The Journal of Modern History is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering European intellectual, political, and cultural history, published by the University of Chicago Press. The journal covers events from approximately 1500 to the present, with a geographical scope extending from the United Kingdom through the European continent, including Russia and the Balkans.
|The Journal of Modern History|
|Edited by||John W. Boyer, Jan E. Goldstein|
University of Chicago Press (United States)
|J. Mod. Hist.|
The Journal of Modern History is coedited by John W. Boyer and Jan E. Goldstein (University of Chicago). Previous editors include Sheila Fitzpatrick, Hanna Gray, William Hardy McNeill, and Bernadotte Schmitt.
The journal publishes articles and book reviews. On occasion, it has published special issues focusing on specific topics.
Chester Penn Higby served on the history faculty at the University of Wisconsin–Madison from 1927 to 1956, and was one of the founders of the Journal of Modern History. Upon his retirement, several of his former students established a trust fund to provide a cash prize for the best article published in the journal. The prize is awarded during even-numbered years, and past winners have included Jan E. Goldstein, William W. Hagen, Susan Pedersen, and Heinrich August Winkler.
The Bania (otherwise known as Baniya, Vaniya, Vani, Vania and Vanya) is an occupational community of merchants, bankers, money-lenders, dealers in grains or in spices, and in modern times numerous commercial enterprises. The term is used in a wider sense in Bengal than it is elsewhere in India, where it is applied to specific castes.The Bania are Vaishya according to the Hindu caste system and third in hierarchy below kshatriya and Brahmins but higher than all other castes.Collaborationism
Collaborationism is cooperation with the enemy against one's country of citizenship in wartime. The term is most often used to describe the cooperation of civilians with the occupying Axis Powers, especially Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan, during World War II. Motivations for collaboration by citizens and organizations included nationalism, ethnic hatred, anti-communism, antisemitism, opportunism, self-defense, or often a combination of these factors. Some collaborators in World War II committed war crimes, crimes against humanity, or atrocities such as the Holocaust. More often collaborators simply "went along to get along," attempting to benefit from the occupation or simply survive. The definition of collaborationism is imprecise and subject to interpretation.
Stanley Hoffmann subdivided collaboration into involuntary (reluctant recognition of necessity) and voluntary (an attempt to exploit necessity). According to him, collaborationism can be either sevile or ideological. Servile is service to an enemy based on necessity for personal survival or comfort, whereas ideological is advocacy for cooperation with an enemy power. In contrast, Bertram Gordon used the terms "collaborator" and "collaborationist" for non-ideological and ideological collaborations, respectively. James Mace Ward has asserted that, while collaboration is often equated with treason, there was "legitimate collaboration" between civilian internees (mostly Americans} in the Philippines and their Japanese captors for mutual benefit and to enhance the possibilities of the internees to survive. Collaboration with the Axis Powers in Europe and Asia existed in varying degrees in all the occupied countries. Although the United Kingdom and the United States were never occupied, a British dependency, the Channel Islands near France, was under German occupation and thousands of American civilians in Asia were interned by Japan.
With the defeat of the Axis, collaborators were often punished by public humiliation, imprisonment, and execution. In France, 10,500 collaborators are estimated to have been executed, some after legal proceedings, others extra-judiciously.The opposite of collaborationism in World War II was "resistance", a term which also has a broad range of meaning and interpretations.David H. Pinkney
David H. Pinkney (1914–1993) was a renowned scholar in French history, author, and emeritus professor of History at the University of Washington from 1967 until his retirement in 1984.
Pinkney, born in Elyria, Ohio, attended Oberlin College and received his doctorate in history from Harvard University in 1941. During World War II, he served in the Office of Strategic Services and the U.S. Navy. After military service, Pinkney began his long teaching career at the University of Missouri. In 1966 he moved to the University of Washington where he taught until his retirement in 1984.
Pinkney's accomplishments extend well beyond his teaching career. Over his lifetime he authored five books and multiple articles on French history, specifically the French Revolution of 1789 and the post-revolution years. Pinkney was one of the co-founders of the Society for French Historical Studies and held many positions within the society over the years, including president from 1975–76, as well as, member of the Executive Board for twenty-seven years. From 1966 to 1975 he was editor-in-chief for the journal of French Historical Studies. Pinkney received international acclaim for his contributions to French history and received an honorary doctorate from the University of Nantes. He was elected president of the American Historical Association in 1980 and actively participated in drafting a new constitution for the organization. He was chosen as fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1984. Today the David H. Pinkney prize for best French history book by an American or Canadian professor is awarded yearly through the Society for French Historical Studies.Embassy chapel
Chapels and churches in embassies can be a very particular type of chapel, sometimes acting as clandestine churches or havens from religion persecution. Since embassies are exempt from the host country's laws, they are able to provide services to prohibited and persecuted religious groups. For example, Catholic embassy chapels in Britain provided services while Catholicism was banned under the Penal Laws. A similar role was filled for Protestants by the Prussian embassy chapel in Rome, where Protestantism was unlawful until 1871. Upon laws granting freedom of religion, these embassy chapels have often then become regularised churches and parishes, such as the Dutch embassy chapel in Istanbul, which then became The Union Church of Istanbul.Gerhard Weinberg
Gerhard Ludwig Weinberg (born 1 January 1928) is a German-born American diplomatic and military historian noted for his studies in the history of World War II. Weinberg is the William Rand Kenan, Jr. Professor Emeritus of History at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He has been a member of the history faculty at UNC-Chapel Hill since 1974. Previously he served on the faculties of the University of Michigan (1959–1974) and the University of Kentucky (1957–1959).German National People's Party
The German National People's Party (German: Deutschnationale Volkspartei, DNVP) was a national-conservative party in Germany during the time of the Weimar Republic. Before the rise of the Nazi Party, it was the major conservative and nationalist party in Weimar Germany. It was an alliance of nationalists, reactionary monarchists, völkisch and antisemitic elements supported by the Pan-German League.It was formed in late 1918 after Germany's defeat in World War I and the November Revolution that toppled the German monarchy. It combined remnants of the German Conservative Party, Free Conservative Party, German Fatherland Party and right-wing elements of the National Liberal Party. The party strongly rejected the republican Weimar Constitution of 1919 and the Treaty of Versailles which it viewed as a national disgrace, signed by traitors. The party instead aimed at a restoration of monarchy, a repeal of the dictated peace treaty and reacquisition of all lost territories and colonies.
During the mid-1920s, the DNVP moderated its profile, accepting republican institutions in practice (while still calling for a return to monarchy in its manifesto) and participating in centre-right coalition governments on federal and state levels. It broadened its voting base—winning as many as 20.5% in the December 1924 election—and supported the election of Paul von Hindenburg as President of Germany (Reichspräsident) in 1925. Under the leadership of the populist media entrepreneur Alfred Hugenberg from 1928, the party re-radicalised its nationalist and anti-republican rhetoric and changed its strategy to mass mobilisation, plebiscites and support of authoritarian rule by the President instead of work by parliamentary means. At the same time, it lost many votes to Adolf Hitler's rising Nazi Party. Several prominent Nazis began their careers in the DNVP.
After 1929, the DNVP co-operated with the Nazis, joining forces in the Harzburg Front of 1931, forming coalition governments in some states and finally supporting Hitler's appointment as Chancellor (Reichskanzler) in January 1933. Initially, the DNVP had a number of ministers in Hitler's government, but the party quickly lost influence and eventually dissolved itself in June 1933, giving way to the Nazis' single-party dictatorship. The Nazis allowed former DNVP members in the Reichstag, the civil service, and the police to continue with their jobs and left the rest of the party membership generally in peace.
During the Second World War, several prominent former DNVP members, such as Carl Friedrich Goerdeler, were involved in the German resistance against the Nazis and took part in the 20 July assassination plot against Hitler in 1944.Gregory Claeys
Gregory Claeys (born 18 August 1953) is Professor of the History of Political Thought at Royal Holloway, University of London and author of books on British intellectual and political history.Isabel V. Hull
Isabel Virginia Hull (born 1949) is the John Stambaugh Professor of History and the former chair of the history department at Cornell University. She specializes in German history from 1700 to 1945, with a focus on sociopolitics, political theory, and gender/sexuality. Since January 2006, Hull has served on the editorial board of the Journal of Modern History.
Hull received her B.A. from the University of Michigan in 1970 and her Ph.D. from Yale University in 1978. She teaches courses on European fascism, World War I, German history 1648–present, and international law.
The position for which she is best known, embodied in her two most recent books, is that Germany before and during World War I was uniquely indifferent to international law among the great powers, and (contrary to many other historians) that its responsibility for bringing the war about was much greater than that of the Allied powers. For her last book A Scrap of Paper: Breaking and Making International Law During the Great War (2014) she earned some critical reviews, because she minimizes the consequences of the British blockade of Germany during World War I, which resulted in 400,000 casualties. Michael Geyer of the University of Chicago has stated that "Isabel V. Hull is one of the most accomplished German historians and surely the best of her generation," and she has been described by VICE News as "one of America's leading scholars on the role of fascism in history." She is a winner of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Award and the Leo Gershoy Award (1996), is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and has been a Guggenheim Fellow and an Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung Research Fellow. In 2013, she was awarded the inaugural International Research Support Prize by the Max Weber Stiftung and the Historisches Kolleg.Jan E. Goldstein
Jan Ellen Goldstein (born 1946) is an American intellectual historian of Modern Europe. She is the Norman and Edna Freehling Professor of History at the University of Chicago, and co-editor of the Journal of Modern History.Jean-François Varlet
Jean-François Varlet (1764, Paris – 1837) was a leader of the Enragé faction in the French Revolution.Joachim Remak
Joachim Remak (1920-2001) was a historian of Modern Europe, especially of Germany and World War I. Born in Berlin, Germany, he fled Nazi Germany in 1938 for the United States. He earned his B.A. and M.A. in History at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1942 and 1946. He worked for the State Department in Germany and the United Kingdom and then returned to the United States for doctoral study and earned his Ph.D. in History at Stanford University in 1955. He married Roberta Anne Remak (a 1946 graduate of Stanford) in 1948. He taught at Stanford as an Instructor for 3 years and then took up a tenure-track position in the History Department at Lewis and Clark College in Portland, Oregon, in 1958. He gained tenure there and served as Department Chair before being called to the growing History Department at the University of California, Santa Barbara in 1965. The next year he was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship. A popular classroom lecturer as well as a prolific scholar, Joe Remak was promoted to Full Professor and served as Department Chair at the University of California, Santa Barbara, from 1977-1984.
He published his first book, Sarajevo, the Story of a Political Murder (Criterion Books), in 1959 (and the book won the Borden Award from Stanford University's Hoover Institution in 1960). His published his next book, The Gentle Critic: Theodor Fontane and German Politics, 1848-1898 (Syracuse University Press), in 1964. His article “The Healthy Invalid: How Doomed the Habsburg Empire?” which appeared in The Journal of Modern History 41 (1969): 127-143 won the American Historical Association’s Higby Prize. His article "1914—The Third Balkan War: Origins Reconsidered," The Journal of Modern History 43 (1971): 353-366, offered a revisionist historiographic analysis of the origins of World War I. Remak also published several textbooks, including: The Origins of World War I, 1871-1914 (Holt, Rinehart, and Wilson, 1967), The Nazi Years: A Documentary History (Simon and Schuster, 1969), The First World War: Causes, Conduct, Consequences (J. Wiley & Sons, 1971), and The Origins of the Second World War (Prentice Hall, 1976).
Remak edited War, Revolution and Peace (University Press of America, 1987) and co-edited Another Germany: A Reconsideration of the Imperial Era (Westview Press, 1988). His last book was entitled A Very Civil War (Westview Press, 1992) which analyzed the Swiss Sonderbund War of 1847.
Professor Remak died on June 16, 2001.Louis R. Gottschalk
Louis Reichenthal Gottschalk (February 21, 1899 in Brooklyn – June 23, 1975 in Chicago) was an American historian, an expert on Lafayette and the French Revolution. He taught for many years at the University of Chicago, where he was the Gustavus F. and Ann M. Swift Distinguished Service Professor of History.Lower middle class
In developed nations across the world, the lower middle class is a sub-division of the greater middle class. Universally the term refers to the group of middle class households or individuals who have not attained the status of the upper middle class associated with the higher realms of the middle class, hence the name.Michael Marrus
Michael Robert Marrus, (born February 3, 1941) is a Canadian historian of the Holocaust, modern European and Jewish history and International Humanitarian Law. He is the author of eight books on the Holocaust and related subjects.Reign of Terror
The Reign of Terror, or The Terror (French: la Terreur), refers to a period during the French Revolution after the First French Republic was established.
Several historians consider the "reign of terror" to have begun in 1793, placing the starting date at either 5 September, June or March (birth of the Revolutionary Tribunal), while some consider it to have begun in September 1792 (September Massacres), or even July 1789 (when the first lynchings took place), but there is a consensus that it ended with the fall of Maximilien Robespierre in July 1794.Between June 1793 and the end of July 1794, there were 16,594 official death sentences in France, of which 2,639 were in Paris.Robert Paxton
Robert Owen Paxton (born 1932) is an American political scientist and historian specializing in Vichy France, fascism, and Europe during the World War II era.Siege of Ancona
Siege of Ancona was a battle in the Neapolitan War. It took place beginning on the 5th May 1815 and persisted until the 30th May 1815. The battle took place mere days after the Battle of Tolentino on the 3rd May 1815.The siege of Ancona was one of the last battles in Italy during the Neapolitan War. The city of Ancona was the last major Italian city to surrender. It was fought between Napoleon's forces in Ancona, Italy and the Anglo-Austrian alliance during the One Hundred Days’ campaign. The Anglo-Austrian alliance eventually defeated Napoleon's forces, thus helping expel the French from Eastern Italy. It also contributed to the elimination of the Bonaparte monarchy proposed by Murat and led to the establishment of the Papal state.Stephen Koss
Stephen Edward Koss (1940 – 25 October 1984) was an American historian specialising in subjects relating to Britain.
Koss was a student of R. K. Webb. He began his academic career at the University of Delaware, and became an assistant professor at Barnard College, New York City in 1966, and then a full professor in 1971. He was appointed a professor of history at Columbia University in 1978, where he had completed his bachelor's and master's degrees, as well as his doctorate; the doctoral thesis was turned into his first book John Morley at the India Office, 1905–1910 published in 1969, the same year as his biography of R. B. Haldane. He was also a Visiting Fellow at All Souls College, Oxford. He served on the editorial board of The Journal of Modern History and held office with the North American Conference on British Studies. He died on 25 October 1984 as a result of complications following heart surgery.The historian F. M. Leventhal noted that as Koss matured there was "an increasingly irreverent and ironic tone in [his] scholarship, a willingness to criticize as well as to condone". His death was mourned in several academic books published soon after, together with that of Alan J. Lee, who had also written on the history of newspapers in Britain and who had also died at a relatively young age.Koss is best remembered for a two-volume work The Rise and Fall of the Political Press in Britain (1981, 1984), respectively covering the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Neal Ascherson, reviewing the second volume in 1985, wrote: "Koss was the archive-cruncher of his age. But he had another gift, which was to make the imparting of densely-packed information stylish, readable, often mockingly witty."A tribute volume appeared in 1987: The Political Culture of Modern Britain: Studies in Memory of Stephen Koss, edited by J. M. W. Bean, with a foreword by John Gross (London: Hamilton).William W. Hagen
William W. Hagen (born 1942) is a prominent historian and professor of history at the University of California-Davis. Hagen's focus is on modern European history, primarily in relation to Germany and Eastern Europe. He obtained his B.A. from Harvard University and his M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of Chicago. Starting as assistant professor in 1970,  he became associate professor of history in 1977 and professor of history in 1981. From 1992-1998, Hagen served as director of the UC Davis Center for History, Society, and Culture. In 1996, he served as president of the Conference Group for Central European History (American Historical Association).