The Mountain

The Mountain (French: La Montagne) was a political group during the French Revolution, whose members called the Montagnards (French: [mɔ̃taɲaʁ]) sat on the highest benches in the National Assembly.

They were the most radical group and opposed the Girondists. The term, which was first used during a session of the Legislative Assembly, came into general use in 1793. Led by Maximilien Robespierre, the Montagnards unleashed the Reign of Terror in 1793. By the summer of 1793, two minority groups who were referred to as the Mountain and the Girondin, divided the National Convention. The Mountain was composed mainly of members of the middle class, but represented the constituencies of Paris. As such, the Mountain was sensitive to the motivations of the city and responded strongly to demands from the working class sans-culottes.[6] The Mountaineers had little understanding of the daily life and needs of the people in the cities and towns beyond Paris. Although they attempted some rural land reform, most of it was never enacted and they generally focused on the needs of the urban poor over that of rural France. The Mountain operated on the belief that what was best for Paris would be best for all of France.[7]

The Girondins were a moderate political faction created during the Legislative Assembly period.[8] They were the political opponents of the more radical representatives within the Mountain. The Girondins had wanted to avoid the execution of Louis XVI and supported a constitution which would have allowed a popular vote to overturn legislation.[8] The Mountain accused the Girondins of plotting against Paris because this caveat within the proposed constitution would have allowed rural areas of France to vote against legislation that benefits Paris, the main constituency of the Mountain. However, the real discord in the Convention occurred not between the Mountain and the Gironde, but between the aggressive antics of the minority of the Mountain and the rest of the Convention.[9]

The Mountain was not entirely unified as a party and relied on leaders like Maximilien Robespierre, Georges Danton and Jacques Hébert, who themselves came to represent different factions.[10] Hébert, a journalist, gained a following as a radical patriot Mountaineer (members who identified with him became known as the Hébertists) while Danton led a more moderate faction of the Mountain party (followers came to be known as Dantonists).[11] Regardless of the divisions, the nightly sessions of the Jacobin club, which met in the rue Saint-Honoré, can be considered to be a type of party caucus for the Mountain.[12] In June 1793, the Mountain successfully ousted most of the moderate Gironde members of the Convention with the assistance of radical sans-culottes.[13]

Following their coup, the Mountain, led by Hérault-Sécuells, quickly began construction on a new constitution which was completed eight days later.[14] The Committee of Public Safety reported the constitution to the Convention on 10 June and a final draft was adopted on 24 June. The process occurred quickly because as Robespierre, a prominent member of the Mountain, announced on 10 June the "good citizens demanded a constitution" and the "Constitution will be the reply of patriotic deputies, for it is the work of the Mountain".[15] However, this constitution was never actually enacted.[16] The Constitution of 1793 was abandoned when Robespierre later granted himself and the Committee of Public Safety dictatorial powers in order to "defend the Revolution".[17]

The Mountain

La Montagne
LeadersGeorges Danton
Maximilien Robespierre
Paul Barras
Bertrand Barère
Founded1792
Dissolved1799
HeadquartersTuileries Palace, Paris
NewspaperL'Ami du peuple
Le Vieux Cordelier
Le Père Duchesne
Political club(s)Jacobin Club
Cordeliers Club
IdeologyCentralization
Dirigism[1][2]
Jacobinism
Radicalism[3]
Political positionLeft-wing[4][5]
Colors     Red

History

Origins

It is difficult to pinpoint the conception of the Montagnard group because the lines which defined it were themselves quite nebulous early on. Originally, members of The Mountain were the men who sat in the highest rows of the Jacobin Clubs, loosely organized political debate clubs open to the public.[18] Though members of the Montagnards were known for their commitment to radical political resolutions prior to 1793, the contours of political groups presented an ever-evolving reality that shifted in response to events. Would-be prominent Montagnard leaders like Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet and Jean Bon Saint-André were tempted by early Girondin proposals and soon many moderates—even anti-radicals—felt the need to push for radical endeavors in light of threats both within and without the country.[19] It was only after the trial of Louis XVI in December 1792, which united the Montagnards on a position of regicide, that the ideals and power of the group fully consolidated.

Rise and Terror

The rise of Montagnards corresponds to the fall of the Girondins. The Girondin party hesitated on the correct course of action to take with Louis XVI after his attempt to flee France on 20 June 1791. Some elements of the Girondin party believed they could use the king as figurehead. While the Girondins hesitated, the Montagnards took a united stand during the trial in December 1792–January 1793 and favored the king's execution.[20]

Riding on this victory, the Montagnards then sought to discredit the Girondins. They used tactics previously employed by the Girondins to denounce them as liars and enemies of the Revolution.[21] They also formed a legislative committee in which Nicolas Hentz proposed a limitation of inheritances, gaining more support for the Montagnards. Girondin members were subsequently banned from the Jacobin club and excluded from the National Convention on 31 May – 2 June 1793. Any attempted resistance was crushed. Maximilien Robespierre then continued to consolidate his power over the Montagnards with the use of the Committee of Public Safety.[22]

Policies of the Mountain

Through attempted land redistribution policies, the Mountain showed some support for the rural poor. In August 1793, Montagnard member Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès drafted a piece of legislation which dealt with agricultural reform; in particular, he urged "relief from rent following harvest loss, compensation for improvements and fixity of tenure".[23] This was in part to combat restlessness of share-croppers in the southwest. This draft never made it into law, but the drastic reforms suggest the Mountain's awareness of the need to please their base of support, both the rural and urban poor.[23]

Shot
The arrest of Maximilien Robespierre and his followers showing at the centre of the image gendarme Merda firing at Robespierre (colour engraving by Jean-Joseph-François Tassaert after the painting by Fulchran-Jean Harriet, Carnavalet Museum)

Other policies aimed at supporting the poor included price controls enacted by the Mountain in 1793. This law, called the General Maximum, was supported by a group of agitators within the Mountain known as the Enragés. It fixed prices and wages throughout France.[11] At the same time, bread prices were rising as the commodity became scarce, and in an initiative spearheaded by Collot d’Herbois and Billaud-Varenne, a law was enacted in July 1793 that forbade the hoarding of "daily necessities".[24] The hoarding of grain became a crime punishable by death.[25]

Other economic policies enacted by the Mountain included an embargo on the export of French goods. As a result of this embargo, France was essentially unable to trade with foreign markets and the import of goods effectively ended.[26] In theory, this protected French markets from foreign goods and required French people to support French goods. In addition to the embargo against foreign goods, Act 1651, passed by the Mountain in October 1793, further isolated France from the rest of Europe by forbidding any foreign vessels from trading along the French coast.[27]

Decline and fall

The fall and exclusion of the Montagnards from the National Convention began with the collapse of the Revolution's radical phase and the death of Robespierre on 10 Thermidor (28 July 1794). While the Montagnards celebrated unity, there was growing heterogeneity within the group as Robespierre and his Committee of Public Safety overextended themselves with their tight control over the military and their extreme opposition to corruption in the government.[28] Their overextension drew the ire of other revolutionary leaders and a number of plots coalesced on 9 Thermidor (Thermidorian Reaction) when collaborators with the more moderate group the Dantonists acted in response to fears that Robespierre planned to execute them.[20]

The purge of Robespierre was strongly similar to previous measures employed by the Montagnards to expel disagreeable factions, such as the Girondins. However, as Robespierre was widely considered the heart of the Montagnards, his death symbolized the collapse of the party. Few desired to take on the name of Montagnards afterwards, leaving around only about 100 men.[19] Finally, at the end of 1794 the Mountain largely devolved into a party called The Crest (French: crête), which lacked any real power.[29]

Factions and prominent members

The Mountain was born in 1792, with the merger of two prominent left-wing clubs: the Jacobins and Cordeliers. The Jacobins were initially moderate republicans and the Cordeliers were radical populist. In late 1792, Danton and his supporters wanted a reconciliation with the Girondists, which caused a break with Robespierre. After the trial of Girondists in 1793, Danton became strongly moderate while Robespierre continued his authoritarian policies.

The moderates of Danton were also rival to the followers of Jacques Hébert that wanted the persecution of all non-Montagnards and the dechristianisation of France. When Robespierre eliminated first the Hébertists (March 1794) and then the Dantonistes (April 1794), his group ruled The Mountain. This was until the Thermidorian Reaction, when several conspirators supported by The Plain instituted a coup d'état. They executed Robespierre and his supporters and split from The Mountain to form the Thermidorian Left. The Montagnards that survived were arrested, executed or deported. From 1794 to 1795, the Mountain was effectively obliterated.

Robespierrists
Hébertists
Indulgents

Electoral results

Election year No. of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
No. of
overall seats won
+/– Leader
National Convention
1792 907,200 (2nd) 26.7
200 / 749
Increase 64
Maximilien Robespierre
Legislative Body
1795 Did not participate Did not participate
64 / 750
Decrease 136
1798 Unknown (1st) 70.7
175 / 750
Increase 111
1799 Unknown (1st) Unknown
240 / 500
Increase 65

References

  1. ^ Howard G. Brown (3 August 1995). War, Revolution, and the Bureaucratic State: Politics and Army Administration in France. Clarendon Press. p. 370.
  2. ^ Edward Berenson (1984). Populist Religion and Left-Wing Politics in France. Princeton University Press. p. 308.
  3. ^ "Montagnard". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  4. ^ Jennifer Llewellyn; Steve Thompson (2015). "The Girondins and Montagnards". Alpha History.
  5. ^ Gregory Fremont-Barnes (2007). Encyclopedia of the Age of Political Revolutions and New Ideologies. Greenwood Press. p. 867.
  6. ^ Jeremy D. Popkin, A Short History of the French Revolution, 6th ed. (Pearson Education, Inc. 2006), pp. 75–76.
  7. ^ William D. Edmonds, "The Siege" in Jacobinism and the Revolt of Lyon, (Clarendon Press, 1990), p. 249.
  8. ^ a b Jeremy D. Popkin, A Short History of the French Revolution, 6th ed. (Pearson Education, Inc. 2006), pp. 50–51.
  9. ^ R. R. Palmer, Twelve Who Ruled: The Year of the Terror in the French Revolution with a new foreword by Isser Woloch (Princeton University Press, 2005), p. 26.
  10. ^ Jeremy D. Popkin, A Short History of the French Revolution: Sixth Edition, (Pearson Education, Inc. 2006), p. 62.
  11. ^ a b Jeremy D. Popkin, A Short History of the French Revolution, 6th ed. (Pearson Education, Inc. 2006), pp. 64–66.
  12. ^ R. R. Palmer, Twelve Who Ruled: The Year of the Terror in the French Revolution with a new foreword by Isser Woloch (Princeton University Press, 2005), p. 25.
  13. ^ Jeremy D. Popkin, A Short History of the French Revolution, 6th ed. (Pearson Education, Inc. 2006), p. 66.
  14. ^ R. R. Palmer, Twelve Who Ruled: The Year of the Terror in the French Revolution with a new foreword by Isser Woloch (Princeton University Press, 2005), p. 34.
  15. ^ R. R. Palmer, Twelve Who Ruled: The Year of the Terror in the French Revolution with a new foreword by Isser Woloch (Princeton University Press, 2005), p. 35.
  16. ^ Jeremy D. Popkin, A Short History of the French Revolution, 6th ed. (Pearson Education, Inc. 2006), p. 67.
  17. ^ Jeremy D. Popkin, A Short History of the French Revolution, 6th ed. (Pearson Education, Inc. 2006), p. 71.
  18. ^ "Definition of 'mountain' - Collins English Dictionary". Collins English Dictionary.
  19. ^ a b François Furet and Mona Ozouf, A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution (Belknap Press, 1989), pp. 380–390.
  20. ^ a b Jeremy D. Popkin, A Short History of the French Revolution, 5th ed. (Pearson, 2009), pp. 72–77.
  21. ^ Marisa Linton, Choosing Terror: Virtue, Friendship, and Authenticity in the French Revolution (Oxford University Press, 2013), pp. 174–175.
  22. ^ Robert J. Alderson, This Bright Era of Happy Revolutions: French Consul Michel-Ange-Bernard Mangourit and International Republicanism in Charleston, 1792-1794 (University of South Carolina Press, 2008), pp. 9–10.
  23. ^ a b P. M. Jones, "The 'Agrarian Law': Schemes for Land Redistribution during the French Revolution", Past & Present, no. 133 (1991), p. 112.
  24. ^ Jeremy D. Popkin, A Short History of the French Revolution, 6th ed. (Pearson Education, Inc. 2006), p. 68.
  25. ^ R. R. Palmer, Twelve Who Ruled: The Year of the Terror in the French Revolution with a new foreword by Isser Woloch (Princeton University Press), 2005. p. 226.
  26. ^ R. R. Palmer, Twelve Who Ruled: The Year of the Terror in the French Revolution with a new foreword by Isser Woloch (Princeton University Press, 2005), 226.
  27. ^ R. R. Palmer, Twelve Who Ruled: The Year of the Terror in the French Revolution with a new foreword by Isser Woloch (Princeton University Press, 2005), p. 227.
  28. ^ Peter McPhee, Robespierre: A Revolutionary Life (Yale University Press, 2012), p. 271.
  29. ^ "Montagnard". Encyclopædia Britannica.

Bibliography

  • François Furet and Mona Ozouf. A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution. (Belknap Press, 1989).
  • Jeremy D. Popkin, A Short History of the French Revolution, 5th ed. (Pearson, 2009).
  • Marisa Linton, Choosing Terror: Virtue, Friendship, and Authenticity in the French Revolution. (Oxford University Press, 2013).
  • Morris Slavin. The Making of an Insurrection: Parisian Sections and the Gironde. (Harvard University Press, 1986).
  • Peter Kropotkin, Trans. N. F. Dryhurst The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793. (New York: Vanguard Printings, 1927).
  • Peter McPhee, Robespierre: A Revolutionary Life. (Yale University Press, 2012).
  • Robert J. Alderson, This Bright Era of Happy Revolutions: French Consul Michel-Ange-Bernard Mangourit and International Republicanism in Charleston, 1792-1794. (University of South Carolina Press, 2008).
  • "Mountain (the Mountain)". Collins English Dictionary Online. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
  • "Montagnard (French history)". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 8 May 2014.

Further reading

Atlas Mountains

The Atlas Mountains (Arabic: جِـبَـال الْأَطْـلَـس‎, translit. jibāl al-ʾaṭlas; durar n waṭlas) are a mountain range in the Maghreb. It stretches around 2,500 km (1,600 mi) through Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. The range's highest peak is Toubkal, with an elevation of 4,167 metres (13,671 ft) in southwestern Morocco. It separates the Mediterranean and Atlantic coastlines from the Sahara Desert. The Atlas mountains are primarily inhabited by Berber populations. The terms for 'mountain' in some Berber languages are adrar and adras, which are believed to be cognates of the toponym Atlas. The mountains are home to a number of animal and plants unique in Africa, often more like those of Europe; many of them are endangered and some have already gone extinct.

Ben Nevis

Ben Nevis (Scottish Gaelic: Beinn Nibheis, pronounced [peˈɲivəʃ]; English: ) is the highest mountain in the British Isles. Standing at 1,345 metres (4,411 ft) above sea level, it is at the western end of the Grampian Mountains in the Lochaber area of the Scottish Highlands, close to the town of Fort William.

The mountain is a popular destination, attracting an estimated 100,000 ascents a year, around three-quarters of which use the Pony Track from Glen Nevis.

The 700-metre (2,300 ft) cliffs of the north face are among the highest in Scotland, providing classic scrambles and rock climbs of all difficulties for climbers and mountaineers. They are also the principal locations in Scotland for ice climbing.

The summit, which is the collapsed dome of an ancient volcano, features the ruins of an observatory which was continuously staffed between 1883 and 1904. The meteorological data collected during this period are still important for understanding Scottish mountain weather. C. T. R. Wilson was inspired to invent the cloud chamber after a period spent working at the observatory.

Denali

Denali () (also known as Mount McKinley, its former official name) is the highest mountain peak in North America, with a summit elevation of 20,310 feet (6,190 m) above sea level. With a topographic prominence of 20,156 feet (6,144 m) and a topographic isolation of 4,629 miles (7,450 km), Denali is the third most prominent and third most isolated peak on Earth, after Mount Everest and Aconcagua. Located in the Alaska Range in the interior of the U.S. state of Alaska, Denali is the centerpiece of Denali National Park and Preserve.

The Koyukon people who inhabit the area around the mountain have referred to the peak as "Denali" for centuries. In 1896, a gold prospector named it "Mount McKinley" in support of then-presidential candidate William McKinley; that name was the official name recognized by the Federal government of the United States from 1917 until 2015. In August 2015, following the 1975 lead of the State of Alaska, the United States Department of the Interior announced the change of the official name of the mountain to Denali.In 1903, James Wickersham recorded the first attempt at climbing Denali, which was unsuccessful. In 1906, Frederick Cook claimed the first ascent, which was later proven to be false. The first verifiable ascent to Denali's summit was achieved on June 7, 1913, by climbers Hudson Stuck, Harry Karstens, Walter Harper, and Robert Tatum, who went by the South Summit. In 1951, Bradford Washburn pioneered the West Buttress route, considered to be the safest and easiest route, and therefore the most popular currently in use.On September 2, 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey announced that the mountain is 20,310 feet (6,190 m) high, not 20,320 feet (6,194 m), as measured in 1952 using photogrammetry.

Gregor Clegane

Gregor Clegane, nicknamed "The Mountain That Rides" or simply "The Mountain", is a fictional character in the A Song of Ice and Fire series of fantasy novels by American author George R. R. Martin, and its television adaptation Game of Thrones. In the books, the character is initially introduced in 1996's A Game of Thrones. He subsequently appeared in A Clash of Kings (1998), A Storm of Swords (2000) and in A Dance with Dragons (2011).

A famous knight and retainer to House Lannister, he is well known for his size, prowess in battle, extremely cruel nature, and uncontrollable temper. He is also the older brother of Sandor "The Hound" Clegane; the two are mortal enemies ever since Gregor gruesomely scarred Sandor by shoving his face into a brazier when they were children. He later becomes the personal bodyguard of Cersei Lannister under the name Robert Strong.

In the HBO television adaptation, Clegane was originally portrayed by Australian actor Conan Stevens in season one, and by Welsh actor Ian Whyte in season two; Icelandic actor and strongman Hafþór Júlíus Björnsson took over the role from season four onwards.

Hafþór Júlíus Björnsson

Hafþór Júlíus Björnsson (Icelandic pronunciation: ​[ˈhafθour ˈjuːlijʏs ˈpjœr̥sɔːn]; born November 26, 1988) is an Icelandic professional strongman and actor. He is the current World's Strongest Man and is the first person to have won the Arnold Strongman Classic, Europe's Strongest Man and World's Strongest Man in the same calendar year. He plays Gregor "The Mountain" Clegane in the HBO series Game of Thrones. He also is a former professional basketball player.

Born in Reykjavík, Hafþór began his basketball career in 2004 with Division I team Breiðablik, moving to FSu in 2005. He transferred to Premier League side KR in 2006 before returning to FSu in 2007. He helped FSu to promotion from Division I to the Premier League but his career was cut short in 2008 due a recurrent ankle injury. He subsequently began his strongman career.

Hafþór won the Strongest Man in Iceland event in 2010, and won Iceland's Strongest Man in 2011. He won Europe's Strongest Man in 2014, a feat he repeated in 2015, 2017, and 2018. He won silver at the 2017 Arnold Strongman Classic, improving to gold in 2018 and 2019. He competed in his first World's Strongest Man in 2011, placing sixth. He won three bronze and three silver medals in his next six attempts before being crowned champion in 2018.

K2

K2 (Urdu: کے ٹو‎, Kai Ṭū), also known as Mount Godwin-Austen or Chhogori (Balti and Urdu: چھوغوری‎, Chinese: 乔戈里峰), at 8,611 metres (28,251 ft) above sea level, is the second highest mountain in the world, after Mount Everest at 8,848 metres (29,029 ft). It is located on the China–Pakistan border between Baltistan in the Gilgit-Baltistan region of northern Pakistan, and the Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County of Xinjiang, China. K2 is the highest point of the Karakoram range and the highest point in both Pakistan and Xinjiang.

K2 is known as the Savage Mountain due to the extreme difficulty of ascent. It has the second-highest fatality rate among the eight-thousanders, with around 300 successful summits and 77 fatalities; about one person dies on the mountain for every four who reach the summit. It is more difficult and hazardous to reach the peak of K2 from the Chinese side, so it is usually climbed from the Pakistani side. K2 has never been climbed during winter, unlike Annapurna, the mountain with the highest fatality-to-summit rate (191 summits and 61 fatalities), or the other eight-thousanders. Ascents have almost always been made in July and August, the warmest times of year; K2's more northern location makes it more susceptible to inclement and colder weather.

Matterhorn

The Matterhorn (German: Matterhorn [ˈmatərˌhɔrn]; Italian: Cervino [tʃerˈviːno]; French: Mont Cervin [mɔ̃ sɛʁvɛ̃]) is a mountain of the Alps, straddling the main watershed and border between Switzerland and Italy. It is a large, near-symmetrical pyramidal peak in the extended Monte Rosa area of the Pennine Alps, whose summit is 4,478 metres (14,692 ft) high, making it one of the highest summits in the Alps and Europe. The four steep faces, rising above the surrounding glaciers, face the four compass points and are split by the Hörnli, Furggen, Leone/Lion, and Zmutt ridges. The mountain overlooks the Swiss town of Zermatt, in the canton of Valais, to the north-east and the Italian town of Breuil-Cervinia in the Aosta Valley to the south. Just east of the Matterhorn is Theodul Pass, the main passage between the two valleys on its north and south sides, and a trade route since the Roman Era.

The Matterhorn was studied by Horace-Bénédict de Saussure in the late eighteenth century, who was followed by other renowned naturalists and artists, such as John Ruskin, in the nineteenth century. It remained unclimbed after most of the other great Alpine peaks had been attained and became the subject of an international competition for the summit. The first ascent of the Matterhorn was finally made in 1865 from Zermatt by a party led by Edward Whymper which ended disastrously when four of its members fell to their deaths on the descent. That climb and disaster, later portrayed in several films, marked the end of the golden age of alpinism. The north face was not climbed until 1931 and is amongst the three biggest north faces of the Alps, known as "The Trilogy". The west face, which is the highest of the Matterhorn's four faces, was completely climbed only in 1962. It is estimated that over 500 alpinists have died on the Matterhorn since the first climb in 1865, making it one of the deadliest peaks in the world.The Matterhorn is mainly composed of gneisses (originally fragments of the African Plate before the Alpine orogeny) from the Dent Blanche nappe, lying over ophiolites and sedimentary rocks of the Penninic nappes. The mountain's current shape is the result of cirque erosion due to multiple glaciers diverging from the peak, such as the Matterhorn Glacier at the base of the north face.

Sometimes referred to as the Mountain of Mountains (German: Berg der Berge), the Matterhorn has become an iconic emblem of the Swiss Alps and of the Alps in general. Since the end of the 19th century, when railways were built in the area, the mountain has attracted increasing numbers of visitors and climbers. Each year, numerous mountaineers try to climb the Matterhorn from the Hörnli Hut via the northeast Hörnli ridge, the most popular route to the summit. Many trekkers also undertake the 10-day-long circuit around the mountain. The Matterhorn has been part of the Swiss Federal Inventory of Natural Monuments since 1983.

Mont Blanc

Mont Blanc (pronounced [mɔ̃ blɑ̃]; Italian: Monte Bianco [ˈmonte ˈbjaŋko]), meaning "White Mountain", is the highest mountain in the Alps and the highest in Europe west of Russia's Caucasus peaks.

It rises 4,808.7 m (15,777 ft) above sea level and is ranked 11th in the world in topographic prominence. The mountain stands in a range called the Graian Alps, between the regions of Aosta Valley, Italy, and Savoie and Haute-Savoie, France. The location of the summit is on the watershed line between the valleys of Ferret and Veny in Italy and the valleys of Montjoie, and Arve in France, in the middle of what is generally considered to be the border between the two countries.

In June 2015, Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi expressed repeated claims on the territory. The Mont Blanc massif is popular for outdoor activities like hiking, climbing, trail running and winter sports like skiing, and snowboarding.

The three towns and their communes which surround Mont Blanc are Courmayeur in Aosta Valley, Italy; and Saint-Gervais-les-Bains and Chamonix in Haute-Savoie, France. The latter town was the site of the first Winter Olympics. A cable car ascends and crosses the mountain range from Courmayeur to Chamonix, through the Col du Géant. The 11 km (7¼-mile) Mont Blanc Tunnel, constructed between 1957 and 1965, runs beneath the mountain and is a major trans-Alpine transport route.

Mount Everest

Mount Everest, known in Nepali as Sagarmatha (सगरमाथा) and in Tibetan as Chomolungma (ཇོ་མོ་གླང་མ), is Earth's highest mountain above sea level, located in the Mahalangur Himal sub-range of the Himalayas. The international border between Nepal (Province No. 1) and China (Tibet Autonomous Region) runs across its summit point.

The current official elevation of 8,848 m (29,029 ft), recognized by China and Nepal, was established by a 1955 Indian survey and subsequently confirmed by a Chinese survey in 1975. In 2005, China remeasured the rock height of the mountain, with a result of 8844.43 m (29,017 ft). There followed an argument between China and Nepal as to whether the official height should be the rock height (8,844 m, China) or the snow height (8,848 m, Nepal). In 2010, an agreement was reached by both sides that the height of Everest is 8,848 m, and Nepal recognizes China's claim that the rock height of Everest is 8,844 m.In 1865, Everest was given its official English name by the Royal Geographical Society, upon a recommendation by Andrew Waugh, the British Surveyor General of India. As there appeared to be several different local names, Waugh chose to name the mountain after his predecessor in the post, Sir George Everest, despite Everest's objections.Mount Everest attracts many climbers, some of them highly experienced mountaineers. There are two main climbing routes, one approaching the summit from the southeast in Nepal (known as the "standard route") and the other from the north in Tibet. While not posing substantial technical climbing challenges on the standard route, Everest presents dangers such as altitude sickness, weather, and wind, as well as significant hazards from avalanches and the Khumbu Icefall. As of 2017, nearly 300 people have died on Everest, many of whose bodies remain on the mountain.The first recorded efforts to reach Everest's summit were made by British mountaineers. As Nepal did not allow foreigners into the country at the time, the British made several attempts on the north ridge route from the Tibetan side. After the first reconnaissance expedition by the British in 1921 reached 7,000 m (22,970 ft) on the North Col, the 1922 expedition pushed the north ridge route up to 8,320 m (27,300 ft), marking the first time a human had climbed above 8,000 m (26,247 ft). Seven porters were killed in an avalanche on the descent from the North Col. The 1924 expedition resulted in one of the greatest mysteries on Everest to this day: George Mallory and Andrew Irvine made a final summit attempt on 8 June but never returned, sparking debate as to whether or not they were the first to reach the top. They had been spotted high on the mountain that day but disappeared in the clouds, never to be seen again, until Mallory's body was found in 1999 at 8,155 m (26,755 ft) on the north face. Tenzing Norgay and Edmund Hillary made the first official ascent of Everest in 1953, using the southeast ridge route. Norgay had reached 8,595 m (28,199 ft) the previous year as a member of the 1952 Swiss expedition. The Chinese mountaineering team of Wang Fuzhou, Gonpo, and Qu Yinhua made the first reported ascent of the peak from the north ridge on 25 May 1960.

Mount Fuji

Mount Fuji (富士山, Fujisan, IPA: [ɸɯꜜdʑisaɴ] (listen)), located on Honshū, is the highest volcano in Japan at 3,776.24 m (12,389 ft), 2nd-highest peak of an island (volcanic) in Asia, and 7th-highest peak of an island in the world. It is a dormant stratovolcano that last erupted in 1707–1708. Mount Fuji lies about 100 kilometers (60 mi) south-west of Tokyo, and can be seen from there on a clear day. Mount Fuji's exceptionally symmetrical cone, which is snow-capped for about 5 months a year, is a well-known symbol of Japan and it is frequently depicted in art and photographs, as well as visited by sightseers and climbers.Mount Fuji is one of Japan's "Three Holy Mountains" (三霊山, Sanreizan) along with Mount Tate and Mount Haku. It is also a Special Place of Scenic Beauty and one of Japan's Historic Sites. It was added to the World Heritage List as a Cultural Site on June 22, 2013. According to UNESCO, Mount Fuji has "inspired artists and poets and been the object of pilgrimage for centuries". UNESCO recognizes 25 sites of cultural interest within the Mount Fuji locality. These 25 locations include the mountain and the Shinto shrine, Fujisan Hongū Sengen Taisha, as well as the Buddhist Taisekiji Head Temple founded in 1290, later immortalized by Japanese ukiyo-e artist Katsushika Hokusai.

Mount Kilimanjaro

Mount Kilimanjaro or just Kilimanjaro ( ), with its three volcanic cones, "Kibo", "Mawenzi", and "Shira", is a dormant volcano in Tanzania. It is the highest mountain in Africa, with its summit about 4,900 metres (16,100 ft) from its base, and 5,895 metres (19,341 ft) above sea level. The first people known to have reached the summit of the mountain were Hans Meyer and Ludwig Purtscheller, in 1889. The mountain is part of Kilimanjaro National Park and is a major climbing destination. The mountain has been the subject of many scientific studies because of its shrinking glaciers and disappearing ice fields.

Mount Rainier

Mount Rainier (pronounced: ), also known as Tahoma or Tacoma, is a large active stratovolcano located 59 miles (95 km) south-southeast of Seattle, in the Mount Rainier National Park. With a summit elevation of 14,411 ft (4,392 m). It is the highest mountain in the U.S. state of Washington, and of the Cascade Range of the Pacific Northwest, it is the most topographically prominent mountain in the contiguous United States and the Cascade Volcanic Arc.

Mt. Rainier is considered one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the world, and it is on the Decade Volcano list. Because of its large amount of glacial ice, Mt. Rainier could produce massive lahars that could threaten the entire Puyallup River valley. "About 80,000 people and their homes are at risk in Mount Rainier’s lahar-hazard zones."

Mountain Time Zone

The Mountain Time Zone of North America keeps time by subtracting seven hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) when standard time is in effect, and by subtracting six hours during daylight saving time (UTC−06:00). The clock time in this zone is based on the mean solar time at the 105th meridian west of the Greenwich Observatory. In the United States, the exact specification for the location of time zones and the dividing lines between zones is set forth in the Code of Federal Regulations at 49 CFR 71.In the United States and Canada, this time zone is generically called Mountain Time (MT). Specifically, it is Mountain Standard Time (MST) when observing standard time, and Mountain Daylight Time (MDT) when observing daylight saving time. The term refers to how the Rocky Mountains, which range from northwestern Canada to the US state of New Mexico, are located almost entirely in the time zone. In Mexico, this time zone is known as the Zona Pacífico (Pacific Zone). In the US and Canada, the Mountain Time Zone is to the east of the Pacific Time Zone and to the west of the Central Time Zone.

In some areas, starting in 2007, the local time changes from MST to MDT at 2 am MST to 3 am MDT on the second Sunday in March and returns at 2 am MDT to 1 am MST on the first Sunday in November.

Sonora in Mexico and most of Arizona in the United States do not observe daylight saving time, and during the spring, summer, and autumn months they are on the same time as Pacific Daylight Time. The Navajo Nation, most of which lies within Arizona but extends into Utah and New Mexico (which do observe DST), does observe DST, although the Hopi Nation, as well as some Arizona state offices lying within the Navajo Nation, do not.

The largest city in the Mountain Time Zone is Phoenix, Arizona. The Phoenix metropolitan area is the largest metropolitan area in the zone; the next largest metropolitan area that observes Mountain Time is Denver, closely followed by the El Paso–Juárez area.

TV broadcasting in the Mountain Time Zone is typically tape-delayed one hour, so that shows match the broadcast times of the Central Time Zone (i.e. prime time begins at 7 pm MT following the same order of programming as the Central Time Zone).

Mountain West Conference

The Mountain West Conference (MW) is one of the collegiate athletic conferences affiliated with the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) (formerly I-A). The MW officially began operations in July 1999. Geographically, the MW covers a broad expanse of the Western United States, with member schools located in California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. Craig Thompson has served as Commissioner of the MW since its founding in 1999.The charter members of the MW included the United States Air Force Academy, Brigham Young University, Colorado State University, San Diego State University, the University of New Mexico, the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, the University of Utah, and the University of Wyoming. Before forming the Mountain West Conference, seven of its eight charter members had been longtime members of the Western Athletic Conference, and half of these had been charter members of that conference from 1962. Overall, each school that has ever been either a full or football-only member of the MW spent at least three years in the WAC before joining the Mountain West.

Pacific Time Zone

The Pacific Time Zone (PT) is a time zone encompassing parts of western Canada, the western United States, and western Mexico. Places in this zone observe standard time by subtracting eight hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC−08:00). During daylight saving time, a time offset of UTC−07:00 is used.

In the United States and Canada, this time zone is generically called the "Pacific Time Zone". Specifically, time in this zone is referred to as "Pacific Standard Time" (PST) when standard time is being observed (early November to mid-March), and "Pacific Daylight Time" (PDT) when daylight saving time (mid-March to early November) is being observed. In Mexico, the corresponding time zone is known as the Zona Noroeste (Northwest Zone) and observes the same daylight saving schedule as the U.S. and Canada. The largest city in the Pacific Time Zone is Los Angeles; the city’s metropolitan area is the largest in this time zone.

The zone is two hours ahead of the Hawaii–Aleutian Time Zone, one hour ahead of the Alaska Time Zone, one hour behind the Mountain Time Zone, two hours behind the Central Time Zone, three hours behind the Eastern Time Zone, and four hours behind the Atlantic Time Zone.

Stone Mountain

Stone Mountain is a quartz monzonite dome monadnock and the site of Stone Mountain Park near Stone Mountain, Georgia. At its summit, the elevation is 1,686 feet (514 m) above sea level and 825 feet (251 m) above the surrounding area. Stone Mountain is well known for not only its geology, but also the enormous rock relief on its north face, the largest bas-relief in the world. The carving depicts three Confederate figures, Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson, and has been the subject of widespread controversy.Stone Mountain was once owned by the Venable Brothers and was the site of the founding of the second Ku Klux Klan in 1915. It was purchased by the State of Georgia in 1958 "as a memorial to the Confederacy." Stone Mountain Park officially opened on April 14, 1965 – 100 years to the day after Lincoln's assassination. It is the most visited destination in the state of Georgia.Stone Mountain is more than 5 miles (8 km) in circumference at its base. The summit of the mountain can be reached by a walk-up trail on the west side of the mountain or by the Skyride aerial tram.

TNA Television Championship

The TNA Television Championship was a professional wrestling championship owned by the promotion Total Nonstop Action Wrestling (TNA, now Impact Wrestling). It was introduced on the October 23, 2008 episode of TNA's television program TNA Impact! as the TNA Legends Championship. It was later known as the TNA Global Championship and the TNA King of the Mountain Championship. The title appeared in Global Force Wrestling (GFW), during a talent exchange partnership.

As a professional wrestling championship, it was won via a planned ending to a match or awarded to a wrestler because of a storyline. All title changes occurred at TNA-promoted events. Reigns that occurred on TNA Impact!, or its later title Impact Wrestling, usually aired on tape delay. The first champion was Booker T. The final champion was Lashley, as the title was retired on August 12, 2016. There were a total of 25 reigns among 19 wrestlers.

The Beauty of Lebanon or The Mountain Spirit

The Beauty of Lebanon, or The Mountain Spirit (French: La Belle du Liban, ou L'Esprit des montagnes; Russian: Ливанская красавица, или Горный дух) is a fantastic ballet in three acts and seven scenes, with choreography by Marius Petipa and music by Cesare Pugni. Libretto by E. Rappoport and Marius Petipa. The ballet was first presented by the Imperial Ballet on December 12/24 (Julian/Gregorian calendar dates), 1863 at the Imperial Bolshoi Kamenny Theatre in St. Petersburg, Russia, with Mariia Surovshchikova-Petipa (as the Mountain Spirit) and Timofei Stukolkin (as Beshir).

The Mountain Goats

The Mountain Goats (stylized "the Mountain Goats") are an American band formed in Claremont, California by singer-songwriter John Darnielle. The band is currently based in Durham, North Carolina.

For many years, the sole member of the Mountain Goats was Darnielle, despite the plural moniker. Although he remains the core member of the band, he has worked with a variety of collaborators over time, including bassist and vocalist Peter Hughes, drummer Jon Wurster, multi-instrumentalist Matt Douglas, singer-songwriter Franklin Bruno, bassist and vocalist Rachel Ware, singer-songwriter/producer John Vanderslice, guitarist Kaki King, and multi-instrumentalist Annie Clark.Throughout the 1990s, the Mountain Goats were known for producing low-fidelity home recordings (most notably, on a cassette deck boombox) and releasing recordings in cassette or vinyl 7" formats. Since 2002, the Mountain Goats have adopted a more polished approach, recording studio albums with a full band, while still maintaining organically emotional lyrical motifs.

Zebra

Zebras ( ZEE-brə, UK also ZEB-rə) are several species of African equids (horse family) united by their distinctive black-and-white striped coats. Their stripes come in different patterns, unique to each individual. They are generally social animals that live in small harems to large herds. Unlike their closest relatives, horses and donkeys, zebras have never been truly domesticated.

There are three species of zebras: the plains zebra, the mountain zebra and the Grévy's zebra. The plains zebra and the mountain zebra belong to the subgenus Hippotigris, while Grévy's zebra is the sole species of subgenus Dolichohippus. The latter resembles an ass, to which zebras are closely related, while the former two look more horse-like. All three belong to the genus Equus, along with other living equids.

The unique stripes of zebras make them one of the animals most familiar to people. They occur in a variety of habitats, such as grasslands, savannas, woodlands, thorny scrublands, mountains, and coastal hills. Various anthropogenic factors have had a severe impact on zebra populations, in particular hunting for skins and habitat destruction. Grévy's zebra and the mountain zebra are endangered. While plains zebras are much more plentiful, one subspecies, the quagga, became extinct in the late 19th century – though there is currently a plan, called the Quagga Project, that aims to breed zebras that are phenotypically similar to the quagga in a process called breeding back.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.