The March of Time

The March of Time is an American short film series sponsored by Time Inc. and shown in movie theaters from 1935 to 1951. It was based on a radio news series broadcast from 1931 to 1945. The "voice" of both series was Westbrook Van Voorhis. Produced and written by Louis de Rochemont and his brother Richard de Rochemont, The March of Time was recognized with an Academy Honorary Award in 1937.

The March of Time organization also produced four feature films for theatrical release, and created documentary series for early television. Its first TV series, Crusade in Europe (1949), received a Peabody Award and one of the first Emmy Awards.

The March of Time
March-of-Time-title
Intertitle
Produced by
Narrated byWestbrook Van Voorhis
Production
company
Distributed by
Release date
  • February 1, 1935
– August 1951
Running time
15–30 minutes

Production

The March of Time was based on a news documentary and dramatization series, also called The March of Time, that was first broadcast on CBS Radio. Usually called a newsreel series, The March of Time was actually a monthly series of short feature films twice the length of standard newsreels. The films were didactic, with a subjective point of view.[1]:75–76 The editors of Time described it as "pictorial journalism". Like its radio namesake, The March of Time included reporting, on-location shots, and dramatic reenactments. The March of Time's relationship to the newsreel was compared to the weekly interpretive news magazine's relationship to the daily newspaper.[2]

The March of Time was launched February 1, 1935, in over 500 theaters. Each entry in the series was either a two- or three-reel film (20 or 30 minutes). Westbrook Van Voorhis, who hosted the radio program, served as narrator of the film series. The series, which finally totalled close to 200 segments, was an immediate success with audiences. Because of its high production costs—estimated at $50,000 per episode, released at the rate of about one episode per month—the series was a money loser. However, it remained in production for six years beyond the cancellation of the radio show on which it was based.

At its peak The March of Time was seen by 25 million U.S. moviegoers a month.[3]

"Implicit in all March of Time issues was a kind of uncomplicated American liberalism — general good intentions, a healthy journalistic skepticism, faith in enlightened self-interest, and substantial pride in American progress and potential", wrote March of Time chronicler Raymond Fielding:

The men who made the March of Time were not political theorists, they were journalists. For them, fascism, communism, and native demagogues seemed foreign to the American ethic, and they exposed and attacked them accordingly. … A cinematic agent provocateur, the March of Time turned over a lot of rocks, both at home and abroad, and illuminated the creatures it found beneath them. The demagogues and quacks whom they attacked in the 1930s may seem like obvious targets now, but they didn't seem so then. They were popular, powerful, frightening people, and the March of Time stood entirely alone in theatrical motion picture circles as a muckraker.[1]:87

In late 1936, producer Roy E. Larsen reluctantly left The March of Time to serve as publisher of Life, a weekly news magazine that began publication in November 1936. Time executives had long vacillated over launching such a magazine, but the success of The March of Time's experiments in pictorial journalism overcame the hesitation of the corporation's board of directors. Larsen proposed that the new magazine be named The March of Time, but the name Life was purchased from the owners of a declining periodical. Life magazine was a great success and notable influence on photojournalism throughout its 36-year history.[1]:161–162

Louis de Rochemont succeeded Larsen as producer of The March of Time, while Larsen continued to supervise the operations of the series on behalf of the Time corporation.[1]:162

The March of Time Inside Nazi Germany 1938
Crowd in front of a New York news cinema running Inside Nazi Germany (1938), was an inductee of the 1993 National Film Registrylist.[4]

Examining the subjects of The March of Time, series historian Raymond Fielding found that episodes dealing with a single country and its affairs comprised 32.6 to 36 percent of the entire series. Economic issues were the subject of 10 percent of the episodes, and domestic politics 5 percent. Between 1935 and 1942, approximately 24 percent of the episodes were about war or the threat of war; from December 1941 until the end of World War II nearly every episode dealt with war.[1]:172

"Although the March of Time was professedly nonpartisan, a clear and persistent antifascist tone was becoming apparent in its analysis of world politics and rising militarism", Fielding wrote. "'Rehearsal for War' [August 6, 1937] was unquestionably anti-Franco, which was exactly what liberal staff members had intended."[1]:175–176

During Louis de Rochemont's tenure (1935–1943), 14 percent of the March of Time episodes were about the impact of specific individuals on political, economic and military events — a number that dropped significantly after his departure. De Rochemont's particular interest in the geopolitical role of the world's waterways resulted in 7.5 percent of all episodes devoted to the subject.[1]:172

The March of Time film series ended in 1951, when the widespread adoption of television and daily TV news shows made the newsreel format obsolete. Newsreel series such as Pathé News (1910–56), Paramount News (1927–57), Fox Movietone News (1928–63), Hearst Metrotone News/News of the Day (1914–67), and Universal Newsreel (1929–67) continued for a while longer.

Episodes

Unless noted, sources for episode information are The March of Time, 1935–1951 by Raymond Fielding,[1]:335–342 and the HBO Archive's summary of The March of Time Newsreels.[5]

Volume + Issue U.S. Release Date Title Length Notes
1.1 February 1, 1935 Saionji
Speakeasy Street
Belisha Beacons
Moe Buchsbaum
Fred Perkins
Metropolitan Opera
4:14
2:32
3:02
1:56
3:28
5:48
Prince Saionji counsels Japan's leaders
The 21 Club frustrates federal agents during Prohibition
Britain's transport ministry erects traffic lights despite hostility
U.S. tourist agrees to pay fine in France under one condition[6]
Manufacturer defies NRA wage-scale directives on principle
Giulio Gatti-Casazza retires; first sound pictures of the Met
1.2 March 8, 1935 Germany
New York Daily News
Leadbelly
Mohawk Disaster
Speed Camera
6:07
4:20
3:29
5:24
1:52
Adolf Hitler's rise to power and preparations for war
Scooping competitors with news of the Bruno Hauptmann sentence
Folk songs of Huddie Ledbetter preserved by the Library of Congress
Three consecutive sea disasters prompt consideration of International Safety Code
Harold Eugene Edgerton's new slow-motion camera
1.3 April 19, 1935 Huey Long
Munitions
Mexico
Trans-Pacific
5:56
3:51
4:08
7:23
Satirical study of Huey Long
Basil Zaharoff attends secret conference of munitions manufacturers at Cannes
Suppression of freedom of religion in Mexico by Plutarco Elías Calles
Pan American Airways's Sikorsky S-42 flying boats provide service to China
1.4 May 31, 1935 Navy War Games
Russia
Washington News
8:08
9:11
5:01
United States Navy war games in the Pacific
Review of the Soviet experiment, as Joseph Stalin attempts to unify Russia
The Washington press corps at work, featuring Arthur Krock
1.5 August 16, 1935 Army
Croix de Feu
Father Coughlin
9:17
8:17
5:43
General Douglas MacArthur leads Army maneuvers in a simulated invasion of the U.S.
Militant French fascist organization Croix-de-Feu forms and grows
Portrait of politically outspoken radio evangelist Father Charles Coughlin
1.6 September 20, 1935 Bootleg Coal
Civilian Conservation Corps
Ethiopia
5:47
7:27
7:13
Pennsylvania miners on strike dig coal from closed mines to survive
CCC camps save both the land and unemployed youth of America
British build dam for Emperor Haile Selassie as Italy mobilizes for war
1.7 October 18, 1935 Neutrality
Palestine
Safety ("— And Sudden Death")
Summer Theatres
5:14
7:50
4:53
3:30
With the invasion of Ethiopia, the U.S. embargoes arms sales to belligerents
Nazi oppression drives Jews into Tel Aviv
Dramatic staging of J. C. Furnas's Reader's Digest article on auto accidents
Young actors including Henry Fonda, Margaret Sullavan and Katharine Hepburn
1.8 November 13, 1935 G.O.P.
Strikebreaking
Wild Ducks
7:13
5:07
6:55
Herbert Hoover and fellow Republicans prepare for the 1936 Presidential election
Methods of professional strikebreaker Pearl Bergoff during the textile workers strike
Review of U.S. Biological Survey efforts to preserve migratory waterfowl
1.9 December 13, 1935 Japan–China
Narcotics
Townsend Plan
8:01
7:37
6:59
Japanese occupation of China and formation of the puppet state of Manchukuo
Federal Bureau of Narcotics works to stop cocaine smuggling into New Orleans
Francis Townsend's revolving old-age pension alternative to Social Security
2.1 January 7, 1936 Pacific Islands
Deibler
TVA
6:10
3:51
8:29
Bureau of Air Commerce colonizes uninhabited Pacific islands
Portrait of Anatole Deibler, France's executioner-in-chief
Profile of the Tennessee Valley Authority
2.2 February 14, 1936 Father Divine
Hartman Discovery
Moscow
6:36
5:17
8:07
Religious organization and theories of spiritual leader Father Divine
Dr. Leroy L. Hartman invents new painkilling technique for dentistry
Study of life in the Soviet Union
2.3 March 13, 1936 Devil's Island
Tokyo, Japan
Fisheries
6:09
5:00
6:13
Prisoners in French Guiana
Study of political revolt and killing of government officials by army officers
New England fishermen fear losing Canadian tariff
2.4 April 17, 1936 Florida Canal
Arson Squads in Action
Field Trials
Veterans of Future Wars
6:04
6:11
4:27
5:34
Angry debate over construction of the Cross Florida Barge Canal
Dramatization of fire marshal Thomas P. Brophy solving arson case in Brooklyn
Hunting and sporting dog trials in Tennessee
Princeton University student organization proposes bonuses for future military service
2.5 May 15, 1936 League of Nations Union
Railroads
Relief
7:14
8:04
5:34
Critical look at the weakened League of Nations and worsening international relations
Uncertain future of railroad industry
Dramatizations depict the decreasing national relief fund
2.6 June 12, 1936 Otto von Habsburg
Texas Centennial
Crime School
6:52
6:42
8:45
Archduke Otto of Austria in exile
Satirical study of the Texas Centennial Exposition
Fictional case history of a poor New York boy who becomes a criminal
2.7 June 12, 1936 Revolt in France
An American Dictator
Jockey Club
6:40
5:47
8:18
Social and political shifts in France since World War I
Exposé of Rafael Trujillo
The Jockey Club sets horse racing policies and investigates illegal practices
2.8 August 7, 1936 Albania's King Zog
Highway Homes
King Cotton's Slaves
6:25
6:31
7:40
Profile of Albania and King Zog I
Trailers are used for camping, recreation and affordable homes
Brutal economic conditions under which Southern sharecropper families live
3.1 September 2, 1936 Passamaquoddy
The 'Lunatic Fringe'
U.S. Milky Way
8:08
6:59
6:51
The Public Works Administration's Quoddy Dam Project for eastern Maine
Gerald L. K. Smith, Father Divine, Francis Townsend and Charles Coughlin
Dramatization of 1893 milk-borne typhoid epidemic; current dairy farming practices
3.2 September 30, 1936 England's Tithe War
Labor versus Labor
The Football Business
7:31
7:22
n/a
Church of England tithe law is an intolerable burden on farmers during the Depression
John L. Lewis of the United Mine Workers breaks away from the AFL to form the CIO
The amateur sport of college football is becoming big business
3.3 November 6, 1936 The Presidency
New Schools for Old
11:29
8:29
FDR reelected; review of first term and speculation on second term
The U.S. public school system celebrates its centennial; John Dewey speaks
3.4 November 27, 1936 A Soldier-King's Son
St. Lawrence Seaway
An Uncle Sam Production
6:30
5:35
9:17
Young King Leopold III of Belgium rules a country facing Nazi aggression from Germany and within
U.S. and Canadian efforts to open a binational deep waterway for trade through the Great Lakes face opposition
The Federal Theatre Project works to revitalize an industry ravaged by the Great Depression
3.5 December 24, 1936 China's Dictator Kidnapped
Business Girls in the Big City
9:57
8:01
Chiang Kai-shek is kidnapped by Manchurian ruler Zhang Xueliang
Women in business and industry, the professions and government; profiles include Edna Woolman Chase, Erma Perham Proetz, Josephine Roche and Frances Perkins
3.6 January 22, 1937 Conquering Cancer
Midwinter Vacations
Mormonism
6:01
6:56
5:56
The history and nature of cancer and the progress being made to combat it; profile of accused quack Norman G. Baker
Advertising agencies promote winter vacations in Florida; winter resorts attempt to attract tourist revenue
Brief overview of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Utah
3.7 February 19, 1937 Father of All Turks
Birth of Swing
Enemies of Alcohol
3:38
6:39
5:51
Turkey is Westernized under Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Swing music's roots in New Orleans jazz; Nick LaRocca reunites the Original Dixieland Jass Band and performs "Tiger Rag"
Post-Prohibition resurgence of the liquor business faces two enemies — bootlegging and the temperance movement
3.8 March 19, 1937 Child Labor
Coronation Crisis
Harlem's Black Magic
6:10
7:51
5:03
Three presidents advocate a Child Labor Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
Lloyd's of London pays off on business losses due to the abdication of Edward VIII, and defunct souvenirs find a ready market in the U.S.
The New York World-Telegram exposes voodoo worship in Harlem as a racket for confidence men
3.9 April 16, 1937 Amateur Sleuths
Britain's Food Defenses
The Supreme Court
5:44
6:25
8:10
Volunteer sleuth clubs organized to help police solve crimes
Facing a military shortage due to malnourishment, Britain campaigns and trains for physical fitness
FDR combats legal challenges to New Deal innovations, including the Wagner Act, with an attempt to reform the Supreme Court
3.10 May 14, 1937 Irish Republic — 1937
Puzzle Prizes
U.S. Unemployed
7:09
5:12
6:33
With a new Constitution and the leadership of President Éamon de Valera, Ireland works to become self-sufficient through industrialization
Legal contests, puzzles and lotteries like the Irish Sweepstakes gain popularity
David Lasser's Worker's Alliance pressures U.S. legislators to combat unemployment; the WPA needs increased funding
3.11 June 11, 1937 Dogs for Sale
Dust Bowl
Poland and War
5:49
6:02
5:43
Catering to dog owners is big business; The Seeing Eye trains service dogs for the blind, and new legislation will lift restrictions
With more than nine million acres of U.S. farmland suffering major soil erosion, the USDA aggressively promotes planting and plowing methods that restore ecological balance
Historical overview includes the accomplishments of General Pilsudski and his successor, growing anti-Semitism and changing regional conditions
3.12 July 9, 1937 Babies Wanted
Rockefeller Millions
The 49th State?
4:59
4:48
7:08
More families seek to adopt as the U.S. birth rate declines; agencies improve childcare and screening methods
The philanthropy of John D. Rockefeller, Jr., and the Rockefeller Foundation
The key role of Hawaii in the defense of the U.S., and its campaign for statehood
3.13 August 6, 1937 Rehearsal for War
The Spoils System
Youth in Camps
6:12
5:57
5:48
The U.S. looks for lessons in the Spanish Civil War as it prepares for future conflicts
Efforts to rid the United States civil service system of nepotism and patronage
Summer resident camps for underprivileged American children offer good food, exercise, competitive sports and outdoor skills
4.1 September 10, 1937 Pests of 1937
War in China
5:09
12:38
4.2 October 1, 1937 England's D.O.R.A.
Fiorello LaGuardia
Junk and War
4:51
10:17
3:55
4.3 October 29, 1937 Amoskeag-Success Story
Crisis in Algeria
U.S. Secret Service
6:21
6:59
5:09
4.4 November 26, 1937 Britain's Gambling Fever
Alaska's Salmon War
The Human Heart
n/a
7:33
6:33
4.5 December 27, 1937 The Laugh Industry
Ships-Strikes-Seamen
5:00
n/a
4.6 January 18, 1938 Inside Nazi Germany 16:00 1993 inductee for National Film Registry
4.7 February 18, 1938 Old Dixie's New Boom
One Million Missing
Russians in Exile
7:31
5:27
5:34
4.8 March 18, 1938 Arms and the League
Brain Trust Island
7:06
11:02
4.9 April 15, 1938 Nazi Conquest — No. 1
Crime and Prisons
10:44
9:37
4.10 May 13, 1938 England's Bankrupt Peers
Friend of the People
Racketeers vs. Housewives
5:08
7:22
6:21
4.11 June 10, 1938 Men of Medicine 16:07
4.12 July 8, 1938 G-Men of the Sea 16:12
4.13 August 6, 1938 Man at the Wheel
Threat to Gibraltar
11:57
6:39
5.1 September 2, 1938 Father Divine's Deal
Prelude to Conquest
9:18
10:40
5.2 September 30, 1938 The British Dilemma
U.S. Firefighters
10:40
6:38
5.3 October 28, 1938 Inside the Maginot Line 19:42
5.4 November 25, 1938 Uncle Sam: The Good Neighbor 17:44
5.5 December 23, 1938 The Refugee — Today and Tomorrow 16:53
5.6 January 20, 1939 State of the Nation — 1939 17:01
5.7 February 1939 Mexico's New Crisis
Young America
9:43
8:56
5.8 March 1939 The Mediterranean — Background for War 17:38
5.9 April 1939 Japan — Master of the Orient 17:57
5.10 May 1939 Dixie — U.S.A. 18:09
5.11 June 1939 War, Peace, Propaganda 18:11
5.12 July 1939 The Movies March On! 20:58
5.13 August 1939 Metropolis 17:33
6.1 September 1939 Soldiers with Wings 18:07
6.2 September 1939 Battle Fleets of England 17:59
6.3 October 1939 Uncle Sam — The Farmer 17:21
6.4 November 1939 Newsfronts of War — 1940 18:16
6.5 December 1939 Crisis in the Pacific — 1940 17:10
6.6 January 1940 The Republic of Finland 1919–1940 17:25
6.7 February 1940 The Vatican of Pius XII 17:54 directed by Luís Buñuel
6.8 March 1940 Canada at War 17:25
6.9 April 1940 America's Youth 18:16
6.10 May 1940 The Philippines: 1898–1946 18:16
6.11 June 1940 The U.S. Navy — 1940 17:37
6.12 August 1940 Spoils of Conquest 16:44
6.13 August 1940 Gateways to Panama 19:09
7.1 September 1940 On Foreign Newsfronts 18:10
7.2 October 1940 Britain's R.A.F. 17:29
7.3 October 1940 Mexico — Good Neighbor's Dilemma 18:18
7.4 November 1940 Arms and the Men — U.S.A. 18:28
7.5 December 1940 Labor and Defense — U.S.A. 18:02
7.6 January 1941 Uncle Sam — The Non-Belligerent 20:36
7.7 February 1941 Americans All 16:25
7.8 March 1941 Australia at War 18:44
7.9 April 1941 Men of the F.B.I. — 1941 20:34
7.10 May 1941 Crisis in the Atlantic 16:47
7.11 June 1941 China Fights Back 17:37
7.12 August 1941 New England's Eight Million Yankees 19:39
7.13 August 1941 Peace — by Adolf Hitler 17:30
8.1 August 1941 Thumbs Up, Texas! 18:30
8.2 September 1941 Norway in Revolt 19:40 Academy Award Nominee
8.3 October 1941 Sailors with Wings 19:22
8.4 November 1941 Main Street — U.S.A. 17:09
8.5 December 1941 Our America at War 16:54
Special Issue December 1941 Battlefields of the Pacific n/a
8.6 January 1942 When Air Raids Strike 19:13
8.7 February 1942 Far East Command 17:05
8.8 March 1942 The Argentine Question 18:27
8.9 April 1942 America's New Army 16:10
8.10 May 1942 India in Crisis 18:31
8.11 June 1942 India at War 18:33
8.12 July 1942 Men in Washington — 1942 19:00
8.13 July 1942 Men of the Fleet (The Ocean Fronts) 17:15
9.1 September 1942 The F.B.I. Front 19:34
9.2 October 1942 The Fighting French n/a
9.3 November 1942 Mr. and Mrs. America 19:43
9.4 December 1942 Africa - Prelude to Victory 17:35 Academy Award Nominee
9.5 December 1942 The Navy and the Nation 18:53
9.6 January 1943 One Day of War — Russia 1943 21:04
9.7 February 1943 The New Canada 17:23
9.8 March 1943 America's Food Crisis 17:47
9.9 April 1943 Inside Fascist Spain 16:47
9.10 May 1943 Show Business at War 17:34
9.11 June 1943 Invasion! 17:53
9.12 July 1943 Bill Jack vs. Adolf Hitler 17:37
9.13 August 1943 And Then Japan 17:36
10.1 September 1943 Airways to Peace 16:27
10.2 October 1943 Portugal — Europe's Crossroads 18:25
10.3 November 1943 Youth in Crisis 17:49 Academy Award Nominee
10.4 December 1943 Naval Log of Victory 18:56
10.5 December 1943 Upbeat in Music 16:53
10.6 January 1944 Sweden's Middle Road 18:42
10.7 February 1944 Post-War Jobs 18:00
10.8 March 1944 South American Front — 1944 17:07
10.9 April 1944 The Irish Question 18:35
10.10 May 1944 Underground Report 19:19
10.11 June 1944 Back Door to Tokyo 17:40
10.12 July 1944 Americans All n/a
10.13 August 1944 British Imperialism 17:42
11.1 September 1944 Post-War Farms 16:37
11.2 October 1944 What To Do with Germany 18:25
11.3 November 1944 Uncle Sam, Mariner? 16:23
11.4 December 1944 Inside China Today 16:53
11.5 December 1944 The Unknown Battle 18:07
11.6 January 1945 Report on Italy 16:28
11.7 February 1945 The West Coast Question 16:15
11.8 March 1945 Memo from Britain 16:00
11.9 April 1945 The Returning Veteran n/a
11.10 May 1945 Spotlight on Congress 15:19
11.11 June 15, 1945 Teen-Age Girls 16:28
11.12 July 13, 1945 Where's the Meat? 16:08
11.13 August 10, 1945 The New U.S. Frontier 16:08
12.1 September 17, 1945 Palestinian Problem n/a
12.2 October 5, 1945 American Beauty 17:23
12.3 November 2, 1945 18 Million Orphans 16:43
12.4 November 30, 1945 Justice Comes to Germany 20:11
12.5 December 28, 1945 Challenge to Hollywood 17:11
12.6 January 25, 1946 Life with Baby 18:42
12.7 February 22, 1946 Report on Greece 18:22
12.8 March 22, 1946 Night Club Boom 20:38
12.9 April 19, 1946 Wanted — More Homes 20:19
12.10 May 17, 1946 Tomorrow's Mexico 19:31
12.11 June 14, 1946 Problem Drinkers 19:19
12.12 July 12, 1946 The New France 18:55
12.13 August 9, 1946 Atomic Power 18:25 Academy Award Nominee
13.1 September 27, 1946 Is Everybody Happy? 16:26
13.2 October 4, 1946 World Food Production 16:50
13.3 November 1, 1946 The Soviet's Neighbor — Czechoslovakia 17:18
13.4 November 29, 1946 The American Cop 17:39
13.5 December 27, 1946 Nobody's Children 16:20
13.6 January 24, 1947 Germany — Handle with Care! 17:36
13.7 February 21, 1947 Fashion Means Business n/a
13.8 March 21, 1947 The Teachers' Crisis 15:45
13.9 April 18, 1947 Storm over Britain 17:49
13.10 May 16, 1947 The Russians Nobody Knows 18:15
13.11 June 13, 1947 Your Doctors — 1947 18:24
13.12 July 11, 1947 New Trains for Old 18:05
13.13 August 8, 1947 Turkey's 100 Million 17:49
14.1 September 6, 1947 Is Everybody Listening? 18:05
14.2 October 3, 1947 T-Men in Action 17:06
14.3 October 30, 1947 End of an Empire? 17:53
14.4 November 28, 1947 Public Relations — This Means You 16:03
14.5 December 26, 1947 The Presidential Year 15:18
14.6 January 23, 1948 The Cold War: Act I — France 17:57
14.7 February 20, 1948 Marriage and Divorce 16:23
14.8 March 19, 1948 The Cold War: Act II — Crisis in Italy 16:22
14.9 April 16, 1948 Life with Junior 17:44
14.10 May 14, 1948 The Cold War: Act III — Battle for Greece 16:43
14.11 June 11, 1948 The Fight Game n/a
14.12 July 9, 1948 The Case of Mrs. Conrad 17:5
14.13 August 6, 1948 White-Collar Girls 16:23
14.14 September 3, 1948 Life with Grandpa 16:14
14.15 October 1, 1948 Battle for Germany 17:40
14.16 October 29, 1948 America's New Air Power 17:15
14.17 November 26, 1948 Answer to Stalin 18:15
14.18 December 24, 1948 Watchdogs of the Mail 17:37
15.1 January 21, 1949 On Stage 17:44
15.2 February 18, 1949 Asia's New Voice 16:51
15.3 March 18, 1949 Wish You Were Here 16:57
15.4 April 15, 1949 Report on the Atom 18:24
15.5 May 13, 1949 Sweden Looks Ahead 17:06
15.6 June 10, 1949 It's in the Groove 18:22
15.7 July 8, 1949 Stop — Heavy Traffic! 15:04
15.8 August 5, 1949 Farming Pays Off 16:27
15.9 September 2, 1949 Policeman's Holiday 18:45
15.10 September 30, 1949 The Fight for Better Schools 19:44
15.11 November 11, 1949 MacArthur's Japan 17:04
15.12 December 23, 1949 A Chance to Live 18:11 Boys Town of Italy aids destitute children after WWII; Academy Award Winner; The Academy Film Archive preserved A Chance to Live in 2005.[7]
16.1 February 3, 1950 Mid-Century — Half-Way to Where? 16:20
16.2 March 17, 1950 The Male Look 15:33
16.3 April 28, 1950 Where's the Fire? 18:29
16.4 June 9, 1950 Beauty at Work 17:10
16.5 August 18, 1950 As Russia Sees It 15:36
16.6 September 29, 1950 The Gathering Storm 15:52
16.7 November 10, 1950 Schools March On! 17:49
16.8 December 1950 Tito — New Ally? 17:12
17.1 February 1951 Strategy for Victory 16:56
17.2 March 1951 Flight Plan for Freedom 18:22
17.3 April 1951 The Nation's Mental Health 18:21
17.4 June 1951 Moroccan Outpost 16:47
17.5 July 1951 Crisis in Iran 17:58
17.6 August 1951 Formosa — Island of Promise 16:30

Reviews and commentary

  • Writing for The Spectator in 1935, Graham Greene favorably contrasted the film with contemporary British news films whose stories he described as "scraps of unimportant material [...] flung without arrangement on to the screen". Praising the producers of The March of Time, Greene suggested that "their fortnightly programmes can be compared with an authoritative article by a special correspondent rather than with a haphazard page of photographs from the Daily Mirror", and went on to discuss the danger of censorship for this nascent news medium in light of England's stronger libel laws and the British Board of Film Censors' decision to severely cut scenes of the Parisian riots related to the Croix de Feu, and to remove the film's final scene revealing the source of the Croix de Feu's funding - an act of censorship that Greene noted as making the film "Fascist in tone".[8]
  • Alistair Cooke, The Listener (November 20, 1935) — The March of Time is not the result of bright inspiration. Behind it is ten years' experience with a magazine of the same style; an army of correspondents and cameramen scattered throughout the world; an historical film library it took two years to prepare; a newspaper cutting library as exhaustive as anything extant; and in New York and Chicago a vast research staff alert to trace the origins of any family, war, author, statesman, treaty, or breath or rumour. With no less than this should any other film company irresponsibly compete.[1]:67
  • Bosley Crowther, The New York Times (October 31, 1937) — And now, less than three years old but already an institution, the March of Time is today one of the most successful and forward-looking features on the screen — a dynamic force for the purveyance of information through the medium of the film.[9]
  • D. A. Spencer and H. D. Waley, The Cinema Today (1939) — Although the ideal behind these films is to present, as objectively as possible, accounts of world happenings, there is no doubt whatever that they are helping to mould our views on such happenings. In America legislation regulating child labour … has at last passed both Houses of Congress by a narrow margin which is believed to be due to the March of Time. Their film on cancer has done a good deal to arouse the national conscience of America to the evils of the quackery that battens on fear of this scourge, while in England, before the present campaign for National Fitness was under way, their film Food and Physical Training aroused enormous interest and debate in that it brought home to many people's minds the fact that the animals at the zoo are better fed and housed than many of the nation's children.[1]:176
  • Neil Genzlinger, The New York Times (September 2, 2010) — It's hard to know today even what to call these films. (Raymond Fielding, a retired college educator who wrote a book about the series, told me that roughly 290 were made.) '"Newsreels'" seems inadequate; they are longer, more detailed and much more opinionated than the standard-issue newsreels that preceded them. "Documentaries" is closer, but the blaring orchestrations and outlandish voice-overs sound nothing like a modern documentary. It's tempting to give up and label these whats-its a mass-media Neanderthal — an evolutionary dead end; an attempt to merge the tools of newsgathering and filmmaking that had its moment but died out. Except that, once you watch a few and learn about how they were made, you start to see a little March of Time in almost everything: Fox News, The Daily Show with Jon Stewart, the History channel, schlocky reality shows of the I Shouldn't Be Alive variety, PBS's P.O.V.[10]
  • Tom Shales, The Washington Post (September 4, 2010) — Fascinating, enthralling, enlightening—many a superlative applies to these documentary shorts, which have gathered value with the march of time itself and have been rescued from the ravages of time by New York's Museum of Modern Art and the HBO Archive, corporate relative of the series's original creators. … It's something of an irony that The March of Time may be less famous today than a bull's-eye parody of it — a parody that millions have seen, many of them perhaps not even knowing that it is a parody or what it's lampooning. Does News on the March ring a bell? It's the title of the fake-out newsreel that begins the Orson Welles classic Citizen Kane, and it includes wily duplications of all the March of Time trademarks, including the white-on-black transitional title cards, the wall-to-wall musical score and the bombastic narration.[11]

Awards and recognition

Feature films

Four feature-length films were produced by The March of Time.[1]:343–347

Television

In 1949 The March of Time created the first extensive documentary series for television, Crusade in Europe, based on the book by Dwight D. Eisenhower. The ABC series received a Peabody Award and one of the first Emmy Awards (Best Public Service, Cultural or Educational Program).[17] It was followed by Crusade in the Pacific (1951).[1]:302

In 1965–1966, producer David L. Wolper revived the March of Time title for a series of documentary films produced in association with Time-Life, Inc.[18] The series was not successful.[1]:302

Cultural references

Dorothy Fields' lyrics for the song "A Fine Romance", introduced by Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers in the 1936 RKO film Swing Time, include a reference to the newsreel series:

A fine romance, with no kisses.
A fine romance, my friend, this is.
True love should have the thrills that a healthy crime has.
We don't have half the thrills that The March of Time has.[19][20]

The March of Dimes, a fundraising organization that still exists, was named by Eddie Cantor in 1938 as a play on The March of Time. Because Franklin D. Roosevelt founded the March of Dimes, originally called the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, a dime was chosen to honor him after his death.[21]

The March of Time series was satirized in Orson Welles's film Citizen Kane (1941) with the News on the March segment showing the life and funeral of the fictional Charles Foster Kane.[1]:258–260

The Canadian documentary series The World in Action (1942–1945) was patterned after The March of Time newsreel series.[22]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Fielding, Raymond. The March of Time, 1935–1951. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-502212-2.
  2. ^ "Pictorial Journalism". The New York Times. February 2, 1935.
  3. ^ Gilling, Ted (May 7, 1989). "Real to Reel: Newsreels and re-enactments help trio of documentaries make history come alive". Toronto Star.
  4. ^ https://www.loc.gov/programs/national-recording-preservation-board/recording-registry/complete-national-recording-registry-listing/ | accessed 3/18/2918.
  5. ^ "Synopsis" (PDF). The March of Time Newsreels. HBO Archives. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 6, 2015. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
  6. ^ "France: Motorist Moe"; Time, September 10, 1934
  7. ^ "Preserved Projects". Academy Film Archive.
  8. ^ Greene, Graham (November 1, 1935). "The March of Time". The Spectator. (reprinted in: John Russel, Taylor, ed. (1980). The Pleasure Dome. pp. 34–35. ISBN 0192812866.)
  9. ^ Crowther, Bosley, "Time Marches On and On: A Hurried Investigation of That High Potential Screen Feature." The New York Times, October 31, 1937
  10. ^ Genzlinger, Neil, "Time Marches … Backward!". The New York Times, September 2, 2010
  11. ^ Shales, Tom, "'March of Time' newsreels on Turner Classic Movies a gripping record of history". The Washington Post, September 4, 2010
  12. ^ The 9th Academy Awards, Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences; retrieved April 13, 2012
  13. ^ "March of Time Honored for War on Disease." The New York Times, October 28, 1937
  14. ^ The 14th Academy Awards, Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences; retrieved April 13, 2012
  15. ^ a b c d "The Official Academy Awards Database". American Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
  16. ^ https://www.loc.gov/programs/national-recording-preservation-board/recording-registry/complete-national-recording-registry-listing/ | accessed 3/18/2018.
  17. ^ Cook, Bruce, "Whatever Happened to Westbrook Van Voohis?" American Film, March 1977
  18. ^ The March of Time 1965–1966 at the Official Website of Producer David L. Wolper; retrieved May 24, 2012
  19. ^ "A Fine Romance". SongMeanings. Retrieved October 15, 2014.
  20. ^ "A Fine Romance". The Dorothy Fields Website. Retrieved October 15, 2014.
  21. ^ Barrett, William P. "March of Dimes' Second Act". Forbes, November 19, 2008.
  22. ^ Ohayon, Albert, "Propaganda Cinema at the NFB – The World in Action"; National Film Board of Canada (blog), September 30, 2009

External links

20th Century Fox

Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation (colloquial: Twentieth Century Fox; 20th Century Fox; 20th; Fox) is an American film studio that is a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios, a division of The Walt Disney Company. The studio is located on the Fox lot in the Century City area of Los Angeles.

For over 83 years, it was one of the "Big Six" major American film studios; formed from the merger of the Fox Film Corporation and Twentieth Century Pictures in 1935. In 1985, the studio was acquired by News Corporation, which was succeeded by 21st Century Fox in 2013 following the spin-off of its publishing assets. In 2019, Disney acquired 20th Century Fox through its merger with 21st Century Fox. Starting with Breakthrough, all studio releases will be distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. Disney also now owns the rights to the studio's pre-merger film library (with the exception of films originally released by Fox and subsequently sold to other studios, such as the 2013–2017 DreamWorks Animation library, which is now owned by Universal Pictures, and the Movietone News library of newsreels, which is owned by Fox News).

A Chance to Live

A Chance to Live is a 1949 American short documentary film directed by James L. Shute, produced by Richard de Rochemont for Time Inc. and distributed by Twentieth Century-Fox. It is part of The March of Time series and portrays Monsignor John Patrick Carroll-Abbing building and running a Boys' Home in Italy.

The film won an Oscar at the 22nd Academy Awards in 1950 for Documentary Short Subject. The Academy Film Archive preserved A Chance to Live in 2005.

Academy Award for Best Documentary (Short Subject)

This is a list of films by year that have received an Academy Award together with the other nominations for best documentary short subject. Following the Academy's practice, the year listed for each film is the year of release: the awards are announced and presented early in the following year.

Charlie Chaplin

Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin (16 April 1889 – 25 December 1977) was an English comic actor, filmmaker, and composer who rose to fame in the era of silent film. He became a worldwide icon through his screen persona, "The Tramp", and is considered one of the most important figures in the history of the film industry. His career spanned more than 75 years, from childhood in the Victorian era until a year before his death in 1977, and encompassed both adulation and controversy.

Chaplin's childhood in London was one of poverty and hardship, as his father was absent and his mother struggled financially, and he was sent to a workhouse twice before the age of nine. When he was 14, his mother was committed to a mental asylum. Chaplin began performing at an early age, touring music halls and later working as a stage actor and comedian. At 19, he was signed to the prestigious Fred Karno company, which took him to America. He was scouted for the film industry and began appearing in 1914 for Keystone Studios. He soon developed the Tramp persona and formed a large fan base. He directed his own films and continued to hone his craft as he moved to the Essanay, Mutual, and First National corporations. By 1918, he was one of the best-known figures in the world.

In 1919, Chaplin co-founded the distribution company United Artists which gave him complete control over his films. His first feature-length film was The Kid (1921), followed by A Woman of Paris (1923), The Gold Rush (1925), and The Circus (1928). He refused to move to sound films in the 1930s, instead producing City Lights (1931) and Modern Times (1936) without dialogue. He became increasingly political, and his next film The Great Dictator (1940) satirized Adolf Hitler. The 1940s were a decade marked with controversy for Chaplin, and his popularity declined rapidly. He was accused of communist sympathies, while he created scandal through his involvement in a paternity suit and his marriages to much younger women. An FBI investigation was opened, and Chaplin was forced to leave the United States and settle in Switzerland. He abandoned the Tramp in his later films, which include Monsieur Verdoux (1947), Limelight (1952), A King in New York (1957), and A Countess from Hong Kong (1967).

Chaplin wrote, directed, produced, edited, starred in, and composed the music for most of his films. He was a perfectionist, and his financial independence enabled him to spend years on the development and production of a picture. His films are characterized by slapstick combined with pathos, typified in the Tramp's struggles against adversity. Many contain social and political themes, as well as autobiographical elements. He received an Honorary Academy Award for "the incalculable effect he has had in making motion pictures the art form of this century" in 1972, as part of a renewed appreciation for his work. He continues to be held in high regard, with The Gold Rush, City Lights, Modern Times, and The Great Dictator often ranked on lists of the greatest films of all time.

Crusade in Europe

Crusade in Europe is a book of wartime memoirs by General Dwight D. Eisenhower published by Doubleday in 1948. Maps were provided by Rafael Palacios.

Crusade in Europe is a personal account by one of the senior military figures of World War II. It recounts his appointment by General George Marshall to plan the defense of the Philippines and continues to describe his appointment, and execution of the role of Supreme Allied Commander in Northern Europe.

Eisenhower's profit on the book was substantially aided by an unprecedented ruling by the Treasury Department that Eisenhower was not a professional writer, but rather, marketing the lifetime asset of his experiences, and thus only had to pay capital gains tax on his $635,000 advance rather than the much higher personal tax rate. The ruling saved Eisenhower approximately $400,000.

Docudrama

A docudrama (or documentary drama) is a genre of radio and television programming, feature film, and staged theatre, which features dramatized re-enactments of actual events. On stage, it is sometimes known as documentary theatre.

In the core elements of its story a docudrama strives to adhere to known historical facts, while allowing a greater or lesser degree of dramatic license in peripheral details, and where there are gaps in the historical record. Dialogue may include the actual words of real-life persons, as recorded in historical documents. Docudrama producers sometimes choose to film their reconstructed events in the actual locations in which the historical events occurred.

A docudrama, in which historical fidelity is the keynote, is generally distinguished from a film merely "based on true events", a term which implies a greater degree of dramatic license; and from the concept of "historical drama", a broader category which may also encompass largely fictionalized action taking place in historical settings or against the backdrop of historical events.

As a portmanteau, docudrama is sometimes confused with docufiction. However, unlike docufiction—which is essentially a documentary filmed in real time, incorporating some fictional elements—docudrama is filmed at a time subsequent to the events portrayed.

Donald Sutherland

Donald McNichol Sutherland (born 17 July 1935) is a Canadian actor whose film career spans more than five decades.Sutherland rose to fame after starring in a series of successful films including The Dirty Dozen (1967), M*A*S*H (1970), Kelly's Heroes (1970), Klute (1971), Don't Look Now (1973), Fellini's Casanova (1976), 1900 (1976), Animal House (1978), Invasion of the Body Snatchers (1978), Ordinary People (1980) and Eye of the Needle (1981). He subsequently established himself as one of the most respected, prolific and versatile character actors of Canada.He later went on to star in many other successful films where he appeared either in leading or supporting roles such as A Dry White Season (1989), JFK (1991), Outbreak (1995), A Time to Kill (1996), Without Limits (1998), The Italian Job (2003), Cold Mountain (2003), Pride & Prejudice (2005), Aurora Borealis (2006) and The Hunger Games franchise (2012–2015).

Sutherland has been nominated for eight Golden Globe Awards, winning two for his performances in the television films Citizen X (1995) and Path to War (2002); the former also earned him a Primetime Emmy Award. Inductee of Hollywood Walk of Fame and Canadian Walk of Fame, he also received a Canadian Academy Award for the drama film Threshold (1981). Several media outlets and movie critics describe him as one of the best actors who have never been nominated for an Academy Award. In 2017, he received an Academy Honorary Award for his contributions to cinema.He is the father of actors Kiefer Sutherland, Rossif Sutherland and Angus Sutherland.

Jackie Chan

Chan Kong-sang (Chinese: 陳港生; born 7 April 1954), known professionally as Jackie Chan, is a Hong Kongese martial artist, actor, film director, producer, stuntman, and singer. He is known for his acrobatic fighting style, comic timing, use of improvised weapons, and innovative stunts, which he typically performs himself, in the cinematic world. He has trained in wushu or kungfu and hapkido, and has been acting since the 1960s, appearing in over 150 films.

Chan is one of the most recognizable and influential cinematic personalities in the world, gaining a widespread following in both the Eastern and Western hemispheres, and has received stars on the Hong Kong Avenue of Stars, and the Hollywood Walk of Fame. He has been referenced in various pop songs, cartoons, and video games. He is an operatically trained vocalist and is also a Cantopop and Mandopop star, having released a number of albums and sung many of the theme songs for the films in which he has starred. He is also a globally known philanthropist, and has been named as one of the top 10 most charitable celebrities by Forbes magazine. In 2004, film scholar Andrew Willis stated that Chan was "perhaps" the "most recognised star in the world". In 2015, Forbes estimated his net worth to be $350 million, and as of 2016, he was the second-highest paid actor in the world.

James Earl Jones

James Earl Jones (born January 17, 1931) is an American actor. His career has spanned more than six decades, and he has been described as "one of America's most distinguished and versatile" actors and "one of the greatest actors in American history". Since his Broadway debut in 1957, Jones has won many awards, including a Tony Award for his role in The Great White Hope, which also earned him a Golden Globe Award and an Academy Award nomination for Best Actor in a Leading Role for the film version of the play. Jones has won three Emmy Awards, including two in the same year in 1990. He is also known for his voice roles as Darth Vader in the Star Wars film series and Mufasa in Disney's The Lion King, as well as many other film, stage and television roles.

Jones has been said to possess "one of the best-known voices in show business, a stirring basso profondo that has lent gravel and gravitas" to his projects, including live-action acting, voice acting, and commercial voice-overs. In 1970, he won a Grammy Award for Great American Documents. As a child, Jones had a stutter. In his episode of Biography, he said he overcame the affliction through poetry, public speaking, and acting, although it lasted for several years. A pre-med major in college, he went on to serve in the United States Army during the Korean War before pursuing a career in acting. On November 12, 2011, he received an Honorary Academy Award. On November 9, 2015, Jones received the Voice Arts Icon Award. On May 25, 2017, he received an Honorary Doctor of Arts degree from Harvard University and concluded the event's benediction with "May the Force be with you".

Judy Garland

Judy Garland (born Frances Ethel Gumm; June 10, 1922 – June 22, 1969) was an American actress, singer, dancer, and vaudevillian. During a career that spanned 45 years, she attained international stardom as an actress in both musical and dramatic roles, as a recording artist, and on the concert stage. Respected for her versatility, she received a juvenile Academy Award, a Golden Globe Award, and a Special Tony Award. Garland was the first woman to win the Grammy Award for Album of the Year for her live recording Judy at Carnegie Hall (1961).

Garland began performing in vaudeville as a child with her two older sisters, and was later signed to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer as a teenager. Although she appeared in more than two dozen films with MGM and received acclaim for many different roles, she is often best remembered for her portrayal of Dorothy Gale in The Wizard of Oz (1939). Garland was a frequent on-screen partner of both Mickey Rooney and Gene Kelly, and regularly collaborated with director and second husband Vincente Minnelli. Some of her most notable film appearances during this period include roles in Meet Me in St. Louis (1944), The Harvey Girls (1946), Easter Parade (1948), and Summer Stock (1950). Garland was released from MGM in 1950, after 15 years with the studio, amid a series of personal struggles and erratic behavior that prevented her from fulfilling the terms of her contract.

Although her film career diminished thereafter, two of Garland's most critically acclaimed performances came late in her career; receiving a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actress for her performance in A Star Is Born (1954), and a nomination for Best Supporting Actress for her role in Judgment at Nuremberg (1961). She also made record-breaking concert appearances, released eight studio albums, and hosted her own Emmy-nominated television series, The Judy Garland Show (1963–1964). At age 39, Garland became the youngest and first female recipient of the Cecil B. DeMille Award for lifetime achievement in the film industry. In 1997, Garland was posthumously awarded a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. Several of her recordings have been inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame, and in 1999, the American Film Institute placed her among the 10 greatest female stars of classic American cinema.Despite profound professional success, Garland struggled in her personal life from an early age. The pressures of early stardom affected her physical and mental health from the time she was a teenager; her self-image was influenced and constantly criticized by film executives who believed that she was physically unattractive. Those same executives manipulated her onscreen physical appearance. Into her adulthood, she was plagued by alcohol and substance abuse, as well as financial instability; she often owed hundreds of thousands of dollars in back taxes. Her life-long addiction to drugs and alcohol ultimately led to her death in London from a barbiturate overdose at age 47.

Kirk Douglas

Kirk Douglas (born Issur Danielovitch; December 9, 1916) is an American actor, filmmaker, and author. A centenarian, he is one of the last surviving stars of the film industry's Golden Age. After an impoverished childhood with immigrant parents and six sisters, he had his film debut in The Strange Love of Martha Ivers (1946) with Barbara Stanwyck. Douglas soon developed into a leading box-office star throughout the 1950s, known for serious dramas, including westerns and war movies. During his career, he appeared in more than 90 movies. Douglas is known for his explosive acting style, which he displayed as a criminal defense attorney in Town Without Pity (1961).

Douglas became an international star through positive reception for his leading role as an unscrupulous boxing hero in Champion (1949), which brought him his first nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actor. Other early films include Young Man with a Horn (1950), playing opposite Lauren Bacall and Doris Day; Ace in the Hole opposite Jan Sterling (1951); and Detective Story (1951). He received a second Oscar nomination for his dramatic role in The Bad and the Beautiful (1952), opposite Lana Turner, and his third nomination for portraying Vincent van Gogh in Lust for Life (1956).

In 1955, he established Bryna Productions, which began producing films as varied as Paths of Glory (1957) and Spartacus (1960). In those two films, he collaborated with the then-relatively-unknown director Stanley Kubrick taking lead roles in both films. Douglas has been praised for helping to break the Hollywood blacklist by having Dalton Trumbo write Spartacus with an official on-screen credit. He produced and starred in Lonely Are the Brave (1962), considered a classic, and Seven Days in May (1964), opposite Burt Lancaster, with whom he made seven films. In 1963, he starred in the Broadway play One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, a story that he purchased and later gave to his son Michael Douglas, who turned it into an Oscar-winning film.

As an actor and philanthropist, Douglas has received three Academy Award nominations, an Oscar for Lifetime Achievement, and the Presidential Medal of Freedom. As an author, he has written ten novels and memoirs. Currently, he is No. 17 on the American Film Institute's list of the greatest male screen legends of classic Hollywood cinema, and the highest-ranked living person on the list. After barely surviving a helicopter crash in 1991 and then suffering a stroke in 1996, he has focused on renewing his spiritual and religious life. He lives with his second wife (of 65 years), Anne Buydens, a producer.

Newsreel

A newsreel is a form of short documentary film, containing news stories and items of topical interest, that was prevalent between the 1910s and the late 1960s. Typically presented in a cinema, newsreels were a source of current affairs, information, and entertainment for millions of moviegoers. Newsreels were typically exhibited preceding a feature film, but there were also dedicated newsreel theaters in many major cities in the 1930s and '40s, and some large city cinemas also included a smaller theaterette where newsreels were screened continuously throughout the day.

By the end of the 1960s television news broadcasts had supplanted the format. Newsreels are considered significant historical documents, since they are often the only audiovisual record of certain cultural events.

Orson Welles

George Orson Welles (May 6, 1915 – October 10, 1985) was an American actor, director, writer and producer who is remembered for his innovative work in radio, theatre and film. He is considered one of the greatest film directors of all time.While in his twenties Welles directed a number of high-profile stage productions for the Federal Theatre Project, including an adaptation of Macbeth with an entirely African American cast and the political musical The Cradle Will Rock. In 1937 he and John Houseman founded the Mercury Theatre, an independent repertory theatre company that presented a series of productions on Broadway through 1941, including Caesar (1937), a Broadway adaptation of William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar.

In 1938, his radio anthology series The Mercury Theatre on the Air gave Welles the platform to find international fame as the director and narrator of radio adaptation of H. G. Wells's novel The War of the Worlds, which caused widespread panic because many listeners thought that an invasion by extraterrestrial beings was actually occurring. Although some contemporary sources say these reports of panic were mostly false and overstated, they rocketed Welles to notoriety.

His first film was Citizen Kane (1941), which is consistently ranked as one of the greatest films ever made, in which he co-wrote, produced, directed and starred as Charles Foster Kane. Welles released twelve other features, the most acclaimed of which include The Magnificent Ambersons (1942), The Lady from Shanghai (1947), Touch of Evil (1958), The Trial (1962), Chimes at Midnight (1966) and F for Fake (1973). Welles was an outsider to the studio system, and struggled for creative control on his projects early on with the major film studios in Hollywood and later in life with a variety of independent financiers across Europe, where he spent most of his career. Many of his films were either heavily edited or remained unreleased. Some, like Touch of Evil, have been painstakingly re-edited from his notes. With a development spanning almost 50 years, Welles's final film, The Other Side of the Wind, was released in 2018.

His distinctive directorial style featured layered and nonlinear narrative forms, uses of lighting such as chiaroscuro, unusual camera angles, sound techniques borrowed from radio, deep focus shots and long takes. He has been praised as "the ultimate auteur". Welles had three marriages, including one with Rita Hayworth, and three children. Known for his baritone voice, Welles performed extensively across theatre, radio and film. He was a lifelong magician noted for presenting troop variety shows in the war years. In 2002 he was voted the greatest film director of all time in two British Film Institute polls among directors and critics.

Paul Newman

Paul Leonard Newman (January 26, 1925 – September 26, 2008) was an American actor, film director, producer, race car driver, IndyCar owner, entrepreneur, and philanthropist. He won and was nominated for numerous awards, winning an Oscar for his performance in the 1986 film The Color of Money, a BAFTA Award, a Screen Actors Guild Award, a Cannes Film Festival Award, an Emmy Award, and many others. Newman's other roles include the title characters in The Hustler (1961), Hud (1963), Harper (1966) and Cool Hand Luke (1967), as well as Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969), The Life and Times of Judge Roy Bean (1972), The Sting (1973), Slap Shot (1977), and The Verdict (1982). He voiced Doc Hudson in the first installment of Disney-Pixar's Cars as his final acting performance, with voice recordings being used in Cars 3 (2017).

Newman won several national championships as a driver in Sports Car Club of America road racing, and his race teams won several championships in open-wheel IndyCar racing. He was a co-founder of Newman's Own, a food company from which he donated all post-tax profits and royalties to charity. As of November 2018, these donations have totaled over US$535 million. He was a co-founder of Safe Water Network, a nonprofit that develops sustainable drinking water solutions for those in need.In 1988, Newman founded the SeriousFun Children's Network, a global family of summer camps and programs for children with serious illness which has served 290,076 children since its inception.

Spike Lee

Shelton Jackson "Spike" Lee (born March 20, 1957) is an American film director, producer, writer, and actor. His production company, 40 Acres and a Mule Filmworks, has produced over 35 films since 1983.

He made his directorial debut with She's Gotta Have It (1986), and has since directed such films as Do the Right Thing (1989), Jungle Fever (1991), Malcolm X (1992), He Got Game (1998), The Original Kings of Comedy (2000), 25th Hour (2002), Inside Man (2006), Chi-Raq (2015), and BlacKkKlansman (2018). Lee also had starring roles in ten of his own films.

Lee's films have examined race relations, colorism in the black community, the role of media in contemporary life, urban crime and poverty, and other political issues. He has won numerous accolades for his work, including an Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay, a Student Academy Award, a BAFTA Award for Best Adapted Screenplay, two Emmy Awards, two Peabody Awards, and the Cannes Grand Prix. He has also received an Academy Honorary Award, an Honorary BAFTA Award, an Honorary César, and the Dorothy and Lillian Gish Prize.

Time (magazine)

Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City. It was founded in 1923 and originally run by Henry Luce. A European edition (Time Europe, formerly known as Time Atlantic) is published in London and also covers the Middle East, Africa, and, since 2003, Latin America. An Asian edition (Time Asia) is based in Hong Kong. The South Pacific edition, which covers Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands, is based in Sydney. In December 2008, Time discontinued publishing a Canadian advertiser edition.Time has the world's largest circulation for a weekly news magazine. The print edition has a readership of 26 million, 20 million of whom are based in the United States. In mid-2012, its circulation was over three million, which had lowered to two million by late 2017.It was historically owned by Time Inc., but as of 2019 it is owned by Marc Benioff.

Universal Newsreel

Universal Newsreel (sometimes known as Universal-International Newsreel or just U-I Newsreel) was a series of 7- to 10-minute newsreels that were released twice a week between 1929 and 1967 by Universal Studios. A Universal publicity official, Sam B. Jacobson, was involved in originating and producing the newsreels. Nearly all of them were filmed in black-and-white, and many were narrated by Ed Herlihy. From January 1919 to July 1929, Universal released International Newsreel, produced by Hearst's International News Service—this series later became Hearst Metrotone News released first by Fox Film Corporation 1929–1934 and then by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer beginning in 1934.

In 1976, the films' owner, MCA, made the unusual decision to turn over ownership of all of the newsreels to the National Archives. The decision effectively ended Universal's copyright claim, releasing the films into the public domain. Because royalties no longer have to be paid in order to broadcast them, Universal Newsreels have become a popular source of file footage in recent years. The History Channel made them a key part of the TV series Year-By-Year. Also, C-SPAN and CNN regularly use the films for video of events that took place before those networks were founded.

Other U.S. newsreel series included Pathé News (1910–1956), Fox Movietone News (1928–1963), Hearst Metrotone News/News of the Day (1914–1967), Paramount News (1927–1957), and The March of Time (1935–1951).

Walt Disney

Walter Elias Disney (; December 5, 1901 – December 15, 1966) was an American entrepreneur, animator, voice actor and film producer. A pioneer of the American animation industry, he introduced several developments in the production of cartoons. As a film producer, Disney holds the record for most Academy Awards earned by an individual, having won 22 Oscars from 59 nominations. He was presented with two Golden Globe Special Achievement Awards and an Emmy Award, among other honors. Several of his films are included in the National Film Registry by the Library of Congress.

Born in Chicago in 1901, Disney developed an early interest in drawing. He took art classes as a boy and got a job as a commercial illustrator at the age of 18. He moved to California in the early 1920s and set up the Disney Brothers Studio with his brother Roy. With Ub Iwerks, Walt developed the character Mickey Mouse in 1928, his first highly popular success; he also provided the voice for his creation in the early years. As the studio grew, Disney became more adventurous, introducing synchronized sound, full-color three-strip Technicolor, feature-length cartoons and technical developments in cameras. The results, seen in features such as Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937), Pinocchio, Fantasia (both 1940), Dumbo (1941), and Bambi (1942), furthered the development of animated film. New animated and live-action films followed after World War II, including the critically successful Cinderella (1950) and Mary Poppins (1964), the latter of which received five Academy Awards.

In the 1950s, Disney expanded into the amusement park industry, and in 1955 he opened Disneyland. To fund the project he diversified into television programs, such as Walt Disney's Disneyland and The Mickey Mouse Club; he was also involved in planning the 1959 Moscow Fair, the 1960 Winter Olympics, and the 1964 New York World's Fair. In 1965, he began development of another theme park, Disney World, the heart of which was to be a new type of city, the "Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow" (EPCOT). Disney was a heavy smoker throughout his life, and died of lung cancer in December 1966 before either the park or the EPCOT project were completed.

Disney was a shy, self-deprecating and insecure man in private but adopted a warm and outgoing public persona. He had high standards and high expectations of those with whom he worked. Although there have been accusations that he was racist or anti-Semitic, they have been contradicted by many who knew him. His reputation changed in the years after his death, from a purveyor of homely patriotic values to a representative of American imperialism. He nevertheless remains an important figure in the history of animation and in the cultural history of the United States, where he is considered a national cultural icon. His film work continues to be shown and adapted; his namesake studio and company maintains high standards in its production of popular entertainment, and the Disney amusement parks have grown in size and number to attract visitors in several countries.

Warner Bros.

Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. (formerly Warner Bros. Pictures, Inc.), commonly referred to as Warner Bros. and abbreviated as WB, is an American entertainment company headquartered in Burbank, California and a subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia. Founded in 1923, it has operations in film, television and video games and is one of the "Big Five" major American film studios, as well as a member of the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA).

1928–1950
1951–1975
1976–2000
2001–present

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