The London Gazette

The London Gazette is one of the official journals of record of the British government, and the most important among such official journals in the United Kingdom, in which certain statutory notices are required to be published. The London Gazette claims to be the oldest surviving English newspaper and the oldest continuously published newspaper in the UK, having been first published on 7 November 1665 as The Oxford Gazette.[a][2] This claim is also made by the Stamford Mercury (1712) and Berrow's Worcester Journal (1690), because The Gazette is not a conventional newspaper offering general news coverage. It does not have a large circulation.

Other official newspapers of the UK government are The Edinburgh Gazette and The Belfast Gazette, which, apart from reproducing certain materials of nationwide interest published in The London Gazette, also contain publications specific to Scotland and Northern Ireland, respectively.

In turn, The London Gazette carries not only notices of UK-wide interest, but also those relating specifically to entities or people in England and Wales. However, certain notices that are only of specific interest to Scotland or Northern Ireland are also required to be published in The London Gazette.

The London, Edinburgh and Belfast Gazettes are published by TSO (The Stationery Office) on behalf of Her Majesty's Stationery Office. They are subject to Crown copyright.

The London Gazette
London-gazette
A London Gazette reprint of its front page from 3–10 September 1666, reporting on the Great Fire of London
FormatBroadsheet
Founded7 November 1665
LanguageEnglish
HeadquartersUnited Kingdom
Websitewww.thegazette.co.uk

Today

The London Gazette is published each weekday, except for bank holidays. Notices for the following, among others, are published:

Her Majesty's Stationery Office has digitised all issues of the Gazette, and these are available online.[3]

The official Gazettes are published by The Stationery Office. The content, apart from insolvency notices, is available in a number of machine-readable formats, including XML (delivery by email/FTP) and XML/RDFa via Atom feed.[4]

History

London Gazette(1705)
The London Gazette, dated 14–17 May 1705 detailing the return of John Leake from Gibraltar after the Battle of Cabrita Point.

The London Gazette was first published as The Oxford Gazette on 7 November 1665. Charles II and the Royal Court had moved to Oxford to escape the Great Plague of London, and courtiers were unwilling to touch London newspapers for fear of contagion. The Gazette was "Published by Authority" by Henry Muddiman, and its first publication is noted by Samuel Pepys in his diary. The King returned to London as the plague dissipated, and the Gazette moved too, with the first issue of The London Gazette (labelled No. 24) being published on 5 February 1666.[5] The Gazette was not a newspaper in the modern sense: it was sent by post to subscribers, not printed for sale to the general public.

Her Majesty's Stationery Office took over the publication of the Gazette in 1889. Publication of the Gazette was transferred to the private sector, under government supervision, in the 1990s, when HMSO was sold and renamed The Stationery Office.

"Gazetted"

In time of war, despatches from the various conflicts are published in The London Gazette. People referred to are said to have been mentioned in despatches. When members of the armed forces are promoted, and these promotions are published here, the person is said to have been "gazetted".

Being "gazetted" (or "in the gazette") sometimes also meant having official notice of one's bankruptcy published, as in the classic ten-line poem comparing the stolid tenant farmer of 1722 to the lavishly spending faux-genteel farmers of 1822:[6]

Man to the plough / Wife to the cow
Girl to the yarn / Boy to the barn
And your rent will be netted.

Man tally-ho / Miss piano
Wife silk and satin / Boy Greek and Latin
And you'll all be Gazetted.

Notices of engagement and marriage were also formerly published in the Gazette.

Colonial gazettes

Gazettes, modelled on The London Gazette, were issued for most British colonial possessions.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Until 1752 and the changes introduced by Calendar (New Style) Act 1750, the Gazette was published with a dateline based on the Julian calendar with the start of year as 25 March. Modern secondary sources usually adjust the start of the calendar year during this period to 1 January. Using this adjustment a London Gazette issue dated 4 January 1723 was published in 1724, the same year as an issue published on 4 April 1724 (See the article Old Style and New Style dates).[1]

References

  1. ^ "No. 6231". The London Gazette. 4 January 1723. p. 1.; "No. 6257". The London Gazette. 4 April 1724. p. 1.
  2. ^ "No. 1". The Oxford Gazette. 7 November 1665. p. 1.
  3. ^ Search the London Gazette Archive
  4. ^ "Data Re-use". The London Gazette. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
  5. ^ "No. 24". The London Gazette. 5 February 1666. p. 1.
  6. ^ By William Hone (1827); published by Hunt and Clarke.

External links

Admiral of the Fleet (Royal Navy)

Admiral of the Fleet is a five-star naval officer rank and the highest rank of the Royal Navy. The five-star NATO rank code is OF-10, equivalent to a field marshal in the British Army or a marshal of the Royal Air Force. Other than honorary appointments no new admirals of the fleet have been named since 1995.

Chief of the General Staff (United Kingdom)

Chief of the General Staff (CGS) has been the title of the professional head of the British Army since 1964. The CGS is a member of both the Chiefs of Staff Committee and the Army Board. Prior to 1964 the title was Chief of the Imperial General Staff (CIGS). Since 1959, the post has been immediately subordinate to the Chief of the Defence Staff, the post held by the professional head of the British Armed Forces.

The current Chief of the General Staff is General Sir Mark Carleton-Smith – having succeeded his predecessor, General Sir Nick Carter in June 2018.

High Sheriff of Berkshire

The High Sheriff of Berkshire, in common with other counties, was originally the King's representative on taxation upholding the law in Saxon times. The word Sheriff evolved from 'shire-reeve'.

The title of High Sheriff is therefore much older than the other crown appointment, the Lord Lieutenant of Berkshire, which came about after 1545. Between 1248 and 1566, Berkshire and Oxfordshire formed a joint shrievalty (apart from a brief period in 1258/1259). See High Sheriff of Oxfordshire.

Unlike the Lord Lieutenant of Berkshire, which is generally held from appointment until the holder's death or incapacity, the title of High Sheriff is appointed / reappointed annually. The High Sheriff is assisted by an Under-Sheriff of Berkshire.

High Sheriff of Buckinghamshire

The High Sheriff of Buckinghamshire, in common with other counties, was originally the King's representative on taxation upholding the law in Saxon times. The word Sheriff evolved from 'shire-reeve'.

The title of High Sheriff is therefore much older than the other Crown appointment, the Lord Lieutenant of Buckinghamshire, which came about in 1535.

Unlike the Lord Lieutenant of Buckinghamshire, which is generally held from appointment until the holder's death or incapacity, the title of High Sheriff is appointed / reappointed annually. The High Sheriff is assisted by an Under-Sheriff of Buckinghamshire.

High Sheriff of Cheshire

This is a list of Sheriffs (and after 1 April 1974, High Sheriffs) of Cheshire.

The Sheriff is the oldest secular office under the Crown. Formerly the Sheriff was the principal law enforcement officer in the county but over the centuries most of the responsibilities associated with the post have been transferred elsewhere or are now defunct, so that its functions are now largely ceremonial. Under the provisions of the Local Government Act 1972, on 1 April 1974 the office previously known as Sheriff was retitled High Sheriff. The High Sheriff is appointed annually, taking office in March.

High Sheriff of Derbyshire

This is a list of High Sheriffs of Derbyshire from 1567.

The High Sheriff is the oldest secular office under the Crown. Formerly the High Sheriff was the principal law enforcement officer in the county but over the centuries most of the responsibilities associated with the post have been transferred elsewhere or are now defunct, so that its functions are now largely ceremonial. The High Sheriff changes every March.

From 1068 until 1566, a single High Sheriff of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire and the Royal Forests was appointed. From Michaelmas 1567 on, a High Sheriff of Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire were appointed separately.

High Sheriff of Devon

The High Sheriff of Devon is the Queen's representative for the County of Devon, a territory known as his/her bailiwick. Selected from three nominated people, they hold his office over the duration of a year. They have judicial, ceremonial and administrative functions and executes High Court Writs. The office historically was "Sheriff of Devon", changed in 1974 to "High Sheriff of Devon".

High Sheriff of Dyfed

The office of High Sheriff of Dyfed was established in 1974 as part of the creation of the county of Dyfed in Wales following the Local Government Act 1972, and effectively replaced the shrievalties of the amalgamated counties of Cardiganshire, Carmarthenshire and Pembrokeshire. Since 1996 Dyfed has a purely ceremonial meaning, having been broken up for administrative purposes.

High Sheriff of Essex

The High Sheriff of Essex was an ancient Sheriff title originating in the time of the Angles, not long after the invasion of the Kingdom of England, which was in existence for around a thousand years. On 1 April 1974, under the provisions of the Local Government Act 1972, the title of Sheriff of Essex was retitled High Sheriff of Essex. The High Shrievalties are the oldest secular titles under the Crown in England and Wales, their purpose being to represent the monarch at a local level, historically in the shires.

The office was a powerful position in earlier times, as sheriffs were responsible for the maintenance of law and order and various other roles. It was only in 1908 under Edward VII that the Lord Lieutenant became more senior than the High Sheriff. Since then the position of High Sheriff has become more ceremonial, with many of its previous responsibilities transferred to High Court judges, magistrates, coroners, local authorities and the police.

This is a list of Sheriffs and High Sheriffs of Essex. Prior to 1567 the Sheriff of Essex was also the Sheriff of Hertfordshire.

High Sheriff of Gloucestershire

This is a list of Sheriffs and High Sheriffs of Gloucestershire, who should not be confused with the sheriffs of the City of Gloucester.

The High Sheriff is the oldest secular office under the Crown (In England and Wales the office previously known as sheriff was retitled high sheriff on 1 April 1974). Formerly the Sheriff was the principal law enforcement officer in the county but over the centuries most of the responsibilities associated with the post have been transferred elsewhere or are now defunct, so that the High Sheriff functions are now largely ceremonial. The High Sheriff changes every March.

As of 2006, the sheriff's territory or bailiwick is covered by the administrative areas of Gloucestershire County Council and of South Gloucestershire District Council. Sir Robert Atkyns, the historian of Gloucester, writing in 1712 stated that no family had produced more Sheriffs of this county than Denys.

High Sheriff of Gwynedd

The office of High Sheriff of Gwynedd was established in 1974 as part of the creation of the county of Gwynedd in Wales following the Local Government Act 1972, and effectively replaced the shrievalties of the amalgamated counties of Anglesey, Caernarfonshire and Merionethshire.

High Sheriff of Kent

The High Sheriff is the oldest secular office under the Crown (prior to 1974 the office previously known as Sheriff). Formerly the High Sheriff was the principal law enforcement officer in the county but over the centuries most of the responsibilities associated with the post have been transferred elsewhere or are now defunct, so that its functions are now largely ceremonial. The High Sheriff changes every March.

This is a list of High Sheriffs of Kent.

High Sheriff of Lincolnshire

This is a list of High Sheriffs of Lincolnshire.

The High Sheriff is the oldest secular office under the Crown. Formerly the High Sheriff was the principal law enforcement officer in the county but over the centuries most of the responsibilities associated with the post have been transferred elsewhere or are now defunct, so that its functions are now largely ceremonial. The High Sheriff changes every March.

Between 1974 and 1996 the shrievalty in Lincolnshire was interrupted when the County of Humberside took over the complete northern part of the county. In 1996 the northern bailiwicks reverted to Lincolnshire once more,after eight North Lincolnshire based High Sheriffs of Humberside had administered the area.

High Sheriff of Norfolk

The high sheriff is the oldest secular office under the Crown and is appointed annually (in March) by the Crown. The High Sheriff of Norfolk was originally the principal law enforcement officer in Norfolk and presided at the assizes and other important county meetings. Most of the responsibilities associated with the post have been transferred elsewhere or are now defunct, so that its functions are now largely ceremonial. There was a single high sheriff serving the two counties of Norfolk and Suffolk until 1576.

High Sheriff of Nottinghamshire

The High Sheriff is the oldest secular office under the Crown. Formerly the High Sheriff was the principal law enforcement officer in the county but over the centuries most of the responsibilities associated with the post have been transferred elsewhere or are now defunct, so that its functions are now largely ceremonial. The High Sheriff changes every March.

From 1068 until 1567, the position existed as High Sheriff of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire and the Royal Forests. From 1568 separate appointments were made for the High Sheriff of Nottinghamshire and for the High Sheriff of Derbyshire.

High Sheriff of Shropshire

This is a list of Sheriffs and High Sheriffs of Shropshire

The Sheriff is the oldest secular office under the Crown. Formerly the High Sheriff was the principal law enforcement officer in the county but over the centuries most of the responsibilities associated with the post have been transferred elsewhere or are now defunct, so that its functions are now largely ceremonial. From 1204 to 1344 the Sheriff of Staffordshire served also as the Sheriff of Shropshire.

Under the provisions of the Local Government Act 1972, on 1 April 1974 the office previously known as Sheriff was retitled High Sheriff. The High Sheriff changes every March.

High Sheriff of the East Riding of Yorkshire

The High Sheriff of the East Riding of Yorkshire is a current High Sheriff title which has existed since 1996. For around 1,000 years the entire area of Yorkshire was covered by a single High Sheriff of Yorkshire. After the Local Government Act 1972 the title was split to cover several newly created counties. Most of the former area of the East Riding became part of the county of Humberside and under the High Sheriff of Humberside title. Humberside was abolished in 1996 and a High Sheriff title was created for the newly reconstituted East Riding of Yorkshire.

Below is a list of the sheriffs.

Military Cross

The Military Cross (MC) is the third-level military decoration awarded to officers and (since 1993) other ranks of the British Armed Forces, and formerly awarded to officers of other Commonwealth countries.

The MC is granted in recognition of "an act or acts of exemplary gallantry during active operations against the enemy on land" to all members of the British Armed Forces of any rank. In 1979, the Queen approved a proposal that a number of awards, including the Military Cross, could be recommended posthumously.

Sheriff of Cambridgeshire and Huntingdonshire

This is an incomplete list of Sheriffs of Cambridgeshire and Huntingdonshire in England from 1154 until the abolition of the office in 1965.Exceptionally, the two counties shared a single sheriff. Sheriffs had a one-year term of office, being appointed at a meeting of the privy council generally held in February or March and holding office until the similar meeting in the next year. In 1648 it became the practice to rotate the office between inhabitants of Cambridgeshire proper, the Isle of Ely and Huntingdonshire. This was done in a three-year cycle, with an inhabitant of each area occupying the office in turn.

Note: the years shown are the date of commencement of the sheriff's year of office. For example, the high sheriff appointed in March 1892 "for the year 1892" held office until March 1893.

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