Robin Gray, Sir Peter Tapsell, Sir Doug Kidd and Margaret Wilson

External links

1987 Dissolution Honours

The 1987 Dissolution Honours List was gazetted on 30 July 1987 following the advice of the Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher.The recipients are shown below as they were styled before their new honour.

2001 Dissolution Honours

The 2001 Dissolution Honours List was announced on 27 April 2001 and 2 June 2001 prior to the General Election of the same year by the Prime Minister, Tony Blair.

Chancellor of the Exchequer

The Chancellor and Under-Treasurer of Her Majesty's Exchequer, commonly known as the Chancellor of the Exchequer, or simply the Chancellor, is a senior official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of Her Majesty's Treasury. The office is a British Cabinet-level position.

The chancellor is responsible for all economic and financial matters, equivalent to the role of finance minister in other nations. The position is considered one of the four Great Offices of State, and in recent times has come to be the most powerful office in British politics after the prime minister.

The Chancellor of the Exchequer is now always Second Lord of the Treasury as one of the Lords Commissioners for executing the office of Lord High Treasurer. In the 18th and early 19th centuries, it was common for the prime minister also to serve as Chancellor of the Exchequer if he sat in the Commons; the last chancellor who was simultaneously prime minister and Chancellor of the Exchequer was Stanley Baldwin in 1923. Formerly, in cases when the chancellorship was vacant, the Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench would act as Chancellor pro tempore. The last Lord Chief Justice to serve in this way was Lord Denman in 1834.

The chancellor is the third-oldest major state office in English and British history; it originally carried responsibility for the Exchequer, the medieval English institution for the collection and auditing of royal revenues which dates from the Anglo-Saxon period and survived the Norman conquest of England. The earliest surviving records which are the results of the exchequer's audit, date from 1129–30 under King Henry I and show continuity from previous years. The chancellor controlled monetary policy as well as fiscal policy until 1997, when the Bank of England was granted independent control of its interest rates. The chancellor also has oversight of public spending across Government departments.

David Currie, Baron Currie of Marylebone

David Anthony Currie, Baron Currie of Marylebone (born 9 December 1946) is a British economist specialising in regulation, and a cross-bench member of the House of Lords. Currie has been the inaugural chairman of the Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) since 2012.

First Commissioner of Works

The First Commissioner of Works and Public Buildings was a position within the government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. It took over some of the functions of the First Commissioner of Woods and Forests in 1851 when the portfolio of Crown holdings was divided into the public and the commercial. The position was frequently of cabinet level. The office was renamed Minister of Works and Buildings and First Commissioner of Works in 1940, Minister of Works and Planning in 1942, Minister of Works in 1943 and finally Minister of Public Buildings and Works in 1962. On 15 October 1970 the Ministry was amalgamated in the Department of the Environment.

First Lord of the Admiralty

The First Lord of the Admiralty, or formally the Office of the First Lord of the Admiralty, was the political head of the Royal Navy who was the government's senior adviser on all naval affairs and responsible for the direction and control of Admiralty Department as well as general administration of the Naval Service of the United Kingdom, that encompassed the Royal Navy, the Royal Marines and other services. It was one of the earliest known permanent government posts. Apart from being the political head of the Royal Navy the post holder simultaneously held the title of the President of the Board of Commissioners for Exercising the Office of Lord High Admiral (known as the Board of Admiralty). The office of First Lord of the Admiralty existed from 1628 until it was abolished when the Admiralty, Air Ministry, Ministry of Defence and War Office were all merged to form the new Ministry of Defence in 1964.

Home Secretary

Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Home Department, normally referred to as the Home Secretary, is a senior official as one of the Great Offices of State within Her Majesty's Government and head of the Home Office. It is a British Cabinet level position.

The Home Secretary is responsible for the internal affairs of England and Wales, and for immigration and citizenship for the United Kingdom. The remit of the Home Office also includes policing in England and Wales and matters of national security, as the Security Service (MI5) is directly accountable to the Home Secretary. Formerly, the Home Secretary was the minister responsible for prisons and probation in England and Wales; however in 2007 those responsibilities were transferred to the newly created Ministry of Justice under the Lord Chancellor. A high profile position, it is widely recognised as one of the most prestigious and important roles in the British Cabinet.

The position of Home Secretary has been held by Sajid Javid since 30 April 2018.

List of Prime Ministers of New Zealand

The Prime Minister of New Zealand is the head of government of New Zealand, and the leader of the Cabinet of New Zealand, with various powers and responsibilities defined by convention. Officially, the prime minister is appointed by the governor-general of New Zealand, but by convention, the prime minister must have the confidence of the elected New Zealand House of Representatives. The prime minister is always a member of parliament, and is usually the leader of the largest political party in the House.

This list includes individuals who held the titles of colonial secretary and premier, the direct predecessors to the modern office. The title of the office was formally changed to "premier" in 1869, and then to "prime minister" in 1907 when New Zealand was granted Dominion status in the British Empire. Forty individuals have so far held the premiership,not including acting prime ministers. Henry Sewell is regarded as New Zealand's first premier. Nine prime ministers have held the position for more than one discrete term in office. The longest single term in office was that of Richard Seddon, who held the position for thirteen years between 1893 and 1906. The incumbent Prime Minister is Jacinda Ardern, who assumed office on 26 October 2017.

List of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom

The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the Government of the United Kingdom, and chairs Cabinet meetings. There is no specific date for when the office of Prime Minister first appeared, as the role was not created but rather evolved over a period of time through a merger of duties. The term had been used in the House of Commons as early as 1805, and it was certainly in parliamentary use by the 1880s. In 1905 the post of Prime Minister was officially given recognition in the order of precedence. Modern historians generally consider Sir Robert Walpole, who led the government of Great Britain for over twenty years from 1721, as the first Prime Minister. Walpole is also the longest-serving British prime minister by this definition. However, Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman was the first and Margaret Thatcher the longest-serving Prime Minister officially referred to as such in the order of precedence. The first to officially use the title was Benjamin Disraeli, who signed the Treaty of Berlin as "Prime Minister of her Britannic Majesty" in 1878.Strictly, the first Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (of Great Britain and Ireland) was William Pitt the Younger. The first Prime Minister of the current United Kingdom, i.e. the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, was Bonar Law, although the country was not renamed officially until 1927, when Stanley Baldwin was the serving Prime Minister.Due to the gradual evolution of the post of Prime Minister, the title is applied to early prime ministers only retrospectively; this has sometimes given rise to academic dispute. Lord Bath and Lord Waldegrave are sometimes listed as prime ministers. Bath was invited to form a ministry by George II when Henry Pelham resigned in 1746, as was Waldegrave in 1757 after the dismissal of William Pitt the Elder, who dominated the affairs of government during the Seven Years' War. Neither was able to command sufficient parliamentary support to form a government; Bath stepped down after two days, and Waldegrave after three. Modern academic consensus does not consider either man to have held office as Prime Minister, and they are therefore not listed.

Lord-Lieutenant of Lincolnshire

The Lord-Lieutenant of Lincolnshire () is the British monarch's personal representative in the county of Lincolnshire. Historically, the lord-lieutenant was responsible for organising the county's militia. In 1871, the lord-lieutenant's responsibility over the local militia was removed. However, it was not until 1921 that they formally lost the right to call upon able-bodied men to fight when needed. Since 1660, all lord-lieutenants have also been Custos Rotulorum of Lincolnshire.

The lord-lieutenancy is now an honorary titular position, usually awarded to a retired notable person in the county. Until 1975, this had been awarded to a peer connected to the county.

Lord President of the Council

The Lord President of the Council is the fourth of the Great Officers of State of the United Kingdom, ranking below the Lord High Treasurer but above the Lord Privy Seal. The Lord President usually attends and is responsible for presiding over meetings of the Privy Council, presenting business for the monarch's approval. In the modern era, the holder is by convention always a member of one of the Houses of Parliament, and the office is normally a Cabinet post.

Lord Privy Seal

The Lord Privy Seal (or, more formally, the Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal) is the fifth of the Great Officers of State in the United Kingdom, ranking beneath the Lord President of the Council and above the Lord Great Chamberlain. Originally, its holder was responsible for the monarch's personal (privy) seal (as opposed to the Great Seal of the Realm, which is in the care of the Lord Chancellor) until the use of such a seal became obsolete. The office is currently one of the traditional sinecure offices of state. Today, the holder of the office is invariably given a seat in the Cabinet of the United Kingdom.

Though one of the oldest offices in government anywhere, it has no particular function today because the use of a privy seal has been obsolete for centuries; thus the office has generally been used as a kind of minister without portfolio. Since the premiership of Clement Attlee, the position of Lord Privy Seal has frequently been combined with that of Leader of the House of Lords or Leader of the House of Commons. The office of Lord Privy Seal, unlike those of Leader of the Lords or Commons, is eligible for a ministerial salary under the Ministerial and other Salaries Act 1975. The office does not confer membership of the House of Lords, leading to Ernest Bevin's remark on holding this office that he was "neither a Lord, nor a Privy, nor a Seal".During the reign of Edward I, prior to 1307, the Privy Seal was kept by the Controller of the Wardrobe. The Lord Privy Seal was the president of the Court of Requests during its existence.

Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food

The Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food was a United Kingdom cabinet position, responsible for the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. The post was originally named President of the Board of Agriculture and was created in 1889. In 1903, an Act was passed to transfer to the new styled Board of Agriculture and Fisheries certain powers and duties relating to the fishing industry, and the post was renamed President of the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries.

In 1919, it was renamed Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries. In 1954, the separate position of Minister of Food was merged into the post and it was renamed Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Successive Prime Ministers asked the Minister to upgrade the Ministry to a Department of State taking the title 'Secretary of State', but all refused.On 8 June 2001, the Ministry merged with Secretary of State for the Environment into the office of Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. However, the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food was not formally abolished until The Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (Dissolution) Order 2002 (S.I. 2002/794) came into force on 27 March 2002.

Until the Dissolution Order also made the necessary amendments to the law when it did come into force, many statutory functions were still vested in the holder of the office of Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, rather in the Secretary of State at large. For that reason, in a final twist, Margaret Beckett had to be appointed formally as the last ever Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food as well as becoming the first Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.

Secretary of State for Air

The Secretary of State for Air was a cabinet-level British position. The person holding this position was in charge of the Air Ministry. It was created on 10 January 1919 to manage the Royal Air Force. In 1946, the three posts of Secretary of State for War, First Lord of the Admiralty, and Secretary of State for Air became formally subordinated to that of Minister of Defence, which had itself been created in 1940 for the co-ordination of defence and security issues. On 1 April 1964, the Air Ministry was incorporated into the newly-created united Ministry of Defence, and the position of Secretary of State for Air was abolished.

Secretary of State for Defence

Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Defence (Defence Secretary) is an official within Her Majesty's Government and head of the Ministry of Defence. The office is a British Cabinet–level position.

The post was created in 1964 as successor to the posts of Minister for Coordination of Defence (1936–1940) and Minister of Defence (1940–1964). It replaced the positions of First Lord of the Admiralty, Secretary of State for War, and Secretary of State for Air, as the Admiralty, War Office and Air Ministry were merged into the Ministry of Defence (the Secretary of State for War had already ceased to be a cabinet position in 1946, with the creation of the cabinet-level Minister of Defence).

Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs

Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, normally referred to as the Foreign Secretary, is a senior, high-ranking official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. The Foreign Secretary is a member of the Cabinet, and the post is considered one of the Great Offices of State. It is considered a position similar to that of Foreign Minister in other countries. The Foreign Secretary reports directly to the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

The Foreign Secretary's remit includes: relations with foreign countries, matters pertaining to the Commonwealth of Nations and the Overseas Territories in addition to the promotion of British interests abroad. The Foreign Secretary also has ministerial oversight for the Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) and the Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ). The Foreign Secretary works out of the Foreign Office in Whitehall, and the post's official residences are 1 Carlton Gardens in London and Chevening in Kent. Margaret Beckett, appointed in 2006 by Tony Blair, is the only woman to have held the post.

The current Foreign Secretary is Jeremy Hunt, following Boris Johnson's resignation on 9 July 2018.

Secretary of State for India

His (or Her) Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for India, known for short as the India Secretary or the Indian Secretary, was the British Cabinet minister and the political head of the India Office responsible for the governance of the British Indian Empire (usually known simply as 'the Raj' or British India), Aden, and Burma. The post was created in 1858 when the East India Company's rule in Bengal ended and India, except for the Princely States, was brought under the direct administration of the government in Whitehall in London, beginning the official colonial period under the British Empire.

In 1937, the India Office was reorganised which separated Burma and Aden under a new Burma Office, but the same Secretary of State headed both Departments and a new title was established as His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for India and Burma. The India Office and its Secretary of State were abolished in August 1947, when the United Kingdom granted independence in the Indian Independence Act, which created two new independent dominions, the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan. Burma soon achieved independence separately in early 1948.

Secretary of State for Scotland

Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Rùnaire Stàite na h-Alba, Scots: Secretar o State for Scotland) is the principal minister of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland representing Scotland. They head the Scotland Office (formerly the Scottish Office), a government department based in London and Edinburgh.

Secretary of State for the Colonies

The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet minister in charge of managing the United Kingdom's various colonial dependencies.

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