The Holocaust in Lithuania

The Holocaust in German occupied Lithuania resulted in the near total destruction of Lithuanian (Litvaks) and Polish Jews,[a] living in Generalbezirk Litauen of Reichskommissariat Ostland within the Nazi-controlled Lithuanian SSR. Out of approximately 208,000–210,000 Jews, an estimated 190,000–195,000 were murdered before the end of World War II (wider estimates are sometimes published), most between June and December 1941. More than 95% of Lithuania's Jewish population was massacred over the three-year German occupation — a more complete destruction than befell any other country affected by the Holocaust. Historians attribute this to the massive collaboration in the genocide by the non-Jewish local paramilitaries, though the reasons for this collaboration are still debated.[1][2][3][4] The Holocaust resulted in the largest-ever loss of life in so short a period of time in the history of Lithuania.[4]

The events that took place in the western regions of the USSR occupied by Nazi Germany in the first weeks after the German invasion, including Lithuania, marked the sharp intensification of the Holocaust.[5][6][7][b]

An important component to the Holocaust in Lithuania was that the occupying Nazi German administration fanned antisemitism by blaming the Soviet regime's recent annexation of Lithuania, a year earlier, on the Jewish community. Another significant factor was the large extent to which the Nazis' design drew upon the physical organization, preparation and execution of their orders by local Lithuanian auxiliaries of the Nazi occupation regime.[2][3]

Reichskommissariat Ostland Administrative
Map of Reichskommissariat Ostland, 1942
WW2-Holocaust-ROstland big legend
Holocaust in Reichskommissariat Ostland (which included Lithuania): a map
PeriodJune–December 1941
Killed190,000–195,000
UnitsEinsatzgruppen, Ypatingasis būrys

Background

After the joint German-Soviet invasion of September 1939, the Soviet Union signed a treaty with Lithuania on 10 October, handed over predominantly Polish and Jewish city of Wilno (renamed Vilna) to Lithuania,[8] in exchange for military concessions, and subsequently annexed Lithuania in 1940 after an election.[9] The German invasion of the Soviet Union, on 22 June 1941, came after a year of Soviet occupation which had culminated in mass deportations across the Baltics only a week before the German invasion. The Nazis were welcomed as liberators and received support from Lithuania's irregular militia against retreating Soviet forces. Many Lithuanians believed Germany would allow the re-establishment of the country's independence.[10] In order to appease the Germans, some people expressed significant antisemitic sentiments.[11] Nazi Germany, which had seized the Lithuanian territories in the first week of the offensive, used this situation to its advantage and indeed in the first days permitted a Lithuanian Provisional Government of the Lithuanian Activist Front to be established.[10] For a brief period it appeared that the Germans were about to grant Lithuania significant autonomy, comparable with that given to Slovak Republic.[10] However, after about a month, the more independently minded Lithuanian organizations were disbanded around August and September 1941, as the Germans seized more control.[10]

Destruction of Jewry

Map used to illustrate Stahlecker's report to Heydrich on January 31, 1942
Map titled "Jewish Executions Carried Out by Einsatzgruppe A" from the Stahlecker's report. Marked "Secret Reich Matter", the map shows the number of Jews shot in Reichskommissariat Ostland. According to this map the estimated numbers of Jews killed in Lithuania is 136,421 by the date that his map was created.

Estimated number of victims

Prior to the German invasion, the population of Jews was estimated to be about 210,000,[3] although according to data from the Lithuanian statistics department, as of 1 January 1941 there were 208,000 Jews.[4] This estimate, based on the officially accounted for prewar emigration within the USSR (approx. 8,500), the number of escapees from the Kaunas and Vilnius Ghettos, (1,500-2,000), as well as the number of survivors in the concentration camps when they were liberated by the Red Army, (2,000-3,000), puts the number of Lithuanian Jews murdered in the Holocaust at 195,000 to 196,000.[4] It is difficult to estimate the exact number of casualties of the Holocaust and the latter number cannot be final or indisputable. The numbers given by historians differ significantly ranging from 165,000 to 254,000, the higher number probably including non-Lithuanian Jews among other Reich (empirical) dissenters labeled as Jewish killed in Lithuania.[4]

There were some interventions to rescue Jews. In the period 16 July - 3 August 1940 the Dutch Honorary Consul Jan Zwartendijk in Kaunas provided over 2,200 Jews with an official third destination to Curaçao, a Caribbean island and Dutch colony that required no entry visa, or Surinam (which, upon independence in 1975, became Suriname). The was also a Japanese government official, Chiune Sugihara, who served as vice consul for the Japanese Empire, also in Kaunas, Lithuania. During the Second World War, Sugihara helped some six thousand Jews flee Europe by issuing transit visas to them so that they could travel through Japanese territory, risking his job and his family's lives.[12] The fleeing Jews were refugees from German-occupied Western Poland and Soviet-occupied Eastern Poland, as well as residents of Lithuania.

The Holocaust events

Chronologically, the genocide in Lithuania can be divided into three phases: phase 1. summer to the end of 1941; phase 2. December 1941 – March 1943; phase 3. April 1943 – mid-July 1944.[13] The Lithuanian port city of Klaipėda (Memel in German) had historically been a member of the German Hanseatic League, and had belonged to Germany and East Prussia prior to 1918. The city was semi-autonomous during the period of Lithuanian independence, and under League of Nations supervision. Approximately 8,000 Jews lived in Memel when it was absorbed into the Reich on March 15, 1939. Its Jewish residents were expelled, and most fled into Lithuania proper. In 1941, German killing squads, the Einsatzgruppen, followed the advance of the German army units and immediately began organizing the murder of Jews.[6]

9thFort
Kaunas Ninth Fort

Most Lithuanian Jews perished in the first phase during the first months of the occupation and before the end of 1941. The first recorded action of the Einsatzgruppen (Einsatzgruppe A) took place on June 22, 1941, in the border town of Gargzdai (called Gorzdt in Yiddish and Garsden in German), which was one of the oldest Jewish settlements in the country and only 18 kilometres (11 mi) from Germany's recovered Memel. Approximately 800 Jews were shot that day in what is known as the Garsden Massacre. Approximately 100 non-Jewish Lithuanians were also executed, many for trying to aid the Jews.[2][3] About 80,000 Jews were killed by October and about 175,000 by the end of the year.[2] The majority of Jews in Lithuania were not required to live in ghettos[c] nor sent to the Nazi concentration camps which at that time were just in the preliminary stages of operation. Instead they were shot in pits near their places of residence with the most infamous mass murders taking place in the Ninth Fort near Kaunas and the Ponary Forest near Vilnius.[6][14][15] By 1942 about 45,000 Jews survived, largely those who had been sent to ghettos and camps.[c] In the second phase, the Holocaust slowed, as Germans decided to use the Jews as forced labor to fuel the German war economy.[16] In the third phase, the destruction of Jews was again given a high priority; it was in that phase that the remaining ghettos and camps were liquidated.

Two factors contributed to the rapid destruction of Lithuanian Jewry. The first was the significant support for the "de-Jewification" of Lithuania coming from the Lithuanian populace.[11][16] The second was the German plan for early colonization of Lithuania – which shared a border with German East Prussia – in accordance with their Generalplan Ost; hence the high priority given to the extermination of the relatively small Lithuanian Jewish community.[16]

Participation of local collaborators

Bundesarchiv Bild 183-L19427, Litauen, brennende Synagoge
German soldiers and locals watch a Lithuanian synagogue burn, 9 July 1941

The Nazi German administration directed and supported the organized killing of Lithuanian Jews. Local Lithuanian auxiliaries of the Nazi occupation regime carried out logistics for the preparation and execution of the murders under Nazi direction.[2][3][16] Nazi SS Brigadeführer Franz Walter Stahlecker arrived in Kaunas on 25 June 1941 and gave agitation speeches in the city to instigate the murder of Jews. Initially this was in the former State Security Department building, but officials there refused to take any action. Later, he gave speeches in the city.[17] In a report of October 15, Stahlecker wrote that they had succeeded in covering up their vanguard unit (Vorkommando) actions, and it was made to look like it was the initiative of the local population.[17][18] Groups of partisans, civil units of nationalist-rightist anti-Soviet affiliation, initiated contact with the Germans as soon as they entered the Lithuanian territories.[2] A rogue unit of insurgents headed by Algirdas Klimaitis and encouraged by Germans from the Sicherheitspolizei and Sicherheitsdienst, started anti-Jewish pogroms in Kaunas (Kovno) on the night of 25–26 June 1941. Over a thousand Jews perished over the next few days in what was the first pogrom in Nazi-occupied Lithuania.[6][18][19] Different sources give different figures, one being 1,500[6] and another 3,800, with additional victims in other towns of the region.[19]

On 24 June 1941, the Lithuanian Security Police (Lietuvos saugumo policija), subordinate to Nazi Germany's Security Police and Nazi Germany's Criminal Police, was created. It would be involved in various actions against the Jews and other enemies of the Nazi regime.[18] Nazi commanders filed reports purporting the "zeal" of the Lithuanian police battalions surpassed their own.[11] The most notorious Lithuanian unit participating in the Holocaust was the Ypatingasis būrys (a subdivision of German SD) from the Vilnius (Vilna, Wilno) area which killed tens of thousands of Jews, Poles and others in the Ponary massacre.[14][15][18] Another Lithuanian organization involved in the Holocaust was the Lithuanian Labor Guard.[2] Many Lithuanian supporters of the Nazi policies came from the fascist Iron Wolf organization.[3] Overall, the nationalistic Lithuanian administration was interested in the liquidation of the Jews as a perceived enemy and potential rivals of ethnic Lithuanians and thus not only did not oppose Nazi Holocaust policy but in effect adopted it as their own.[16]

Jonavos holokausto kapai
Holocaust mass graves near city of Jonava.

A combination of factors serves as an explanation for participation of some Lithuanians in genocide against Jews.[11] Those factors include national traditions and values, including antisemitism, common throughout contemporary Central Europe, and a more Lithuanian-specific desire for a "pure" Lithuanian nation-state with which the Jewish population was believed to be incompatible.[3] There were a number of additional factors, such as severe economic problems which led to the killing of Jews over personal property.[11] Finally the Jews were seen as having supported the Soviet regime in Lithuania during 1940–1941.[d][3][11][16] During the period leading up to the German invasion, the Jews were blamed by some for virtually every misfortune that had befallen Lithuania.[3][16]

The involvement of the local population and institutions, in relatively high numbers, in the destruction of Lithuanian Jewry became a defining factor of the Holocaust in Lithuania.[2][3][16]

Not all of the Lithuanian populace supported the killings,[20] and many hundreds risked their lives sheltering the Jews.[11] Israel has recognized 891 Lithuanians (as of January 1, 2017[21]) as Righteous Among the Nations for risking their lives to save Jews during the Holocaust.[3][11][22][23] In addition, many members of the Polish minority in Lithuania also helped to shelter the Jews.[20] Lithuanians and Poles who risked their lives saving Jews were persecuted and often executed by the Nazis.[24]

Comprehension and remembrance

The genocide in Lithuania is seen by some historians as one of the earliest large-scale implementations of the Final Solution, leading some scholars to express an opinion that the Holocaust began in Lithuania in the summer of 1941.[6][7]^ Other scholars say the Holocaust started in September 1939 with the onset of the Second World War,[25] or even earlier, on Kristallnacht in 1938,[26] or, according to the Jewish Virtual Library, when Hitler became Chancellor of Germany in 1933.

The Soviet government, for political reasons, tried to minimize the unique suffering of the Jews.[27] In Lithuania and throughout the Soviet Union, memorials did not mention Jews in particular; instead they were built to commemorate the suffering of "local inhabitants".[27] However, people guilty of Nazi collaboration and crimes against Jews were often deported or executed.[28]

Since Lithuania regained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, the debate over Lithuanian participation in the Holocaust has been fraught with difficulty. Modern Lithuanian nationalists stress anti-Soviet resistance, but some Lithuanian partisans, seen in Lithuania as heroes in the struggle against Soviet occupation, were also Nazi collaborators who had cooperated in the murder of Lithuanian Jewry.[29] The post-Soviet Lithuanian government has on a number of occasions stated a commitment to commemorating the Holocaust, combating antisemitism, and bringing Nazi-era war criminals to justice.[23] The National Coalition Supporting Soviet Jewry have said "Lithuania has made slow but significant progress in the prosecution of suspected Lithuanian collaborators in the Nazi genocide".[23] Lithuania was the first of the newly independent post-Soviet states to legislate for the protection and marking of Holocaust-related sites.[23] In 1995, president of Lithuania Algirdas Brazauskas speaking before the Israeli Knesset, offered a public apology to the Jewish people for the Lithuanian participation in the Holocaust.[20] On 20 September 2001, to mark the 60th anniversary of the Holocaust in Lithuania, the Seimas (Lithuanian parliament) held a session during which Alfonsas Eidintas, the historian nominated as the Republic's next ambassador to Israel, delivered an address accounting for the annihilation of Lithuania's Jews.[30]

Scenes from Massacre of Jewish Men at Lietukis Garage in Kaunas, 1941 - Holocaust Museum - Vilnius - Lithuania (27829860056)
Kaunas pogrom in June 1940, Vilna Gaon Jewish State Museum in Vilnius, Lithuania

There has been criticism that Lithuania is dragging its feet on the issue; in 2001 Dr. Efraim Zuroff, Director of the Simon Wiesenthal Center, criticized the Lithuanian government for its unwillingness to prosecute Lithuanians involved in the Holocaust.[31] In 2002 the Simon Wiesenthal Center declared its dissatisfaction with the Lithuanian government's efforts and launched a controversial "Operation Last Chance" offering monetary rewards for evidence that leads to the prosecution of war criminals; this campaign has encountered much resistance in Lithuania and the other former Soviet bloc countries.[23] More recently, in 2008, the Simon Weisenthal Center which had initially ranked Lithuania high during on-going trials to bring Lithuanian war criminals to justice, noted, in its annual report, no progress and the lack of any real punishment by Lithuanian justice organs for Holocaust perpetrators.[32]

There has been limited debate on the place of the Holocaust in Lithuanian national memory; historically Lithuanians have denied national participation in the Holocaust or labeled the Lithuanian participants in genocide as fringe extreme elements.[30][33] The memories of that time and the discussion of those events in Jewish and Lithuanian historiographies are quite different,[30] although Lithuanian historiography in the past two decades has improved, compared to the Soviet historiography, with the works of scholars such as Alfonsas Eidintas, Valentinas Brandišauskas and Arūnas Bubnys, among others, being positively reviewed by the Western and Jewish historians.[13][30][34] The issue remains controversial to this day.[30][34] According to Lithuanian historians, the contentious issues involve the role of the Lithuanian Activist Front, the Lithuanian Provisional Government and participation of Lithuanian civilians and volunteers in the Holocaust.[30]

See also

Notes

a ^ While this article discusses the Holocaust on the Lithuanian territories, which primarily affected and resulted in the destruction of Lithuanian Jewry, tens of thousands of non-Lithuanian Jews also died on Lithuanian territories. This included primarily: 1) Polish Jews who sought refuge in Lithuania escaping the invasion of Poland in 1939 and 2) Jews from various Western countries shipped to extermination sites in Lithuania.[35]

b ^ Some scholars have noted that the German Final Solution and the Holocaust actually began in Lithuania.
Dina Porat: "The Final Solution – the systematic overall physical extermination of Jewish communities one after the other – began in Lithuania.[6]
Konrad Kwiet: "Lithuanian Jews were among the first victims of the Holocaust [...] The Germans carried out the mass executions [...] signalling the beginning of the "Final Solution."[7] See also, Konrad Kwiet, "The Onset of the Holocaust: The Massacres of Jews in Lithuania in June 1941." Annual lecture delivered as J. B. and Maurice Shapiro Senior Scholar-in-Residence at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum on 4 December 1995. Published under the same title but expanded in Power, Conscience and Opposition: Essays in German History in Honour of John A Moses, ed. Andrew Bonnell et al. (New York: Peter Lang, 1996), pp. 107–21

c ^ Three major ghettos in Lithuania were established: Vilnius ghetto (with a population of about 20,000), Kaunas Ghetto (17,500) and the Shavli Ghetto (5,000); there were also a number of smaller ghettos and labor camps.[2]

d ^ The propaganda line of Jewish Bolshevism was used intensively by Nazis in instigating antisemitic feelings among Lithuanians. It built upon the pre-invasion antisemitic propaganda of the anti-Soviet Lithuanian Activist Front which had seized upon the fact that more Jews than Lithuanians supported the Soviet regime. This had helped to create an entire mythos of Jewish culpability for the sufferings of Lithuania under the Soviet regime (and beyond). A LAF pamphlet read: "For the ideological maturation of the Lithuanian nation it is essential that anticommunist and anti-Jewish action be strengthened [...] It is very important that this opportunity be used to get rid of the Jews as well. We must create an atmosphere that is so stifling for the Jews that not a single Jew will think that he will have even the most minimal rights or possibility of life in the new Lithuania. Our goal is to drive out the Jews along with the Red Russians. [...] The hospitality extended to the Jews by Vytautas the Great is hereby revoked for all time because of their repeated betrayals of the Lithuanian nation to its oppressors." An extreme faction of the supporters of Augustinas Voldemaras, a group which also worked within the LAF, actually envisioned a racially exclusive "Aryan" Lithuanian state. With the start of German occupation, one of Kaunas' newspapers – Į Laisvę (Towards Freedom), commenced a spirited antisemitic crusade, reinforcing the identity of the Jew with communism in popular consciousness: "Jewry and Bolshevism are one, parts of an indivisible entity."[3][30]

References

  1. ^ Daniel Brook, "Double Genocide. Lithuania wants to erase its ugly history of Nazi collaboration—by accusing Jewish partisans who fought the Germans of war crimes.", Slate, July 26, 2015
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Porat, Dina (2002). "The Holocaust in Lithuania: Some Unique Aspects". In David Cesarani (ed.). The Final Solution: Origins and Implementation. Routledge. pp. 161–162. ISBN 978-0-415-15232-7.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l MacQueen, Michael (1998). "The Context of Mass Destruction: Agents and Prerequisites of the Holocaust in Lithuania". Holocaust and Genocide Studies. 12 (1): 27–48. doi:10.1093/hgs/12.1.27. ISSN 8756-6583.
  4. ^ a b c d e Bubnys, Arūnas (2004). "Holocaust in Lithuania: An Outline of the Major Stages and Their Results". The Vanished World of Lithuanian Jews. Rodopi. pp. 218–219. ISBN 978-90-420-0850-2.
  5. ^ Matthäus, Jürgen (2007). "Operation Barbarossa and the onset of the Holocaust". In Christopher R. Browning (ed.). The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939–March 1942. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 244–294. ISBN 978-0-8032-5979-9.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Porat, Dina (2002). "The Holocaust in Lithuania: Some Unique Aspects". In David Cesarani (ed.). The Final Solution: Origins and Implementation. Routledge. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-415-15232-7.
  7. ^ a b c Kwiet, Konrad (1998). "Rehearsing for Murder: The Beginning of the Final Solution in Lithuania in June 1941". Holocaust and Genocide Studies. 1 (12): 3–26. doi:10.1093/hgs/12.1.3. ISSN 8756-6583.
  8. ^ Miniotaite, Grazina (1999). "The Security Policy of Lithuania and the 'Integration Dilemma'" (PDF). NATO Academic Forum: 21.
  9. ^ Thomas Remeikis (1975). "The decision of the Lithuanian government to accept the Soviet ultimatum of 14 June 1940". Lituanus. 21 (4 – Winter 1975). Archived from the original on 17 December 2010 – via Internet Archive.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  10. ^ a b c d Piotrowski, Tadeusz (1997). Poland's Holocaust. McFarland & Company. pp. 163–164. ISBN 978-0-7864-0371-4.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h Porat, Dina (2002). "The Holocaust in Lithuania: Some Unique Aspects". In David Cesarani (ed.). The Final Solution: Origins and Implementation. Routledge. pp. 165–166. ISBN 978-0-415-15232-7.
  12. ^ "Japan's Abe seeks Baltic support against North Korea". AFP. 14 January 2018. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  13. ^ a b Bubnys, Arūnas (2004). "Holocaust in Lithuania: An Outline of the Major Stages and Their Results". The Vanished World of Lithuanian Jews. Rodopi. pp. 205–206. ISBN 978-90-420-0850-2.
  14. ^ a b "Śledztwo w sprawie masowych zabójstw Polaków w latach 1941 - 1944 w Ponarach koło Wilna dokonanych przez funkcjonariuszy policji niemieckiej i kolaboracyjnej policji litewskiej" (in Polish). Institute of National Remembrance. Archived from the original on 2007-10-17. Retrieved 10 February 2007.
  15. ^ a b Michalski, Czesław (Winter 2000–2001). "Ponary - Golgota Wileńszczyzny". Konspekt (in Polish). 5. Archived from the original on 2007-02-07.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h Bubnys, Arūnas (2004). "Holocaust in Lithuania: An Outline of the Major Stages and Their Results". The Vanished World of Lithuanian Jews. Rodopi. pp. 214–215. ISBN 978-90-420-0850-2.
  17. ^ a b "Extracts from a Report by Einsatzgruppe a in the Baltic Countries". Jewish Virtual Library. October 15, 1941. Retrieved 2008-08-06.
  18. ^ a b c d Bubnys, Arūnas (1997). "Vokiečių ir lietuvių saugumo policija (1941–1944) (German and Lithuanian security police: 1941–1944)". Genocidas Ir Rezistencija (in Lithuanian). 1 (1). ISSN 1392-3463.
  19. ^ a b MacQueen, Michael (1998). "Nazi Policy towards the Jews in Reichskommissariat Ostland, June–December 1941". In Zvi Y. Gitelman (ed.). Bitter Legacy: Confronting the Holocaust in the USSR. Indiana University Press. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-253-33359-9.
  20. ^ a b c Piotrowski, Tadeusz (1997). Poland's Holocaust. McFarland & Company. pp. 175–176. ISBN 978-0-7864-0371-4.
  21. ^ "Names of Righteous by Country". 2017.
  22. ^ "Righteous Among the Nations - per Country & Ethnic Origin". Yad Vashem. January 1, 2008. Archived from the original on October 15, 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-15.
  23. ^ a b c d e "NCSJ Country Report: Lithuania". Advocates on Behalf of Jews in Russia, Ukraine, the Baltic States & Eurasia. 2003. Archived from the original on 30 April 2002. Retrieved 13 March 2007.
  24. ^ Sakaitė, Viktorija (1998). "Žydų gelbėjimas (Rescue of Jews)". Genocidas Ir Rezistencija (in Lithuanian). 2 (4). ISSN 1392-3463.
  25. ^ Mineau, André (1999). The Making of the Holocaust: Ideology and Ethics in the Systems. Rodopi. p. 117. ISBN 978-90-420-0705-5.
  26. ^ Freeman, Joseph (1996). Job: The Story of a Holocaust Survivor. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-275-95586-1.
  27. ^ a b Levin, Dov (2000). The Litvaks: A Short History of the Jews in Lithuania. Berghahn Books. pp. 240–241. ISBN 978-965-308-084-3.
  28. ^ Vanagaitė, Rūta (2016). Mūsiškiai. Alma littera. ISBN 6090122084.
  29. ^ Walkowitz, Daniel J.; Lisa Maya Knauer (2004). Memory and the Impact of Political Transformation in Public Space. Duke University Press. p. 188. ISBN 978-0-8223-3364-7.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g Sužiedėlis, Saulius (Winter 2001). "The Burden of 1941". Lituanus. 4 (47). ISSN 0024-5089.
  31. ^ Zuroff, Efraim (August 28, 2001). "Can Lithuania face its Holocaust past?". Association of Lithuanian Jews in Israel. Archived from the original on October 5, 2013. Retrieved 2009-03-15.
  32. ^ "Wiesenthal Center Denounces Lithuanian Decision not to Implement Jail Sentence for Convicted Nazi Criminal Based on Flawed Medical Examination". Simon Wiesenthal Center. November 16, 2008. Retrieved 2009-03-15.
  33. ^ MacQueen, Michael (2005-07-03). "Lithuanian Collaboration in the "Final Solution": Motivations and Case Studies" (PDF). Lithuania and the Jews: The Holocaust Chapter. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. pp. 1–16. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-05-15.
  34. ^ a b Senn, Alfred E. (Winter 2001). "Reflections on the Holocaust in Lithuania: A new Book by Alfonsas Eidintas". Lituanus. 4 (47). ISSN 0024-5089.
  35. ^ Miller-Korpi, Katy (May 1998). "The Holocaust in the Baltics". Encyclopedia of Baltic History. University of Washington. Archived from the original on 7 March 2008. Retrieved 13 March 2008.

Further reading

  • Arūnas Bubnys, The Holocaust in Lithuania between 1941 and 1944, Genocide and Resistance Research Centre of Lithuania, 2005, ISBN 9986-757-66-5 abstract
  • Alfonsas Eidintas, Jews, Lithuanians and the Holocaust, Versus Aureus, 2003, ISBN 978-9955-9613-8-3
  • Alfonsas Eidintas, A "Jew-Communist" Stereotype in Lithuania, 1940–1941, Lithuanian Political Science Yearbook (01/2000), pp. 1–36, [1]
  • Harry Gordon, The Shadow of Death: The Holocaust in Lithuania, University Press of Kentucky, 2000, ISBN 0-8131-9008-8
  • Rose Lerer-Cohen, Saul Issroff, The Holocaust in Lithuania 1941–1945: A Book of Remembrance, Gefen Booksm, 2002, ISBN 965-229-280-X
  • Dov Levin, Lithuanian Attitudes toward the Jewish Minority in the Aftermath of the Holocaust: The Lithuanian Press, 1991–1992, # Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Volume 7, Number 2, pp. 247–262, 1993, [2]
  • Dov Levin, On the Relations between the Baltic Peoples and their Jewish Neighbors before, during and after World War II, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Volume 5, Number 1, pp. 53–6, 1990, [3]
  • Josifas Levinsonas, Joseph Levinson, The Shoah (Holocaust) in Lithuania, The Vilna Gaon Jewish State Museum, 2006, ISBN 5-415-01902-2
  • Alfred Erich Senn, Lithuania 1940: Revolution from Above, Rodopi, 2007, ISBN 90-420-2225-6
  • Vytautas Tininis, "Kolaboravimo" sąvoka Lietuvos istorijos kontekste (Definition of Lithuanian collaborationists), [4], Lietuvos gyventojų genocido ir rezistencijos tyrimo centras, 2004-01-30

Sepetys, Ruta. Between shades of gray. New York, N.Y.: Speak, 2012. Print.

External links

Blue Police

The Blue Police (Polish: Granatowa policja, lit. Navy-blue police) was the police during the Second World War in German-occupied Poland (the General Government). The entity's official German name was Polnische Polizei im Generalgouvernement (Polish Police of the General Government; Polish: Policja Polska Generalnego Gubernatorstwa).

The Blue Police officially came into being on 30 October 1939 when Germany drafted Poland's prewar state police officers (Policja Państwowa), organizing local units with German leadership. It was an auxiliary institution tasked with protecting public safety and order in the General Government. The Blue Police, initially employed purely to deal with ordinary criminality, was later also used to counter smuggling, which was an essential element of German-occupied Poland's underground economy.The organization was officially dissolved and declared disbanded by the Polish Committee of National Liberation on August 27, 1944. After a review process, a number of its former members joined the new national policing structure, the Milicja Obywatelska (Citizens' Militia). Others were persecuted after 1949 under Stalinism.

Einsatzgruppen reports

The Einsatzgruppen Operational Situation Reports (OSRs), or ERM for the German: Die Ereignismeldung UdSSR (plural: Ereignismeldungen), were dispatches of the Nazi death squads (Einsatzgruppen), which documented the progress of the Holocaust behind the German-Soviet frontier in the course of Operation Barbarossa, during World War II. The extant reports were sent between June 1941 and April 1942 to the Chief of the Security Police and the SD (German: Chef des Sicherheitspolizei und SD) in Berlin, from the occupied eastern territories including modern-day Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Russia, Moldova, and the Baltic Countries. During the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials the originals were grouped according to year and month and catalogued using a consecutive numbering system, as listed in the below table. The original photostats are held at the National Archives in Washington D.C..

Elchonon Wasserman

Elchonon Bunem Wasserman (Hebrew: אלחנן בונים וסרמן‎; 1874 – 6 July 1941) was a prominent rabbi and rosh yeshiva in pre-World War II Europe. He was one of the Chofetz Chaim's closest disciples and a noted Torah scholar.

Fareynikte Partizaner Organizatsye

The Fareynikte Partizaner Organizatsye (Yiddish: פֿאַראײניקטע פּאַרטיזאַנער אָרגאַניזאַציע‎; "United Partisan Organization"; referred to as FPO by its Yiddish initials) was a Jewish resistance organization based in the Vilna Ghetto that organized armed resistance against the Nazis during World War II. The clandestine organisation was established by Communist and Zionist partisans. Their leaders were writer Abba Kovner and Yitzhak Wittenberg.

Iron Wolf (organization)

Iron Wolf (Geležinis Vilkas, also known as Iron Wolf Association) was a Lithuanian paramilitary organization active in 1927–1934. Initially established as an athletic society (founded by officer Algirdas Sliesoraitis, supported by Catholic chaplain V. Mironas), it recruited its members mainly from army officers (overall numbers were minuscule). Its original raison d'être was perceived as a fight against internal destabilization in light of political crisis, civil unrest and yet another demonstrative threat of military intervention, made by the Polish government. With the exception of glorification of youth and struggle, it featured rather few criteria of fascist ideology.The organization gradually radicalized and became almost completely dependent on a personal will of Augustinas Voldemaras, who used it to target his political opponents. After Voldemaras's Cabinet resignation, the movement was banned in 1930, although it continued as an underground group, and became even more radical. In 1934, its members attempted a failed coup d'état against President Antanas Smetona. Voldemaras was arrested, released in 1938 and soon emigrated. Former members of the organization reorganized later in the 1930s.

Leading Voldemarists fled to Nazi Germany after the Soviet occupation of Lithuania in 1941. They joined the Lithuanian Activist Front led by Kazys Škirpa, but in the spring of 1941 betrayed him to work directly with the German Sicherheitsdienst (SD). After the Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union, they led a failed putsch against the Provisional Government of Lithuania. They led the Lithuanian Nationalist Union, which collaborated with the Nazi occupation and which was active in the Holocaust in Lithuania.

The name of the organization comes from the story of Gediminas's dream, first recorded in The Broad Code of Lithuanian Chronicles from the 16th century. During the period of 1928–1929, Iron Wolf published its periodical Tautos kelias twice a month.

Jan Zwartendijk

Jan Zwartendijk (29 July 1896 – 14 September 1976) was a Dutch businessman and diplomat. As director of the Philips plants in Lithuania and part-time acting consul of the Dutch government-in-exile, he supervised the writing of 2,345 visas for Curaçao to save Jews from the Holocaust during World War II. In 1997, Yad Vashem recognised him as Righteous Among the Nations.

Jäger Report

The so-called Jäger Report, also Jaeger Report (full title: Complete tabulation of executions carried out in the Einsatzkommando 3 zone up to December 1, 1941) was written on 1 December 1941 by Karl Jäger, commander of Einsatzkommando 3 (EK 3), a killing unit of Einsatzgruppe A which was attached to Army Group North during the Operation Barbarossa. It is the most detailed and precise surviving chronicle of the activities of one individual Einsatzkommando, and a key record documenting the Holocaust in Lithuania as well as in Latvia and Belarus.

Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions

The Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions were paramilitary units (battalions) formed during the occupation of Lithuania by Nazi Germany between 1941 and 1944. Similar units, known as Schutzmannschaft-Bataillonen, were organized in other German-occupied territories of Eastern Europe. In Lithuania, the first battalions originated from units formed during the anti-Soviet Uprising of June 1941. Lithuanian activists hoped that these units would become the basis for the reestablished Lithuanian Army. Instead, these units were absorbed into the German military apparatus and aided German forces: guarded strategic objects, engaged in anti-partisan operations, participated in the Holocaust. The 12th and the 13th battalions, tracing their roots from the Tautinio darbo apsaugos batalionas (TDA), were particularly active in the executions of the Jews and were responsible for estimated 78,000 Jewish deaths in Lithuania and Belarus. While the battalions were often deployed outside Lithuania, they generally did not participate in combat. In total, 26 battalions were formed and approximately 13,000 men served in them. In July–September, 1944, the remaining units were combined into two Lithuanian Volunteer Infantry Regiments.

Lithuanian Security Police

The Lithuanian Security Police (LSP), also known as Saugumas (Lithuanian: Saugumo policija), was a local police force that operated in German-occupied Lithuania from 1941 to 1944, in collaboration with the occupational authorities. Collaborating with the Nazi Sipo (security police) and SD (intelligence agency of the SS), the unit was directly subordinate to the German Kripo (criminal police). The LSP took part in perpetrating the Holocaust in Lithuania, persecuting Polish resistance and communist underground.

Lithuanian TDA Battalions

The Lithuanian TDA Battalions (Lithuanian: Tautinio darbo apsaugos batalionas) or TDA, were paramilitary units organized in June–August 1941 by the Provisional Government of Lithuania at the onset of Operation Barbarossa. Members of the TDA were known by many names such as Lithuanian auxiliaries, policemen, white-armbands, nationalists, rebels, partisans, or resistance fighters. TDA was intended as basis for the future independent Lithuanian Army, but soon it was taken over by Nazi officials and reorganized into the Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions (Lithuanian version of Schutzmannschaft). The original TDA eventually became the 12th and the 13th Police Battalions. These two units took an active role in mass killings of the Jews in Lithuania and Belarus. Based on the Jäger Report, members of TDA murdered about 26,000 Jews between July and December 1941.

Lithuanian partisans (1941)

Lithuanian partisans is a generic term used during World War II by Nazi officials and quoted in books by modern historians to describe Lithuanian collaborators with the Nazis during the first months of the occupation of Lithuania by Nazi Germany. Lithuanian partisans, mostly fighters against retreating Soviet forces during the June Uprising, were later organized into various auxiliary units by German Nazis. Several of the numerous units assisted and actively participated in mass executions of the Lithuanian Jews mostly in June–August 1941.

The term "Lithuanian partisans" might apply to several different and unrelated groups during 1941 and later:

A group led by Nazi agent Algirdas Klimaitis and active in Kaunas at the end of June 1941

Tautinio Darbo Apsaugos Batalionas (TDA) was formed in Kaunas as basis for independent Lithuanian army, but soon transformed into a Nazi auxiliary unit participating in executions of the Jews at the Seventh and Ninth Forts

Rollkommando Hamann and its Lithuanian auxiliaries from TDA, responsible for mass murders in the countryside

Lithuanian Police Battalions formed in Vilnius from 3,600 deserters from the 29th Lithuanian Territorial Corps of the Red Army

Ypatingasis būrys formed in Vilnius and participant in the Ponary massacre

Plungė

Plungė (pronunciation ) is a city in Lithuania with 23,246 inhabitants. It has a crab stick factory which exports to many countries in Europe.

Before World War II, Plungė had a large Jewish population (see The Holocaust in Lithuania).

Police Regiment North

The Police Regiment North (Polizei-Regiment Nord) was a police formation under the command of the SS of Nazi Germany. During Operation Barbarossa, it was deployed in German-occupied areas of the Soviet Union, in the Army Group North Rear Area.The Police Regiment Centre was formed in June 1941 by combining three Order Police (Orpo) Battalions and associated units. The regiment was subordinated to Hans-Adolf Prützmann, the Higher SS and Police Leader (HSS-PF) for Army Group North.Alongside the Einsatzgruppen detachments, it perpetrated mass murder in the Holocaust. The information on the scope of the unit's activities remains limited as, in contrast to the Police Regiment Centre and South, the 1941 reports of the unit were not intercepted by the British intelligence. Prützmann's command experienced communications difficulties during the summer of 1941. Then starting on September 12, the HSS-PF were instructed to not transmit their reports over the radio. Thus, none of its reports were decrypted as part of the operation Ultra, the British signals intelligence program.

Rollkommando Hamann

Rollkommando Hamann (Lithuanian: skrajojantis būrys) was a small mobile unit that committed mass murders of Lithuanian Jews in the countryside in July–October 1941, with a death toll of at least 60,000 Jews. The unit was also responsible for a large number of murders in Latvia from July through August, 1941. At the end of 1941 the destruction of Lithuanian Jewry was effectively accomplished by the Rollkommando in the countryside, by the Ypatingasis būrys in the Ponary massacre, and by the Tautinio Darbo Apsaugos Batalionas in the Ninth Fort in Kaunas. In about six months an estimated 80% of all Lithuanian Jews were killed. The remaining few were spared for use as a labor force and concentrated in urban ghettos, mainly the Vilna and Kaunas Ghettos.

Sonderaktion 1005

The Sonderaktion 1005 (English: Special Action 1005), also called Aktion 1005, or Enterdungsaktion (English: Exhumation Action) began in May 1942 during World War II to hide any evidence that people had been murdered by Germany in Aktion Reinhard in German-occupied Poland. The operation, which was conducted in strict secrecy from 1942–1944, used prisoners to exhume mass graves and burn the bodies. These work groups were officially called Leichenkommandos ("corpse units") and were all part of Sonderkommando 1005; inmates were often put in chains in order to prevent escape.

In May 1943, the operation moved into occupied territories in Eastern and Central Europe to destroy evidence of the Final Solution. Sonderaktion 1005 was used to conceal the evidence of massacres committed by SS-Einsatzgruppen Nazi death squads that had massacred millions of people including 1.3 million Jews according to Historian Raul Hilberg, as well as Roma and local civilians. The Aktion was overseen by selected squads from the Sicherheitsdienst and Ordnungspolizei.

Virginia Holocaust Museum

The Virginia Holocaust Museum (VHM) is a public history museum, located in Richmond, Virginia. The museum is dedicated to depicting the Holocaust through the personal stories of its victims.

Yeshiva Ohr Elchonon (Jerusalem)

Yeshiva Ohr Elchonon (Hebrew: ישיבה אור אלחנן‎, also spelled Ohr Elchanan) is a Lithuanian-style Orthodox yeshiva in Jerusalem, Israel. The yeshiva was initially established in 1953 in Los Angeles, California, by Rabbi Simcha Wasserman, who named it in memory of his father, Rabbi Elchonon Wasserman, rosh yeshiva in Baranowicz, who was murdered in the Holocaust in Lithuania. The yeshiva operated in Los Angeles from 1953 to 1977, when it was sold to the Chabad movement. After Wasserman immigrated to Jerusalem, he established another Yeshiva Ohr Elchonon in the Ezrat Torah neighborhood in 1979. A second branch was opened in the Romema neighborhood in 1993. Ohr Elchonon enrolls hundreds of boys in yeshiva ketana and yeshiva gedolah, and close to 100 married men in its kollel. Additional yeshiva ketana branches have been established in the Israeli cities of Modiin Illit, Rishon Letzion, and Tiberias.

Yeshivas Knesses Yisrael (Slabodka)

Yeshivas Knesses Yisrael was a yeshiva located in the Lithuanian town of Slabodka, adjacent to Kovno (Kaunas), now Vilijampolė, a suburb of Kaunas. It was known colloquially as the "mother of yeshivas" and was devoted to high-level study of the Talmud. It functioned from the late 19th century until World War II.

Ypatingasis būrys

Ypatingasis būrys (Special Squad) or Special SD and German Security Police Squad (Lithuanian: Vokiečių Saugumo policijos ir SD ypatingasis būrys, Polish: Specjalny Oddział SD i Niemieckiej Policji Bezpieczeństwa, also colloquially strzelcy ponarscy ("Ponary riflemen" in Polish) (1941–1944) was a Lithuanian killing squad also called the "Lithuanian equivalent of Sonderkommando", operating in the Vilnius Region. The unit, primarily composed of Lithuanian volunteers, was formed by the German occupational government and was subordinate to Einsatzkommando 9 and later to Sicherheitsdienst (SD) and Sicherheitspolizei (Sipo).There are different estimates regarding the size of the unit. Polish historian Czesław Michalski estimates that it grew from base of 50 while Tadeusz Piotrowski asserts about that there were 100 volunteers at its onset. According to Michalski, after its initial creation, at various times hundreds of people were members. Arūnas Bubnys states that it never exceeded a core of forty or fifty men. 118 names are known; 20 of the members have been prosecuted and punished. Together with German police, the squad participated in the Ponary massacre, where some 70,000 Jews were murdered, along with estimated 20,000 Poles and 8,000 Russian POWs, many from nearby Vilnius.

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