The Oval

The Oval, known for sponsorship reasons as the Kia Oval,[2][3] is an international cricket ground in Kennington, in the London Borough of Lambeth, in south London.[4] The Oval has been the home ground of Surrey County Cricket Club since it was opened in 1845.[5][6][7] It was the first ground in England to host international Test cricket in September 1880.[8][9] The final Test match of the English season is traditionally played there.

In addition to cricket, The Oval has hosted a number of other historically significant sporting events. In 1870, it staged England's first international football match, versus Scotland.[10] It hosted the first FA Cup final in 1872,[11][12] as well as those between 1874[13] and 1892.[14] In 1876, it held both the England v. Wales and England v. Scotland rugby international matches and, in 1877, rugby's first varsity match.[15] It also hosted the final of the 2017 ICC Champions Trophy.

The Oval
Kia Oval Pavilion
The Oval Pavilion
Ground information
LocationKennington, London, United Kingdom
OwnerDuchy of Cornwall
OperatorSurrey County Cricket Club
TenantsSurrey County Cricket Club
End names
Vauxhall End

Pavilion End
International information
First Test6–8 September 1880:
 England v  Australia
Last Test7–11 September 2018:
 England v  India
First ODI7 September 1973:
 England v  West Indies
Last ODI15 June 2019:
 Australia v  Sri Lanka
First T20I28 June 2007:
 England v  West Indies
Last T20I20 May 2014:
 England v  Sri Lanka
First women's Test10–13 July 1937:
 England v  Australia
Last women's Test24–28 July 1976:
 England v  Australia
Only WT20I19 June 2009:
 England v  Australia
Team information
Surrey (1846–present)
Corinthian-Casuals (football) (1950–1963)
As of 15 June 2019
Source: ESPNcricinfo


The Oval Clock
The clock by the Members' entrance

The Oval is built on part of the former Kennington Common. Cricket matches were played on the common throughout the early 18th century. The earliest recorded first-class match was the London v Dartford match on 18 June 1724.[16] However, as the common was also used regularly for public executions of those convicted at the Surrey Assizes (it was the south London equivalent of Tyburn), cricket matches had moved away to the Artillery Ground by the 1740s. Kennington Common was eventually enclosed in the mid 19th century under a scheme sponsored by the Royal Family.

In 1844, the site of the Kennington Oval was a market garden[17] owned by the Duchy of Cornwall.[18][19] The Duchy was willing to lease the land for the purpose of a cricket ground, and on 10 March 1845 the first lease, which the club later assumed, was issued to Mr. William Houghton (then president of the progenitor Montpelier Cricket Club) by the Otter Trustees who held the land from the Duchy "to convert it into a subscription cricket ground",[20] for 31 years at a rent of £120 per annum[21] plus taxes amounting to £20.[22] The original contract for turfing The Oval cost £300;[21] the 10,000 grass turfs came from Tooting Common and were laid in the Spring of 1845[19][20] allowing for the first cricket match to be played in May 1845. Hence, Surrey County Cricket Club (SCCC) was established in 1845.[5][20][23][24]

The popularity of the ground was immediate and the strength of the SCCC grew. On 3 May 1875 the club acquired the remainder of the leasehold for a further term of 31 years from the Otter Trustees for the sum of £2,800.[25]

In 1868, 20,000 spectators gathered at The Oval for the first game of the 1868 Aboriginal cricket tour of England, the first tour of England by any foreign side.[26] Thanks to C.W. Alcock, the Secretary of Surrey from 1872 to 1907,[27] the first Test match in England was played at The Oval in 1880 between England and Australia. The Oval, thereby, became the second ground to stage a Test, after Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG).[28] In 1882, Australia won the Test by seven runs within two days. The Sporting Times printed a mocking obituary notice[29] for English cricket, which led to the creation of the Ashes trophy, which is still contested whenever England plays Australia.[30] The first Test double century was scored at The Oval in 1884 by Australia's Billy Murdoch.[31]

Surrey's ground is noted as having the first artificial lighting at a sports arena, in the form of gas-lamps, dating to 1889.[32] The current pavilion was completed in time for the 1898 season.[21][33]

In 1907, South Africa became the second visiting Test team to play a Test match at the ground. In 1928, the West Indies played its first Test match at The Oval, followed by New Zealand in 1931. In 1936, India became the fifth foreign visiting Test side to play at The Oval, followed by Pakistan in 1954 and Sri Lanka in 1998.[34] Zimbabwe and Bangladesh have yet to play a Test match at The Oval.[35][36]

Cricket, WG Grace, 1891- Kennington Oval
Cricket, WG Grace, 1891– Kennington Oval

The Oval is referenced by the poet Philip Larkin in his poem about the First World War, "MCMXIV".[37] During World War II, The Oval was requisitioned, initially housing anti-aircraft searchlights. It was then turned into a prisoner-of-war camp, intended to hold enemy parachutists. However, as they never came, The Oval was never actually used for this purpose.[38]

The first One Day International match at this venue was played on 7 September 1973 between England and West Indies.[39] It hosted matches of the 1975, 1979, 1983, and 1999 World Cups.[40] It also hosted five of the fifteen matches in the 2004 ICC Champions Trophy, including the final.[41] The Oval once held the record for the largest playing area of any Test venue in the world. That record has since been surpassed by Gaddafi Stadium in Pakistan, although The Oval remains the largest in Great Britain.

Billionaire Paul Getty, who had a great affinity for cricket and was at one time SCCC President, built a replica of The Oval on his Wormsley Park estate.[42]

The famous gasholders just outside the ground were built around 1853.[43] With the gasholders long disused, there was much speculation as to whether they should be demolished; however, many believe they are an integral part of The Oval's urban landscape and, therefore, their future looks secure. In 2016 the main gasholder was given official protected status as a historically important industrial structure.[44]

On 20 August 2006, The Oval saw the first time a team forfeited a Test match. Pakistan were upset after umpires Darrell Hair and Billy Doctrove docked them five runs and changed the ball after ruling that the team had tampered with it on the fourth day of the final Test against England. Pakistan debated the matter during the tea break and then refused to come out for the final session in protest. By the time they relented and decided to resume, the umpires had already called time on the match and awarded the game to England by default.[45][46]

The Oval hosted its hundredth Test, against South Africa, on 27 July, 2017, becoming the fourth Test venue in the world after Lord's, MCG and SCG to do so.[47] Moeen Ali also became the first player to ever take a Test hat-trick at The Oval, bowling out South Africa in the second innings to win the match.[48]

In Tests, the highest team score at The Oval is 903/7 declared by England against Australia on 20 August, 1938. The leading run scorers are Len Hutton (1,521 runs), Alastair Cook (1,217 runs) and Graham Gooch (1,097 runs). The leading wicket takers are Ian Botham (52 wickets), Derek Underwood (45 wickets) and James Anderson (44 wickets).

In ODIs, the highest team score at The Oval is 398/5 by New Zealand against England on 12 June 2015. The leading ODI run scorers are Eoin Morgan (573 runs), Marcus Trescothick (528 runs) and Joe Root (480 runs). The leading ODI wicket takers are James Anderson (30 wickets), Darren Gough (13 wickets) and Andrew Flintoff (12 wickets).

End names

The north-western end of The Oval is traditionally known as the Vauxhall End, as it is nearer to the district of Vauxhall and its railway station.[49][50] The opposite end (south-east) is known as the Pavilion End as it is the location of the Members' Pavilion.[49]

21st-century redevelopment

OCS Stand (Surrey v Yorkshire in foreground)
Surrey v Yorkshire (OCS stand in background)

At the end of the 2002 cricket season, Surrey started redeveloping the Vauxhall End.[51] The development included demolishing the outdated Surridge, Fender, Jardine, and Peter May north stands, and creating in their place a single four-tier grandstand, currently known as the OCS stand,[52] as it is sponsored by Outsourced Client Solutions International Facilities Management Services. This work was completed in May 2005 and increased ground capacity to around 23,000.[53]

In January 2007, Surrey CCC, announced plans to increase capacity by a further 2,000 seats, this time by redeveloping the Pavilion End. The Lock, Laker, and Peter May south stands were to be replaced by a new stand, which would have a hotel backing on to it.[54] The Surrey Tavern at the entrance to the ground would be demolished, and a new pedestrian plaza would be created in its place, improving access to the ground and opening up views of the historic pavilion.[54] These plans were delayed by objections raised by the Health & Safety Executive as the ground is close to a gasometer. Planning permission was eventually granted, but not before the credit crunch struck, as a result of which the plans were not proceeded with.

In 2009, four masts of semi-permanent telescopic floodlights costing £3.7m were installed for use in late-day through evening matches.[55] The floodlights were especially designed to comply with strict residential planning regulations to lessen their visual impact and any light overspill to residents, as well as to improve the game experience within the ground by reducing excess glare that can affect players, umpires, broadcasters and spectators. Precision reflector systems were fitted for tight beam control to decrease overspill and direct light only where needed. Each mast was made extendable to a maximum height of 47.6 metres (156 ft) and, when not in use, retractable to 30 m (98 ft). At the end of each season, all four masts can be removed and stored away.[56][57][58]

After the 2013 season, a new project was started to add 'wings' to either side of the OCS Stand at the Vauxhall End of the ground. The development was finished in time for the start of the 2014 season. Each 'wing' added 500 seats, increasing the capacity from 23,500 to 24,500.[59]

In September 2015, the Peter May and Tony Lock stands were demolished, to be replaced by a single new and much larger stand named after Peter May. May led Surrey to their sixth and seventh consecutive County Championships in 1957 and 1958 and also captained England from 1955 to 1961, winning the Ashes in 1956. Construction of the new stand, which cost around £10m, began in September 2015. It officially opened on 15 May 2016, increasing the capacity of the ground by 1,300 seats to 25,300.[60]

Following the demolition of the Tony Lock stand, the club renamed the Laker Stand as the Lock/Laker Stand, continuing to honour the contribution made by the spin partnership of Tony Lock and Jim Laker, who collectively took 3,108 wickets for the club.[61]


The Oval is also an important site in the historical development of football in England, before a separate national stadium was constructed specifically for the sport. Football had been played in this part of London for many years prior to the inauguration of The Oval: "The Gymnastic Society", arguably the world's first football club, met regularly at Kennington Common during the second half of the eighteenth century to play the game.[62] Between 1950 and 1963 amateur club Corinthian Casuals played at The Oval,[63] with the pitch at the Vauxhall End.[64]

First international football match

The Oval was the venue for the first representative football match in the world on 5 March 1870, England against Scotland, organised by The Football Association.[65][66] The game resulted in a 1–1 draw, but is not recognised by FIFA as the first ever official international match because the Scotland team was selected only from London-based Scottish players. Similar representative international matches between England and Scotland took place at The Oval until February 1872.

On 8 March 1873, the England national team beat Scotland 4–2 in the first officially recognised international match to be played in England. England continued to play occasionally at The Oval until 1889.[67]

Scores and results list England's goal tally first.
Date Result Opponent Competition Winner
5 March 1870 1–1 Scotland Scotland Friendly (unofficial) Draw
19 November 1870 1–0 Scotland Scotland Friendly (unofficial) England
25 February 1871 1–1 Scotland Scotland Friendly (unofficial) Draw
17 November 1871 2–1 Scotland Scotland Friendly (unofficial) England
24 February 1872 1–0 Scotland Scotland Friendly (unofficial) England
8 March 1873 4–2 Scotland Scotland Friendly England
6 March 1875 2–2 Scotland Scotland Friendly Draw
3 March 1877 1–3 Scotland Scotland Friendly Scotland
19 January 1879 2–1 Wales Wales Friendly England
5 April 1879 5–4 Scotland Scotland Friendly England
12 March 1881 1–6 Scotland Scotland Friendly Scotland
3 February 1883 5–0 Wales Wales Friendly England
21 March 1885 1–1 Scotland Scotland Home International Draw
26 February 1887 4–0 Wales Wales Home International England
13 April 1889 2–3 Scotland Scotland Home International Scotland

First FA Cup final

The Oval was the site of the first ever FA Cup final, and also both semi-final matches. On 16 March 1872, The Wanderers beat the Royal Engineers 1–0 to win the first ever FA Cup. This final was notable for the Engineers' then innovative footballing style of teamwork rather than individual play.[68] C. W. Alcock, Secretary of The Football Association, was the prime mover in the creation of the competition. He had also just become Secretary of Surrey CCC, so The Oval was the natural choice of venue for the final. Alcock was also captain of the successful Wanderers side.

Apart from 1873 The Oval hosted all subsequent FA Cup finals until 1892.

The Oval is one of two grounds (Bramall Lane in Sheffield being the other) to have staged England football and cricket internationals and FA Cup finals.

The Oval also hosted the first Rugby Union international match to be held in England, between England and Scotland, in 1872.

Results of FA Cup finals at The Oval

Year Attendance Winner Runner-up Notes
1872 2,000 Wanderers 1 Royal Engineers 0
1874 2,000 Oxford University 2 Royal Engineers 0
1875 3,000 Royal Engineers 1 Old Etonians 1
Replay 3,000 Royal Engineers 2 Old Etonians 0
1876 3,500 Wanderers 1 Old Etonians 1
Replay 1,500 Wanderers 3 Old Etonians 0
1877 3,000 Wanderers 2 Oxford University 1
1878 4,500 Wanderers 3 Royal Engineers 1
1879 5,000 Old Etonians 1 Clapham Rovers 0
1880 6,000 Clapham Rovers 1 Oxford University 0
1881 4,500 Old Carthusians 3 Old Etonians 0
1882 6,500 Old Etonians 1 Blackburn Rovers 0
1883 8,000 Blackburn Olympic 2 Old Etonians 1
1884 12,000 Blackburn Rovers 2 Queen's Park 1
1885 12,500 Blackburn Rovers 2 Queen's Park 0
1886 15,000 Blackburn Rovers 0 West Bromwich Albion 0 2–0 in the replay at the Racecourse Ground, Derby
1887 15,500 Aston Villa 2 West Bromwich Albion 0
1888 19,000 West Bromwich Albion 2 Preston North End 1
1889 22,000 Preston North End 3 Wolverhampton Wanderers 0
1890 20,000 Blackburn Rovers 6 Sheffield Wednesday 1
1891 23,000 Blackburn Rovers 3 Notts County 1
1892 32,810 West Bromwich Albion 3 Aston Villa 0


Fußballgeschichte (1872)
An illustration of an 1872 England vs Scotland rugby match. The background right shows the distinctive gas holder of The Oval

Between 1872 and 1879, The Oval held the following seven full cap international rugby union matches:

Date Competition Home team Away team
5 February 1872  England 1G  Scotland 2G
23 February 1874  England 1G  Scotland 0G
15 February 1875  England 2G  Ireland 0G
6 March 1876  England 1G  Scotland 0G
5 February 1877 1877 Home Nations Championship  England 2G  Ireland 0G
4 March 1878 1878 Home Nations Championship  England 0G  Scotland 0G
24 March 1879 1879 Home Nations Championship  England 3G  Ireland 0G

On Wednesday 3 March 1875, The Oval held the final of the United Hospitals Challenge Cup, the oldest rugby union cup competition in the world.

Conferences and events

As well as being an international sporting venue, The Oval has a conference and events business. The Corinthian Roof Terrace built on the OCS Stand in 2013 features panoramic views of the London skyline.

Other events

The ground has also hosted other events, including hockey fixtures and concerts.

The Oval has hosted exhibition matches for Australian rules football. The first such match was held between Carlton and a team of All-Stars in 1972.[69] In 1987, the Oval hosted what became known as the Battle of Britain between Carlton and North Melbourne, which included numerous fights and future multiple AFL Premiership coach Alastair Clarkson, at the time only a teenager, breaking Ian Aitken’s jaw. In 2005, a record crowd for Australian rules football in England (18,884) saw Fremantle defeat the West Coast Eagles in the Western Derby (thus far, the only edition of the fixture to not be played in Perth). In 2012, approximately 10,000 attended a post-season exhibition match between Port Adelaide and the Western Bulldogs, which Port Adelaide won by 1 point.[70]

In 2011, ahead of an NFL International Series game at Wembley Stadium, the Chicago Bears used The Oval as a practice facility.[71]

Oval gasometer and gasworks

A nearby Victorian gasometer has been a feature of the view from the ground since the 1800s. A movement to preserve iconic gasometers across Britain has emerged in recent years with the one visible from The Oval often cited as a landmark example. The skeletal but decorative structure is a landmark in the area and has become part of The Oval's history and allure. The famed cricket commentator Henry Blofeld once said in a broadcast, "As the bowler runs in, it’s so quiet you can hear the creak of the gasometer." When plans to demolish the aging structure were announced in 2013, he stated: “In comparison, pulling down the Victoria Memorial in front of Buckingham Palace would be child’s play.”[72]

Transport connections

Service Station/Stop Lines/Routes served Distance
London Buses London Buses Oval Station 36, 185, 436 100 metres (330 ft)
Camberwell New Road 155, 333 200 metres (660 ft)[73]
Oval Station 155, 333 190 metres (620 ft)[74]
London Underground London Underground Oval Northern line 190 metres (620 ft)
Vauxhall Victoria line 850 metres (2,790 ft)[75]
National Rail National Rail South Western Railway

See also


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External links

Media related to The Oval cricket ground, London at Wikimedia Commons

Preceded by
FA Cup
Final Venue

Succeeded by
Lillie Bridge
Preceded by
Lillie Bridge
FA Cup
Final Venue

Succeeded by

Coordinates: 51°29′1″N 0°6′54″W / 51.48361°N 0.11500°W

2009 ICC World Twenty20

The 2009 ICC World Twenty20 was an international Twenty20 cricket tournament which took place in England in June 2009. It was the second ICC World Twenty20 tournament, following the inaugural event in South Africa in September 2007. As before, the tournament featured 12 all-male teams – nine of the ten Test-playing nations and three associate nations, which earned their places through a qualification tournament. Matches were played at three English grounds – Lord's and The Oval in London, and Trent Bridge in Nottingham. The tournament was organised in parallel with the women's tournament, with the men's semi-finals and final being preceded by the semi-finals and final from the women's event. The final took place at Lord's on Sunday 21 June with Pakistan beating Sri Lanka by eight wickets and England beating New Zealand by six wickets in the women's final.

2013 ICC Champions Trophy

The 2013 ICC Champions Trophy was a One Day International cricket tournament held in England and Wales between 6 and 23 June 2013. Three cities hosted the tournament's matches: London (at The Oval), Birmingham (at Edgbaston) and Cardiff (at Sophia Gardens, known as Cardiff Wales Stadium for the tournament).

India won the competition, beating England by five runs in the final after overcoming South Africa, the West Indies and Pakistan in the group stage, followed by a semi-final victory over Sri Lanka. As winners, India earned $2 million in prize money, the largest amount since the tournament's inception. It was due to be the seventh and final ICC Champions Trophy, to be replaced by the ICC World Test Championship in 2017, but in January 2014, it was instead confirmed by the ICC that a Champions Trophy tournament would take place in 2017, with the proposed Test Championship being cancelled.

Australian cricket team in England in 1882

The 1882 Australia v England series was at the time considered to be part of another first-class cricket tour of England, by a combined team from the Australian colonies, but the match arranged between the Australians and an England side was later accepted to be a Test match. Although it was not known at the time, the one-off match played at The Oval in south London would become the birth of The Ashes.

The English side had lost the previous tour to Australia, but had remained undefeated at home by visiting Australian sides. Australian victory for the first time in England was widely condemned in the English press, including the publication of a satirical obituary which stated that English cricket had died, and the body will be cremated and the ashes taken to Australia. The English media then dubbed the next English tour to Australia in 1882–83 as the quest to regain The Ashes.

Despite the Australia v England match later receiving Test status, and being the match that triggered the birth of The Ashes, the 1882 match is not considered to be part of The Ashes since it precedes the introduction of the trophy.

Bedworth United F.C.

Bedworth United Football Club is a football club based in Bedworth, Warwickshire, England. They are currently members of the Southern League Division One Central and play at the Oval.


The cochlea is the part of the inner ear involved in hearing. It is a spiral-shaped cavity in the bony labyrinth, in humans making 2 turns(full) and a 3/4(3 quarters) turn around its axis, the modiolus. A core component of the cochlea is the Organ of Corti, the sensory organ of hearing, which is distributed along the partition separating fluid chambers in the coiled tapered tube of the cochlea.

The name cochlea derives from Ancient Greek κοχλίας (kōhlias), meaning 'spiral, snail shell'.

Gentlemen v Players

Gentlemen v Players was a long-running series of English first-class cricket matches, between teams consisting of amateur (Gentlemen) and professional cricketers (Players). Two matches were played in 1806, but the fixture was not repeated until 1819. Thereafter it was played most years between 1819 and 1962, typically twice each summer.

The distinction between the two teams arose from the English class structure of the 19th century: originally the Players were working class cricketers who earned their living through the game, whilst the Gentlemen were middle- and upper-class, usually products of the public school system, who played cricket for leisure. Whereas the Players were paid wages by their county clubs or fees by match organisers, the Gentlemen nominally only claimed expenses. Rules to distinguish amateurs from professionals were established by the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC). The system of allowable expenses was controversial; some leading amateurs were paid more for playing cricket than any professional.

The fixture struggled to gain public interest during the mid-19th century, as the Players often easily defeated the Gentlemen. Various efforts to improve competitiveness were tried, including different-sized wickets for each team and a system of 'given men', in which the Players would loan one or more of their best players to the Gentlemen. These were generally unsuccessful, with the Players continuing to win most matches. The fixtures became more competitive and gained prestige in the late 1800s, coinciding with the career of W. G. Grace, who played for the Gentlemen with great success. During the period 1860-1914, the fixture was seen as one of the highlights of the cricket season.

The increasing popularity of international Test cricket (which began in 1877) saw interest in Gentlemen v Players begin to decline, a process accelerated by the weakening of the social class system in the 20th century. After the Second World War, the concepts of amateurism and selecting teams based on social class were seen as increasingly anachronistic. In 1963, the MCC abolished amateur status, causing all first-class cricketers to become professionals. As the official distinction between the teams no longer existed, the Gentlemen v Players fixture was discontinued. No direct substitute was implemented, instead England's first domestic one day cricket competition began that summer.

A total of 274 Gentlemen v Players matches were held from 1806-1962, with the Players winning 125 and the Gentlemen 68; there were 80 draws and one tie.

Irish Cup

The Irish Football Association Challenge Cup (also known as the Tennent's Irish Cup for sponsorship purposes) is the primary football knock-out cup competition in Northern Ireland. Inaugurated in 1881, it is the fourth-oldest national cup competition in the world. Prior to the break-away from the Irish Football Association by clubs from what would become the Irish Free State in 1921, the Irish Cup was the national cup competition for the whole of Ireland.

Since December 2015, the cup has been sponsored by Tennent's Lager – the competition's first title sponsor since 2012. It was previously sponsored by Nationwide Building Society, Bass Ireland Ltd and JJB Sports. 126 clubs entered the 2018–19 competition.

Crusaders are the current holders, having defeated second-tier side Ballinamallard United 3–0 in the 2019 final to lift the Cup for the fourth time overall, and the first time in the 10 years since winning the 2009 final.

List of England national rugby union players

List of England national rugby union players is a list of people who have played for the England national rugby union team. The list only includes players who have played in a Test match.

Note that the "position" column lists the position at which the player made his Test debut, not necessarily the position for which he is best known. For example, Jonny Wilkinson made his Test debut off the bench as a wing, but is more famous as a fly-half. A position in parentheses indicates that the player debuted as a substitute.

Ohio State University

The Ohio State University (OSU), commonly referred to as Ohio State, is a large public research university in Columbus, Ohio. Founded in 1870 as a land-grant university and the ninth university in Ohio with the Morrill Act of 1862, the university was originally known as the Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College (Mech). The college began with a focus on training students in various agricultural and mechanical disciplines but it developed into a comprehensive university under the direction of then-Governor (later, President) Rutherford B. Hayes, and in 1878 the Ohio General Assembly passed a law changing the name to "The Ohio State University". It has since grown into the third-largest university campus in the United States. Along with its main campus in Columbus, Ohio State also operates regional campuses in Lima, Mansfield, Marion, Newark, and Wooster.

The university has an extensive student life program, with over 1,000 student organizations; intercollegiate, club and recreational sports programs; student media organizations and publications, fraternities and sororities; and three student governments. Ohio State athletic teams compete in Division I (Football Bowl Subdivision for football) of the NCAA and are known as the Ohio State Buckeyes. Athletes from Ohio State have won 100 Olympic medals (46 gold, 35 silver, and 23 bronze). The university is a member of the Big Ten Conference for the majority of sports. The Ohio State men's ice hockey program competes in the Big Ten Conference, while its women's hockey program competes in the Western Collegiate Hockey Association. In addition, the OSU men's volleyball team is a member of the Midwestern Intercollegiate Volleyball Association (MIVA). OSU is one of only 15 universities that plays Division I FBS football and Division I ice hockey.

Olympic Oval

The Olympic Oval in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, is North America's first covered speed skating oval; it was built for the 1988 Winter Olympics and opened 32 years ago on September 27, 1987. Located on the University of Calgary campus, it is the official designated training centre for Speed Skating Canada and the Elite Athlete Pathway.

Oval Office

The Oval Office is, since 1909, the working office space of the president of the United States, located in the West Wing of the White House, Washington, D.C.

Opened in 1909, the room features three large south-facing windows behind the president's desk, and a fireplace at the north end. It has four doors: the east door opens to the Rose Garden; the west door leads to a private study and dining room; the northwest door opens onto the main corridor of the West Wing; and the northeast door opens to the office of the president's secretary.

Presidents generally decorate the office to suit their personal taste, choosing new furniture, new drapery, and designing their own oval-shaped carpet to take up most of the floor. Artwork is selected from the White House's own collection, or borrowed from museums for the president's term in office.

Richard Nixon's resignation speech

Richard Nixon's resignation speech was an address made on August 8, 1974, by President of the United States Richard Nixon to the American public. It was delivered in the Oval Office. The purpose of the speech was for Nixon, who had been intimately involved in the events surrounding the Watergate scandal that occurred during his controversial re-election campaign in 1972, to announce to the nation that he was resigning from office. Watergate had cost Nixon much of his political support, and at the time of his resignation, he faced almost certain impeachment and removal from office.

Nixon was the ninth incumbent president not to complete the four-year term to which they had been elected since the presidency was established in 1789. He was however, the first to do so for a reason other than dying in office. His presidential resignation remains the only one in U.S. history.


The stapes or stirrup is a bone in the middle ear of humans and other mammals which is involved in the conduction of sound vibrations to the inner ear. The stirrup-shaped small bone is on and transmits these to the oval window, medially. The stapes is the smallest and lightest named bone in the human body, and is so-called because of its resemblance to a stirrup (Latin: Stapes).

Surrey County Cricket Club

Surrey County Cricket Club is one of eighteen first-class county clubs within the domestic cricket structure of England and Wales. It represents the historic county of Surrey and also South London. The club was founded in 1845 but teams representing the county have played top-class cricket since the early 18th century and the club has always held first-class status. Surrey have competed in the County Championship since the official start of the competition in 1890 and have played in every top-level domestic cricket competition in England.Home of the club since its foundation in 1845 has been The Oval (currently known officially as the 'Kia Oval' following a sponsorship deal with the Kia Motors company), in the Kennington area of Lambeth in South London. The club also has an 'out ground' at Woodbridge Road, Guildford, where some home games are played each season.

Surrey have had three notable periods of great success in their history. The club was unofficially proclaimed as "Champion County" seven times during the 1850s; it won the title eight times from 1887 to 1895 (including the first ever officially constituted County Championship in 1890); and seven consecutive outright titles from 1952 to 1958 inclusive following a shared title (with Lancashire) in 1950. In 1955, Surrey won 23 of its 28 county matches, a record that still stands and can no longer be bettered as counties have played fewer than 23 matches each season since 1993. To date, Surrey has won the official County Championship 19 times outright (and shared once), more than any other county with the exception of Yorkshire, with the most recent win being 2018.

The club's traditional badge is the Prince of Wales's feathers. In 1915, Lord Rosebery obtained permission to use this symbol from the Prince of Wales, hereditary owner of the land on which The Oval stands.

The Ashes

The Ashes is a Test cricket series played between England and Australia. The Ashes are regarded as being held by the team that most recently won the Test series. If the test series is drawn, the team that currently holds the Ashes retains the trophy. The term originated in a satirical obituary published in a British newspaper, The Sporting Times, immediately after Australia's 1882 victory at The Oval, its first Test win on English soil. The obituary stated that English cricket had died, and "the body will be cremated and the ashes taken to Australia". The mythical ashes immediately became associated with the 1882–83 series played in Australia, before which the English captain Ivo Bligh had vowed to "regain those ashes". The English media therefore dubbed the tour the quest to regain the Ashes.

After England had won two of the three Tests on the tour, a small urn was presented to Bligh by a group of Melbourne women including Florence Morphy, whom Bligh married within a year. The contents of the urn are reputed to be the ashes of a wooden bail, and were humorously described as "the ashes of Australian cricket". It is not clear whether that "tiny silver urn" is the same as the small terracotta urn given to the MCC by Bligh's widow after his death in 1927.

The urn has never been the official trophy of the Ashes series, having been a personal gift to Bligh. However, replicas of the urn are often held aloft by victorious teams as a symbol of their victory in an Ashes series. Since the 1998–99 Ashes series, a Waterford Crystal representation of the Ashes urn (called the Ashes Trophy) has been presented to the winners of an Ashes series as the official trophy of that series. Irrespective of which side holds the tournament, the urn remains in the MCC Museum at Lord's; it has however been taken to Australia to be put on touring display on two occasions: as part of the Australian Bicentenary celebrations in 1988, and to accompany the Ashes series in 2006–07.

An Ashes series is traditionally of five Tests, hosted in turn by England and Australia at least once every two years. There have been 70 Ashes series: Australia have won 33, England 32 and five series have been drawn. The 2019 Ashes series is being played in England, beginning on the 1st of August in Edgbaston, Birmingham. Australia currently hold the Ashes after winning the last series.

The Oval (Belfast)

The Oval is a football stadium in Belfast, Northern Ireland, which has been home to Glentoran F.C. since 1892. The Oval was bombed during the Belfast blitz of World War II, and was out of use until 1949 when it was rebuilt by the club along with supporters, who had jointly formed the 'Back to the Oval' committee. During their exile, the club played games at the ground of fellow Belfast club, Distillery - Grosvenor Park. It had a new stand built in 2000 but requires consistent maintenance to fulfill health and safety requirements and its capacity is currently restricted to 6,050. The Oval has occasionally hosted the final of the Irish Cup as well as hosting the final of the County Antrim Shield and the Setanta Cup.

The Oval Portrait

"The Oval Portrait" is a horror short story by American writer Edgar Allan Poe, involving the disturbing circumstances surrounding a portrait in a chateau. It is one of his shortest stories, filling only two pages in its initial publication in 1842.

Twin Ring Motegi

Twin Ring Motegi (ツインリンクもてぎ, Tsuin Rinku Motegi) is a motorsport race track located at Motegi, Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. Its name comes from the facility having two race tracks: a 2.493-kilometer (1.549 mi) oval and a 4.8-kilometer (2.98 mi) road course. It was built in 1997 by Honda, as part of the company's effort to bring the IndyCar Series to Japan, helping to increase their knowledge of American open-wheel racing.

Utah Olympic Oval

The Utah Olympic Oval is an indoor speed skating oval located 14 miles (23 km) southwest of Salt Lake City, in Kearns, Utah. The Oval was built for the 2002 Winter Olympics and it hosted the long track speed skating events for the 2002 games. Inside the facility the 400 meter skating track surrounds two international sized ice sheets, and is itself surrounded by a 442 meter running track. Due to its high altitude, 4,675 feet (1,425 m), and the associated low air resistance, ten Olympic records and nine world records were set at the Oval during the 2002 games, the largest number of world records ever set at one event.

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