The Oa

The Oa (/ˈoʊ/ OH)[1] (Scottish Gaelic: An Obha) is a rocky peninsula in the southwest of the island of Islay, in Argyll, Scotland. It is an RSPB nature reserve.

Mull of Oa, Islay aerial
The Oa peninsula, from the air, in 2014. Port Ellen is on the bay in the upper right. Islay Airport is at the top left.
Waterfall at the Mull of Oa


The area is roughly circular, and connects with the rest of the island at a relatively narrow neck, which runs between Kintra and Port Ellen. Its high point is Beinn Mhòr (202 metres (663 ft)) in the south. The Oa had a population of 800 people in 1830, but became deserted due to the Highland Clearances.[2]

The American Monument was erected on the south coast by the American Red Cross to commemorate the loss of two ships in 1918 - the liner Tuscania and the armed merchant cruiser HMS Otranto.[2]

The area around the memorial is an RSPB nature reserve,[3] where chough, golden eagles, corn crakes, and sea birds can be seen. 1,931 hectares (4,770 acres) have been designated as a Special Protection Area for the protection of the chough.[2]

Ireland can be seen from the south coast on a clear day.


  1. ^ Ayto, John and Crofton, Ian (2005). Brewer's Britain And Ireland. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 829.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  2. ^ a b c "The Oa Peninsula". Guide to the Isle of Islay. Retrieved 2009-07-26.
  3. ^ "The Oa". RSPB. Retrieved 2009-07-26.

External links

  • Media related to The Oa at Wikimedia Commons

Coordinates: 55°37′N 6°17′W / 55.617°N 6.283°W

Bankruptcy Law in the Republic of Ireland

Bankruptcy in Irish Law is a legal process, supervised by the High Court whereby the assets of a personal debtor are realised and distributed amongst his or her creditors in cases where the debtor is unable or unwilling to pay his debts.

Bankruptcy in Ireland applies only to natural persons. Other insolvency processes including liquidation and examinership are used to deal with corporate insolvency.

A bankrupt is somebody who has been adjudicated bankrupt by the High Court. Once a debtor is adjudicated bankrupt, bankruptcy law provides for the mandatory vesting of all of the bankrupt's assets and property in the Official Assignee (OA). Under the supervision of the Court, the OA will realise the bankrupt's assets and distribute the assets according to law among the bankrupt's creditors.

The essence of bankruptcy is that the debtor's assets are transferred to an official who administers and realises them for the benefit of all creditors. The purpose is to release the bankrupt from an unsustainable debt burden and to distribute his assets amongst all creditors equally (although certain types of creditor enjoy priorities). The bankrupt person is subject to restrictions and disabilities on trading and on obtaining credit while a bankrupt but leaves the process with their debts forgiven.

The Official Assignee in bankruptcy can challenge and set aside pre-bankruptcy transactions by the bankrupt to make the assets, the subject of those transactions, available to the creditors.

The classic definition of bankruptcy is that:

"it is a law for the benefit and relief of creditors and their debtors, in cases in which the latter are unable or unwilling to pay their debts."Irish bankruptcy law has been the subject of significant recent comment, from both government sources and the media, as being in need of reform. Part 7 of the Civil Law (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 2011 has started this process and the government has committed to further reform.

Brit Marling

Brit Heyworth Marling (born August 7, 1982) is an American actress and screenwriter. She rose to prominence after starring in several films that premiered at the Sundance Film Festival, including Sound of My Voice (2011), Another Earth (2011), and The East (2013), which she co-wrote in addition to playing the lead role. She co-created, wrote, and starred in the Netflix series The OA, which debuted in 2016.

Carroll A. Edson

Colonel Carroll Andrew Edson (December 29, 1891 – October 15, 1986) was an influential leader in the Boy Scouts of America movement. He helped to found the Order of the Arrow (OA) along with E. Urner Goodman. The OA is an official program of the Boy Scouts of America designed to recognize Scouts and Scouters for their service, and to aid in the retention of older boys in the Scouting program.

Cygnus CRS OA-7

Cygnus CRS OA-7, also known as Orbital ATK CRS-7, is the eighth flight of the Orbital ATK unmanned resupply spacecraft Cygnus and its seventh flight to the International Space Station under the Commercial Resupply Services contract with NASA. The mission launched on April 18th, 2017 at 11:11 AM. Orbital and NASA jointly developed a new space transportation system to provide commercial cargo resupply services to the International Space Station (ISS). Under the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program, then Orbital Sciences designed and built Antares, a medium-class launch vehicle; Cygnus, an advanced maneuvering spacecraft, and a Pressurized Cargo Module which is provided by Orbital's industrial partner Thales Alenia Space.The OA-7 is named the S.S. John Glenn in honor of astronaut and senator John Glenn, the first US astronaut to orbit the Earth on Mercury 6 and the oldest to go to space on STS-95.

Emory Cohen

Emory Isaac Cohen (born March 13, 1990) is an American actor. He made his feature film debut in Afterschool (2008). He is best known for his roles as AJ Cross in Derek Cianfrance's film The Place Beyond the Pines (2012), Tony Fiorello in John Crowley's film Brooklyn (2015), and Homer in the Netflix series The OA (2016).

FUTON bias

FUTON bias (acronym for "full text on the Net") is a tendency of scholars to cite academic journals with open access—that is, journals that make their full text available on the Internet without charge—in preference to toll-access publications. Scholars in some fields can more easily discover and access articles whose full text is available online, which increases authors' likelihood of reading and citing these articles, an issue that was first raised and has been mainly studied in connection with medical research. In the context of evidence-based medicine, articles in expensive journals that do not provide open access (OA) may be "priced out of evidence", giving a greater weight to FUTON publications. FUTON bias may increase the impact factor of open-access journals relative to journals without open access.One study concluded that authors in medical fields "concentrate on research published in journals that are available as full text on the internet, and ignore relevant studies that are not available in full text, thus introducing an element of bias into their search result". Authors of another study conclude that "the OA advantage is a quality advantage, rather than a quality bias", that authors make a "self-selection toward using and citing the more citable articles—once OA self-archiving has made them accessible", and that open access "itself will not make an unusable (hence uncitable) paper more used and cited".The related no abstract available bias is a scholar's tendency to cite journal articles that have an abstract available online more readily than articles that do not— this affects articles' citation count similarly to FUTON bias.

Ian Alexander (actor)

Ian Alexander (born April 20, 2001) is an American actor from Salt Lake City known for his role as Buck Vu on The OA.

NZR OA class

The OA class is a solitary steam locomotive built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works for the Wellington and Manawatu Railway (WMR) in New Zealand. Ordered in 1894, it entered service in August of that year as No. 13 and was the first narrow gauge Vauclain compound in the world. In 1908, the WMR and its locomotive fleet were purchased by New Zealand Railways Department (NZR) and incorporated into the national rail network, and, although No. 13 bore a likeness to members of the O class, it was sufficiently different that it warranted separate classification. Accordingly, the designation of OA was created and it was numbered OA 457. It operated for another two decades until it was withdrawn in December 1929 in Auckland. The locomotive was known to Manawatu men as The Lady.

In 1896, a locomotive similar in appearance was ordered by the WMR, No. 16. Its technical specifications were such that when it was acquired by NZR it was classified separately and became the sole member of the OC class.

NZR OC class

The OC class, built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works for the Wellington and Manawatu Railway (WMR) in New Zealand, consists of a solitary steam locomotive. Ordered in 1896 as an externally similar but more powerful version of the OA class locomotive ordered in 1894, it entered service in June 1897 as No. 16. It was a Vauclain compound locomotive.

In 1908, the WMR and its locomotive fleet was purchased by the New Zealand Railways Department (NZR) and incorporated into the national rail network, and although No. 16 bore a likeness to members of the O class, it was sufficiently different that it warranted separate classification. Technical differences were sufficient that it was not classified with the visually similar WMR No. 13/NZR OA 457, and accordingly it became OC 458. It is known to have operated on the line from the Hutt Valley through the Rimutaka Range to the western end of the Rimutaka Incline, and its final depot was at Cross Creek at the eastern end of the Rimutaka Incline in the Wairarapa. It was withdrawn from service in July 1930.

OA vz. 27

The OA vz. 27 (Obrněný automobil vzor 27) was a Czechoslovak-designed armored car used by Nazi Germany, Slovakia, and Romania during World War II. Fifteen were built, of which the Germans seized nine when they occupied Bohemia-Moravia in March 1939 and the Slovaks captured three when they declared independence from Czechoslovakia at the same time. Romania acquired three when Czech troops sought refuge in Romania after the Hungarian invasion of Carpatho-Ukraine that same month. All were used for training or internal security duties during the war.

OA vz. 30

The OA vz. 30 (full name Obrněný automobil vzor 30, English: Armoured Car Model 30) was a Czechoslovak-designed armored car used by Nazi Germany, Slovakia, Romania and Hungary during World War II. Fifty-one were built, of which the Germans seized twenty-four when they occupied Bohemia-Moravia in March 1939 and the Slovaks captured eighteen when they declared independence from Czechoslovakia at the same time. Romania acquired nine when Czech troops sought refuge in Romania after the Hungarian invasion of Carpatho-Ukraine that same month. Slovak vehicles saw combat in the Slovak-Hungarian War, the invasion of Poland, the opening months of Operation Barbarossa and the Slovak National Uprising.

Olympic Arms OA-93

The OA-93 is an AR-15 derivative pistol manufactured by Olympic Arms. Lacking a buttstock or buffer tube, the OA-93 disperses recoil through a specially designed flat top upper receiver similar to the Armalite AR-18.The passage of the 1994 Crime Bill however required Olympic Arms to perform modifications to the basic design to continue selling them. The first revision to the OA-93 was the OA-96 in which a 30-round ammunition well is pinned and welded in place so that it cannot be detached. In addition, the OA-96 has a button in the rear which opens the upper receiver and can then be loaded via stripper clips.This was followed two years later by the OA-98 which used a detachable magazine but the body was skeletonized to reduce the weight below the 50 ounce restriction to allow the OA-98 to have one more feature to be compliant with the 1994 Crime Bill.A piston driven carbine based on the pistol was made in 1993 and after the expiration of the Federal Assault Weapons Ban from 2004 to 2007.

Ophthalmic artery

The ophthalmic artery (OA) is the first branch of the internal carotid artery distal to the cavernous sinus. Branches of the OA supply all the structures in the orbit as well as some structures in the nose, face and meninges. Occlusion of the OA or its branches can produce sight-threatening conditions.

Order of the Arrow

The Order of the Arrow (OA) is the National Honor Society of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA), composed of Scouts and Scouters who best exemplify the Scout Oath and Law in their daily lives as elected by their peers. The society was created by E. Urner Goodman, with the assistance of Carroll A. Edson, in 1915 as a means of reinforcing the Scout Oath and the Scout Law. It uses imagery commonly associated with American Indian cultures for its self-invented ceremonies. These ceremonies are usually for recognition of leadership qualities, camping skills, and other scouting ideals as exemplified by their elected peers.

Influenced by Scout camp customs, the OA uses "safeguarded" symbols, handshakes, and private rituals to impart a sense of community. Native Americans have criticized the OA's various symbols and "rituals" as cultural appropriation based on non-Native stereotypes of American Indians.Inducted members, known as Arrowmen or Brothers, are organized into local youth-led lodges that harbor fellowship, promote camping, and render service to Boy Scout councils and their communities. Each lodge corresponds to a BSA council in the area. Lodges are further broken down into chapters, which correspond to a district in scouting. Members wear identifying insignia on their uniforms, most notably the OA pocket flap that represents their individual OA lodge and the OA sash worn at official OA functions. The OA program sponsors several events, awards, and training functions.

Ottawa, Arnprior and Parry Sound Railway

The Ottawa, Arnprior and Parry Sound Railway, or OA&PS, is a historic railway that operated in central and eastern Ontario, Canada from 1897 until 1959. It was, for a time, the busiest railway route in Canada, carrying both timber and wood products from today's Algonquin Provincial Park areas, as well as up to 40% of the grain traffic from the Canadian west from Depot Harbour at Parry Sound through to the St. Lawrence River valley.

The railway was built by John Rudolphus Booth, a 19th-century Canadian lumber baron and entrepreneur, who owned considerable timber rights in the Algonquin area as well as a major sawmill in downtown Ottawa. To open markets for the mill's products he purchased Donald Macdonald's lines and formed the Canada Atlantic Railway (CAR) from Ottawa to Vermont. To supply the mills, the OA&PS shipped timber in from across central Ontario. Together, the OA&PS and CAR allowed through shipment from the Canadian west to the US eastern seaboard areas. The lines were amalgamated under the CAR marque in 1899, and sold to the Grand Trunk Railway in 1905.

Use of the OA&PS fell dramatically with the rapid stripping of most of the useful timber from the Algonquin area. Traffic was further reduced with the 1932 opening of the widened Welland Canal that allowed lakers to bypass trans-shipping points on Georgian Bay, along with the dramatic decrease in grain prices and trade during the Great Depression. The trestle bridge between Cache Lake and Lake of Two Rivers closed in 1933 due to safety concerns and was not re-built. Both ends of the now-separated line continued in use for some time; the western section between Parry Sound and Cache Lake ended services in 1952, while the eastern section saw use in some locations until 1959.

Its route through Algonquin Provincial Park saw it play an important role in the park's development of the tourist industry, with a large station and the Highland Inn on Cache Lake being a focal point of the park though the 1910s and 20s. Sections through the Park now form an expanding group of rail trails used mostly for cycling. Outside the park the line forms various rail trails including the Park-to-Park Trail, Seguin Trail, and others.

Phyllis Smith

Phyllis Smith (born July 10, 1951) is an American actress and casting associate. She is best known for playing Phyllis Vance in the television series The Office and her critically acclaimed voice role as Sadness in the film Inside Out. She has a regular role on the Netflix series The OA.

Scott Wilson (actor)

Scott Wilson (born William Delano Wilson; March 29, 1942 – October 6, 2018) was an American actor. He had more than 50 film credits, including In the Heat of the Night, In Cold Blood, The Great Gatsby, Dead Man Walking, Pearl Harbor, and Junebug. In 1980, Wilson received a Golden Globe nomination for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture for his role in The Ninth Configuration. He played veterinarian Hershel Greene on the AMC television series The Walking Dead (2011–2014; 2018). He also had a recurring role on CSI: Crime Scene Investigation as casino mogul Sam Braun, as well as a lead role on the Netflix series The OA as Abel Johnson.

Zal Batmanglij

Zal Batmanglij (born 1981) is an American film director and screenwriter. He directed and co-wrote the 2011 film Sound of My Voice and the 2013 film The East, both of which premiered at the Sundance Film Festival, as well as the Netflix series The OA, which debuted in 2016.

Traditional provinces and districts of Scotland
RSPB reserves in Scotland

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