The Observer

The Observer is a British newspaper published on Sundays. In the same place on the political spectrum as its sister papers The Guardian and The Guardian Weekly, whose parent company Guardian Media Group Limited acquired it in 1993, it takes a social liberal or social democratic line on most issues. First published in 1791, it is the world's oldest Sunday newspaper.[4]

The Observer
TheObserver2018
The Observer front page on 21 January 2018
TypeSunday newspaper
FormatOriginally broadsheet, Berliner (2006-2018),
tabloid (since 2018)[1]
Owner(s)Guardian Media Group
EditorPaul Webster
Founded4 December 1791
Political alignmentCentre-left[2]
LanguageEnglish
HeadquartersKings Place, 90 York Way, London
Circulation175,904 (as of March 2018)[3]
Sister newspapersThe Guardian,
The Guardian Weekly
ISSN0029-7712
OCLC number50230244
Websitetheguardian.com/observer
The Observer (International Edition)
ISSN9976-1971
OCLC number436604553

History

Origins

The first issue, published on 4 December 1791 by W.S. Bourne, was the world's first Sunday newspaper. Believing that the paper would be a means of wealth, Bourne instead soon found himself facing debts of nearly £1,600. Though early editions purported editorial independence, Bourne attempted to cut his losses and sell the title to the government. When this failed, Bourne's brother (a wealthy businessman) made an offer to the government, which also refused to buy the paper but agreed to subsidise it in return for influence over its editorial content. As a result, the paper soon took a strong line against radicals such as Thomas Paine, Francis Burdett and Joseph Priestley.

Nineteenth century

In 1807, the brothers decided to relinquish editorial control, naming Lewis Doxat as the new editor. Seven years later, the brothers sold The Observer to William Innell Clement, a newspaper proprietor who owned a number of publications. The paper continued to receive government subsidies during this period; in 1819, of the approximately 23,000 copies of the paper distributed weekly, approximately 10,000 were given away as "specimen copies", distributed by postmen who were paid to deliver them to "lawyers, doctors, and gentlemen of the town."[5] Yet the paper began to demonstrate a more independent editorial stance, criticising the authorities' handling of the events surrounding the Peterloo Massacre and defying an 1820 court order against publishing details of the trial of the Cato Street Conspirators, who were alleged to have plotted to murder members of the Cabinet. The woodcut pictures published of the stable and hayloft where the conspirators were arrested reflected a new stage of illustrated journalism that the newspaper pioneered during this time.

Clement maintained ownership of The Observer until his death in 1852. During that time, the paper supported parliamentary reform, but opposed a broader franchise and the Chartist leadership. After Doxat retired in 1857, Clement's heirs sold the paper to Joseph Snowe, who also took over the editor's chair. Under Snowe, the paper adopted a more liberal political stance, supporting the North during the American Civil War and endorsing universal manhood suffrage in 1866.[6] These positions contributed to a decline in circulation during this time.

In 1870, wealthy businessman Julius Beer bought the paper and appointed Edward Dicey as editor, whose efforts succeeded in reviving circulation. Though Beer's son Frederick became the owner upon Julius's death in 1880, he had little interest in the newspaper and was content to leave Dicey as editor until 1889. Henry Duff Traill took over the editorship after Dicey's departure, only to be replaced in 1891 by Frederick's wife, Rachel Beer, of the Sassoon family. Though circulation declined during her tenure, she remained as editor for thirteen years, combining it in 1893 with the editorship of The Sunday Times, a newspaper that she had also bought.[7]

Twentieth century

Upon Frederick's death in 1901, the paper was purchased by the newspaper magnate Lord Northcliffe. After maintaining the existing editorial leadership for a couple of years, in 1908 Northcliffe named James Louis Garvin as editor. Garvin quickly turned the paper into an organ of political influence, boosting circulation from 5,000 to 40,000 within a year of his arrival as a result. Yet the revival in the paper's fortunes masked growing political disagreements between Garvin and Northcliffe. These disagreements ultimately led Northcliffe to sell the paper to William Waldorf Astor in 1911, who transferred ownership to his son Waldorf Astor, 2nd Viscount Astor four years later.

During this period, the Astors were content to leave the control of the paper in Garvin's hands. Under his editorship circulation reached 200,000 during the interwar years, a figure which Garvin fought to maintain even during the depths of the Great Depression. Politically the paper pursued an independent Conservative stance, which eventually brought Garvin into conflict with Waldorf's more liberal son David Astor. Their conflict contributed to Garvin's departure as editor in 1942, after which the paper took the unusual step of declaring itself non-partisan.

Ownership passed to Waldorf's sons in 1948, with David taking over as editor. He remained in the position for 27 years, during which time he turned it into a trust-owned newspaper employing, among others, George Orwell, Paul Jennings and C. A. Lejeune. Under Astor's editorship The Observer became the first national newspaper to oppose the government's 1956 invasion of Suez, a move which cost it many readers. In 1977, the Astors sold the ailing newspaper to US oil giant Atlantic Richfield (now called ARCO) who sold it to Lonrho plc in 1981.

It became part of the Guardian Media Group in June 1993, after a rival bid to acquire it by The Independent was rejected.[8]

In 1990, Farzad Bazoft, a journalist for The Observer, was executed in Iraq on charges of spying. In 2003, The Observer interviewed the Iraqi colonel who had arrested and interrogated Bazoft and who was convinced that Bazoft was not a spy.[9]

Twenty-first century

In 2003 the editorial supported the Iraq war stating "Military intervention in the Middle East holds many dangers. But if we want a lasting peace it may be the only option."[10]

On 27 February 2005, The Observer Blog[11] was launched, making The Observer the first newspaper to purposely document its own internal decisions, as well as the first newspaper to release podcasts. The paper's regular columnists include Andrew Rawnsley and Nick Cohen.

In addition to the weekly Observer Magazine which is still present every Sunday, for several years each issue of The Observer came with a different free monthly magazine. These magazines had the titles Observer Sport Monthly, Observer Music Monthly, Observer Woman and Observer Food Monthly.

Content from The Observer is included in The Guardian Weekly for an international readership.

The Observer followed its daily partner The Guardian and converted to 'Berliner' format on Sunday 8 January 2006.[12][13]

The Observer was awarded the National Newspaper of the Year at the British Press Awards 2007.[14] Editor Roger Alton stepped down at the end of 2007 and was replaced by his deputy, John Mulholland.[15]

In early 2010, the paper was restyled. An article on the paper's website previewing the new version stated that "The News section, which will incorporate Business and personal finance, will be home to a new section, Seven Days, offering a complete round-up of the previous week's main news from Britain and around the world, and will also focus on more analysis and comment."[16]

Supplements and features

After the paper was rejuvenated in early 2010, the main paper came with only a small number of supplements – Sport, The Observer Magazine, The New Review and The New York Times International Weekly, an 8-page supplement of articles selected from The New York Times, has been distributed with the paper since 2007. Every four weeks the paper includes The Observer Food Monthly magazine, and in September 2013 it launched Observer Tech Monthly,[17] a science and technology section which won the Grand Prix at the 2014 Newspaper Awards.[18]

Previously, the main paper had come with a larger range of supplements including Sport, Business & Media, Review, Escape (a travel supplement), The Observer Magazine and various special interest monthlies, such as Observer Food Monthly, Observer Women monthly which was launched in 2006,[19] Observer Sport Monthly and The Observer Film Magazine.

The Newsroom

The Observer and its sister newspaper The Guardian operate a visitor centre in London called The Newsroom. It contains their archives, including bound copies of old editions, a photographic library and other items such as diaries, letters and notebooks. This material may be consulted by members of the public. The Newsroom also mounts temporary exhibitions and runs an educational program for schools.

In November 2007, The Observer and The Guardian made their archives available over the Internet.[20] The current extent of the archives available are 1791 to 2000 for The Observer and 1821 to 2000 for The Guardian. These archives will eventually go up to 2003.

Bans

The paper was banned in Egypt in February 2008 after reprinting cartoons allegedly insulting Mohammed.[21]

Editors

Photographers

Awards

The Observer was named the British Press Awards National Newspaper of the Year for 2006.[23] Its supplements have three times won "Regular Supplement of the Year" (Sport Monthly, 2001; Food Monthly, 2006, 2012).[23]

Observer journalists have won a range of British Press Awards, including[23]

Conventions sponsored

In May 2017 The Observer helped sponsor The Convention on Brexit.

Bibliography

  • Richard Cockett, David Astor and The Observer, André Deutsch, London, 1990, 294 pp. with index. ISBN 0-233-98735-5. Has endpapers that are facsimiles of The Observer, with other black-and-white photographic plates of personnel linked to the newspaper.
  • Jane Bown, 'A Lifetime of Looking' Faber & Faber Ltd, 2015 ISBN 1-783-35088-1. Contains the most iconic photos Jane took for the Observer from 1949 to the last photo she took a few months before she died in December 2014. Photos include The Beatles, Mick Jagger, the Queen, John Betjeman, Bjork...

See also

References

  1. ^ Graham Snowdon, "Inside the 19 January edition", The Guardian Weekly, 16 January 2018 (page visited on 19 January 2018).
  2. ^ Matt Wells (15 October 2004). "World writes to undecided voters". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 13 July 2008.
  3. ^ "The Observer has reported in accordance with ABC's industry-agreed standards for National Newspapers". www.abc.org.uk. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  4. ^ "The Observer under review". BBC News. 4 August 2009. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
  5. ^ Dennis Griffiths (ed.), The Encyclopedia of the British Press, 1422–1992, London and Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1992, p. 159.
  6. ^ "Key moments in the Observer's history - a timeline". the Guardian. 7 November 2017.
  7. ^ "Ad Info - Observer History". 17 September 2009. Archived from the original on 17 September 2009.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  8. ^ Michael Leapman, "New editor chosen for 'Observer': 'Guardian' deputy to succeed Trelford", The Independent, 14 May 1993, accessed 22 January 2018.
  9. ^ Ed Vulliamy, "Writer hanged by Iraq 'no spy'", The Guardian, 18 May 2003, accessed 4 April 2007.
  10. ^ "Iraq war: the march of time", The Guardian, 15 February 2013.
  11. ^ Observer blog, accessed 27 February 2007.
  12. ^ Claire Cozens, "Observer announces relaunch date", The Observer, 19 December 2005; accessed 27 February 2007.
  13. ^ The archive – summary of holdings, accessed 27 February 2007.
  14. ^ Ltd, Magstar. "Press Awards". www.pressawards.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2 April 2016.
  15. ^ Stephen Brook (3 January 2008). "Mulholland reshapes Observer team". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
  16. ^ John Mulholland, "Welcome to the new Observer", Guardian.co.uk, 21 February 2010.
  17. ^ Gavriel Hollander (27 August 2003). "Observer to launch new monthly technology supplement". Press Gazette. Retrieved 21 May 2015.
  18. ^ "Observer wins top prize at 2014 Newspaper Awards". The Guardian. 2 April 2014. Retrieved 21 May 2015.
  19. ^ "New editor at the FINANCIAL TIMES" (PDF). Press Business (1). February 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
  20. ^ "How to access past articles from the Guardian and Observer archive". the Guardian. 15 November 2017.
  21. ^ "Der Spiegel issue on Islam banned in Egypt". France24. 2 April 2008. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
  22. ^ "Paul Webster appointed new editor of The Observer". the Guardian. 18 January 2018.
  23. ^ a b c Press Gazette, Roll of Honour, accessed 24 July 2011 Archived 16 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine

External links

Celestial sphere

In astronomy and navigation, the celestial sphere is an abstract sphere that has an arbitrarily large radius and is concentric to Earth. All objects in the sky can be conceived as being projected upon the inner surface of the celestial sphere, which may be centered on Earth or the observer. If centered on the observer, half of the sphere would resemble a hemispherical screen over the observing location.

The celestial sphere is a practical tool for spherical astronomy, allowing astronomers to specify the apparent positions of objects in the sky if their distances are unknown or irrelevant. In the equatorial coordinate system, the celestial equator divides the celestial sphere into two halves: the northern and southern celestial hemispheres.

Dallas Observer

The Dallas Observer is a free digital and print publication based in Dallas, Texas. The Observer publishes daily online coverage of local news, restaurants, music and arts, as well as longform narrative journalism. A weekly print issue circulates every Thursday. The Observer has been owned by Voice Media Group since January 2013.

The Observer is a member of the Association of Alternative Newsweeklies. It has won dozens of national and regional awards for its journalism, including two first places for longtime columnist Jim Schutze in the 2017 AAN Awards. In 1995, the H.L. Mencken Writing Award went to columnist Laura Miller, who, who, after leaving the Observer, went on to become mayor of Dallas. In 2007, two Observer reporters, Jesse Hyde and Megan Feldman, were both named finalists in the prestigious Livingston Awards for Young Journalists.

Doppler effect

The Doppler effect (or the Doppler shift) is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to an observer who is moving relative to the wave source. It is named after the Austrian physicist Christian Doppler, who described the phenomenon in 1842.

A common example of Doppler shift is the change of pitch heard when a vehicle sounding a horn approaches and recedes from an observer. Compared to the emitted frequency, the received frequency is higher during the approach, identical at the instant of passing by, and lower during the recession.The reason for the Doppler effect is that when the source of the waves is moving towards the observer, each successive wave crest is emitted from a position closer to the observer than the crest of the previous wave. Therefore, each wave takes slightly less time to reach the observer than the previous wave. Hence, the time between the arrival of successive wave crests at the observer is reduced, causing an increase in the frequency. While they are traveling, the distance between successive wave fronts is reduced, so the waves "bunch together". Conversely, if the source of waves is moving away from the observer, each wave is emitted from a position farther from the observer than the previous wave, so the arrival time between successive waves is increased, reducing the frequency. The distance between successive wave fronts is then increased, so the waves "spread out".

For waves that propagate in a medium, such as sound waves, the velocity of the observer and of the source are relative to the medium in which the waves are transmitted. The total Doppler effect may therefore result from motion of the source, motion of the observer, or motion of the medium. Each of these effects is analyzed separately. For waves which do not require a medium, such as light or gravity in general relativity, only the relative difference in velocity between the observer and the source needs to be considered.

Event horizon

In general relativity, an event horizon (EH) is a region in spacetime beyond which events cannot affect an outside observer. In layman's terms, it is defined as the shell of "points of no return", i.e., the boundary at which the gravitational pull of a massive object becomes so great as to make escape impossible. An event horizon is most commonly associated with black holes. Light emitted from inside the event horizon can never reach the outside observer. Likewise, any object approaching the horizon from the observer's side appears to slow down and never quite pass through the horizon, with its image becoming more and more redshifted as time elapses. This means that the wavelength of the light emitted from the object is getting longer as the object moves away from the observer. The travelling object, however, experiences no strange effects and does, in fact, pass through the horizon in a finite amount of proper time.

More specific types of horizon include the related but distinct absolute and apparent horizons found around a black hole. Still other distinct notions include the Cauchy and Killing horizons; the photon spheres and ergospheres of the Kerr solution; particle and cosmological horizons relevant to cosmology; and isolated and dynamical horizons important in current black hole research.

Horizon

The horizon or skyline is the apparent line that separates earth from sky, the line that divides all visible directions into two categories: those that intersect the Earth's surface, and those that do not.

The true horizon is actually a theoretical line, which can only be observed when it lies on the sea surface. At many locations, this line is obscured by land, trees, buildings, mountains, etc., and the resulting intersection of earth and sky is called the visible horizon. When looking at a sea from a shore, the part of the sea closest to the horizon is called the offing.The true horizon is horizontal. It surrounds the observer and it is typically assumed to be a circle, drawn on the surface of a perfectly spherical model of the Earth. Its center is below the observer and below sea level. Its distance from the observer varies from day to day due to atmospheric refraction, which is greatly affected by weather conditions. Also, the higher the observer's eyes are from sea level, the farther away is the horizon from the observer. For instance, in standard atmospheric conditions, for an observer with eye level above sea level by 1.70 metres (5 ft 7 in), the horizon is at a distance of about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi).When observed from very high standpoints, such as a space station, the horizon is much farther away and it encompasses a much larger area of Earth's surface. In this case, it becomes evident that the horizon more closely resembles an ellipse than a perfect circle, especially when the observer is above the equator, and that the Earth's surface can be better modeled as an ellipsoid than as a sphere.

The word horizon derives from the Greek "ὁρίζων κύκλος" horizōn kyklos, "separating circle",, where "ὁρίζων" is from the verb ὁρίζω horizō, "to divide", "to separate", which in turn derives from "ὅρος" (oros), "boundary, landmark".

Longitude of the ascending node

The longitude of the ascending node (☊ or Ω) is one of the orbital elements used to specify the orbit of an object in space. It is the angle from a reference direction, called the origin of longitude, to the direction of the ascending node, measured in a reference plane. The ascending node is the point where the orbit of the object passes through the plane of reference, as seen in the adjacent image. Commonly used reference planes and origins of longitude include:

For a geocentric orbit, Earth's equatorial plane as the reference plane, and the First Point of Aries as the origin of longitude. In this case, the longitude is also called the right ascension of the ascending node, or RAAN. The angle is measured eastwards (or, as seen from the north, counterclockwise) from the First Point of Aries to the node.

For a heliocentric orbit, the ecliptic as the reference plane, and the First Point of Aries as the origin of longitude. The angle is measured counterclockwise (as seen from north of the ecliptic) from the First Point of Aries to the node.

For an orbit outside the Solar System, the plane tangent to the celestial sphere at the point of interest (called the plane of the sky) as the reference plane, and north, i.e. the perpendicular projection of the direction from the observer to the North Celestial Pole onto the plane of the sky, as the origin of longitude. The angle is measured eastwards (or, as seen by the observer, counterclockwise) from north to the node., pp. 40, 72, 137; , chap. 17.In the case of a binary star known only from visual observations, it is not possible to tell which node is ascending and which is descending. In this case the orbital parameter which is recorded is the longitude of the node, Ω, which is the longitude of whichever node has a longitude between 0 and 180 degrees., chap. 17;, p. 72.

Observer-Dispatch

The Observer-Dispatch is the largest newspaper serving the Utica-Rome metropolitan area in Central New York, circulating in Oneida County, Herkimer County, and parts of Madison County. Based in Utica, New York, the publication is owned by GateHouse Media.

Observer pattern

The observer pattern is a software design pattern in which an object, called the subject, maintains a list of its dependents, called observers, and notifies them automatically of any state changes, usually by calling one of their methods.

It is mainly used to implement distributed event handling systems, in "event driven" software. Most modern languages such as C# have built in "event" constructs which implement the observer pattern components.

The observer pattern is also a key part in the familiar model–view–controller (MVC) architectural pattern. The observer pattern is implemented in numerous programming libraries and systems, including almost all GUI toolkits.

Observer–Reporter

The Observer–Reporter is a daily newspaper covering Washington County, Greene County, and the Mon Valley in Pennsylvania, with some overlap into the South Hills of Pittsburgh in Allegheny County. The newspaper is published by the Observer Publishing Company in Washington, Pennsylvania.The Observer Publishing Co. was formed July 24, 1902, by John L. Stewart and E.F. Acheson. Stewart’s grandsons, John L.S. Northrop and William B. Northrop, owned and ran the company until their retirements in June 2002, when ownership was transferred to the fourth generation which included the children of John and William. Thomas Northrop served as publisher and president from 2002 until 2018. The paper has had a long involvement and investment in the local community.

Ownership has recently been transferred to Ogden Newspapers.

Opinion polling for the next United Kingdom general election

In the run up to the next United Kingdom general election, various organisations are expected to carry out opinion polling to gauge voting intention. Results of such polls are displayed in this article. Most of the polling companies listed are members of the British Polling Council (BPC) and abide by its disclosure rules. Opinion polling about attitudes to the leaders of various political parties can be found in a separate article.

The date range for these opinion polls is from the previous general election, held on 8 June 2017, to the present day. Under the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011, the next general election is scheduled to be held no later than 5 May 2022.Most opinion polls cover only Great Britain, excluding Northern Ireland as its 18 seats are contested by a different set of political parties.

Radial velocity

The radial velocity of an object with respect to a given point is the rate of change of the distance between the object and the point. That is, the radial velocity is the component of the object's velocity that points in the direction of the radius connecting the object and the point. In astronomy, the point is usually taken to be the observer on Earth, so the radial velocity then denotes the speed with which the object moves away from or approaches the Earth.

In astronomy, radial velocity is often measured to the first order of approximation by Doppler spectroscopy. The quantity obtained by this method may be called the barycentric radial-velocity measure or spectroscopic radial velocity. However, due to relativistic and cosmological effects over the great distances that light typically travels to reach the observer from an astronomical object, this measure cannot be accurately transformed to a geometric radial velocity without additional assumptions about the object and the space between it and the observer. By contrast, astrometric radial velocity is determined by astrometric observations (for example, a secular change in the annual parallax).

TheGuardian.com

TheGuardian.com, formerly known as Guardian.co.uk and Guardian Unlimited, is a British news and media website owned by the Guardian Media Group. It contains nearly all of the content of the newspapers The Guardian and The Observer, as well as a substantial body of web-only work produced by its own staff, including a rolling news service. As of November 2014, it was the second most popular online newspaper in the UK with over 17 million readers per month; with over 21 million monthly readers, Mail Online was the most popular.The site is made up of a core news site, with niche sections and subsections covering subjects including sport, business, environment, technology, arts and media, and lifestyle. TheGuardian.com is notable for its engagement with readers, including long-running talkboards and, more recently, a network of weblogs. Its seven blogs were joined on March 14, 2006, by a new comment section, "Comment is free", which has since merged into its Opinion section.

The site can be viewed without cost or registration, though some services such as leaving comments on articles require users to register. In March 2009, Guardian.co.uk launched their API, using the OAuth protocol and making a wide range of Guardian content available for use by web application developers.

The Charlotte Observer

The Charlotte Observer is a newspaper serving Charlotte and its metro area. It has the largest circulation in North Carolina and South Carolina. It is owned by The McClatchy Company.

The Observer (Adelaide)

The Observer was a Saturday newspaper published in Adelaide, South Australia from July 1843 to February 1931. Virtually every issue of the newspaper (under both titles) has been digitised and is available online through the National Library of Australia's Trove archive service.

The Observer (Uganda)

The Weekly Observer is a Ugandan weekly newspaper headquartered in Kampala. It is one of the largest privately owned papers in the country. In 2007, its reporter Richard M Kavuma won the CNN Multichoice African Journalist of the Year award. The newspaper was founded in 2004 and celebrated 10 years of existence in March 2014.

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