The Graduate

The Graduate is a 1967 American romantic comedy-drama film directed by Mike Nichols[4] and written by Buck Henry and Calder Willingham, based on the 1963 novel of the same name by Charles Webb, who wrote it shortly after graduating from Williams College. The film tells the story of 21-year-old Benjamin Braddock (Dustin Hoffman), a recent college graduate with no well-defined aim in life, who is seduced by an older woman, Mrs. Robinson (Anne Bancroft), and then falls in love with her daughter Elaine (Katharine Ross).

The film was released on December 22, 1967, received positive reviews and grossed $104.9 million in the U.S. and Canada. With the figures adjusted for inflation, the film's gross is $789 million, making it the 22nd highest-ever grossing film in the U.S. and Canada.[5] It won the Academy Award for Best Director and was nominated in six other categories. In 1996, The Graduate was selected for preservation in the U.S. National Film Registry as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant." Initially, the film was placed at number 7 on AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movies list in 1998. When AFI revised the list in 2007, the film was moved to number 17.

The Graduate
Graduateposter67
Theatrical release poster
Directed byMike Nichols
Produced byLawrence Turman
Screenplay by
Based onThe Graduate
by Charles Webb
Starring
Music by
CinematographyRobert Surtees
Edited bySam O'Steen
Production
company
Mike Nichols/Lawrence Turman Productions
Distributed by
Release date
  • December 22, 1967
Running time
105 minutes[1]
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Budget$3 million
Box office$104.9 million (North America)[2]
$85 million (worldwide rentals)[3]

Plot

In 1967, Benjamin Braddock, aged 21, has earned his bachelor's degree from a college on the East Coast and has returned home to a party celebrating his graduation at his parents' house in suburban Los Angeles. Benjamin, visibly uncomfortable as his parents deliver accolades and neighborhood friends ask him about his future plans, evades those who try to congratulate him. Mrs. Robinson, the wife of his father's law partner, insists that he drive her home. Benjamin is coerced inside to have a drink and Mrs. Robinson attempts to seduce him. She invites him up to her daughter Elaine's room to see her portrait and then enters the room naked, making it clear that she is available to him. Benjamin initially rebuffs her but a few days later, he clumsily organizes a tryst at the Taft Hotel.

Benjamin spends the remainder of the summer drifting around in the pool by day, purposefully neglecting to select a graduate school, and seeing Mrs. Robinson at the hotel by night. He discovers that he and Mrs. Robinson have nothing to talk about. However, after Benjamin pesters her one evening, Mrs. Robinson reveals that she entered into a loveless marriage when she accidentally became pregnant with Elaine. Both Mr. Robinson and Benjamin's parents encourage him to call Elaine, but, in private, Mrs. Robinson forbids it.

Benjamin takes Elaine on a date but tries to sabotage it by ignoring her, driving recklessly and taking her to a strip club. After Elaine runs out of the strip club in tears, Benjamin has a change of heart, realizes how rude he has been to her, and discovers that Elaine is someone with whom he is comfortable. In search of a late-night drink they visit the Taft Hotel, but when the staff greet Benjamin as "Mr. Gladstone" (the name he uses during his trysts with Mrs. Robinson) Elaine correctly guesses that he has been having an affair with a married woman and accepts his assurances that the affair is now over. To preempt a furious Mrs. Robinson, who threatens to tell Elaine her version of their affair, Benjamin tells Elaine that the married woman was her mother. Elaine is distraught and returns to school at Berkeley. Benjamin pursues her there and tries to talk to her. She reveals that her mother's story is that he raped her while she was drunk, and she refuses to believe that her mother actually seduced Benjamin. After pestering her to marry him for several days, Benjamin begins to make inroads with Elaine. However, Mr. Robinson arrives at Berkeley after learning about the affair, confronts Benjamin at his rooming house, and threatens to put him behind bars if Benjamin sees his daughter again. Mr. Robinson then forces Elaine to drop out of college and takes her away to marry Carl, a classmate with whom she briefly had been involved.

Returning to Pasadena in search of Elaine, Benjamin breaks into the Robinson home but encounters Mrs. Robinson. She tells him he will not be able to stop the wedding with Carl and then calls the police, claiming that her house is being burgled. Benjamin visits Carl's fraternity brothers who tell him that the wedding is in Santa Barbara that very morning. He rushes to the church and arrives just as Elaine is married, witnessing the kiss. He bangs on the glass at the back of the church and screams "Elaine!" repeatedly. After hesitating, Elaine screams "Ben!" and looks at him plaintively. He rushes toward her, and a brawl ensues as guests try to stop the two from leaving together. Elaine manages to break free from her mother, who then slaps her. Benjamin manages to keep the guests at bay by jamming a large cross into the doors of the church. Both he and Elaine then run into the street to flag down a passing bus and take the back seat. Although initially elated at their victory, the pair become increasingly uncomfortable as they journey towards an uncertain future.

Cast

Production

Casting

Nichols' first choice for Mrs. Robinson was French actress Jeanne Moreau.[6] The idea behind this was that in the French culture, the "older" women tended to "train" the younger men in sexual matters. There were numerous actors considered or tested for, or who wanted, roles in the film. Doris Day turned down an offer because the nudity required by the role offended her.[7] Joan Crawford inquired as to play the part, while Lauren Bacall and Audrey Hepburn both wanted the role. Patricia Neal turned down the film as she had recently recovered from a stroke and did not feel ready to accept such a major role. Geraldine Page also turned it down. Other actors considered for the part included Claire Bloom, Angie Dickinson, Sophia Loren, Judy Garland, Rita Hayworth, Susan Hayward, Anouk Aimee, Jennifer Jones, Deborah Kerr, Eva Marie Saint, Rosalind Russell, Simone Signoret, Jean Simmons, Lana Turner, Eleanor Parker, Anne Baxter and Shelley Winters. Angela Lansbury also asked about playing the part. Ava Gardner sought the role of Mrs. Robinson, and reportedly called Nichols saying,"I want to see you! I want to talk about this Graduate thing!" Nichols did not seriously consider her for the role (he wanted a younger woman as Bancroft was 36 and Gardner was 45), but did end up visiting her hotel. He later recounted that "she sat at a little French desk with a telephone, she went through every movie star cliché. She said, 'All right, let's talk about your movie. First of all, I strip for nobody.'" Meanwhile, Natalie Wood turned down not only the role of Mrs. Robinson, but also that of Elaine.

For the character of Elaine, casting was also an issue. Patty Duke turned down the part as she did not want to work at the time. Faye Dunaway was also considered for Elaine, but had to turn it down, in favor of Bonnie and Clyde. Sally Field and Shirley MacLaine refused the role as well. Raquel Welch and Joan Collins both wanted the role, but did not succeed in getting it. Carroll Baker tested, but was said to have been too old to portray Anne Bancroft's daughter. Candice Bergen screen-tested as well, as did Goldie Hawn and Jane Fonda. Additionally, Ann-Margret, Elizabeth Ashley, Carol Lynley, Sue Lyon, Yvette Mimieux, Suzanne Pleshette, Lee Remick, Pamela Tiffin, Julie Christie, and Tuesday Weld were all on the director's shortlist before Katharine Ross was cast.

When Dustin Hoffman auditioned for the role of Benjamin, he was asked to perform a love scene with Ross. Hoffman had never done one during his acting classes and believed that, as he said later, "a girl like [Ross] would never go for a guy like me in a million years." Ross agreed, believing that Hoffman "look[ed] about 3 feet tall ... so unkempt. This is going to be a disaster." Producer Joseph E. Levine later admitted that he at first believed that Hoffman "was one of the messenger boys." Despite—or perhaps because of—Hoffman's awkwardness, Nichols chose him for the film.[8] "As far as I’m concerned, Mike Nichols did a very courageous thing casting me in a part that I was not right for, meaning I was Jewish," said Hoffman. "In fact, many of the reviews were very negative. It was kind of veiled anti-Semitism.... I was called 'big-nosed' in the reviews, 'a nasal voice'."[9] Before Hoffman was cast, Robert Redford and Warren Beatty were among the top choices. Beatty turned the film down as he was occupied with Bonnie and Clyde. Redford tested for the part of Benjamin (with Candice Bergen as Elaine), but Nichols thought Redford did not possess the underdog quality Benjamin needed.[10]

In the role of Mr. Robinson, Gene Hackman was originally cast, but just before filming began, the director decided he was too young and decided to replace him. Marlon Brando, Howard Duff, Brian Keith, George Peppard, Jack Palance, Frank Sinatra, Walter Matthau and Gregory Peck were all other choices for the role that Murray Hamilton eventually played. Susan Hayward was the first choice for Benjamin's mother, Mrs. Braddock, but the role was given to Elizabeth Wilson. And to play Mr. Braddock, Yul Brynner, Kirk Douglas, Jack Lemmon, Robert Mitchum, Karl Malden, Christopher Plummer and Ronald Reagan all came close to getting the role that ended up going to William Daniels.[10]

Filming locations

Many of the exterior university campus shots of Berkeley were actually filmed on the brick campus of USC in Los Angeles.[11]

The church used for the wedding scene is actually the United Methodist Church in La Verne. In a commentary audio released with the 40th anniversary DVD, Hoffman revealed that he was uneasy about the scene in which he pounds on the church window, as the minister of the church had been watching the filming disapprovingly. The wedding scene was highly influenced by the ending of the 1924 comedy film Girl Shy starring Harold Lloyd, who also served as an advisor for the scene in The Graduate.[12][13]

Music

The film boosted the profile of folk-rock duo Simon & Garfunkel. Originally, Nichols and O'Steen used their existing songs like "The Sound of Silence" merely as a pacing device for the editing until Nichols decided that substituting original music would not be effective and decided to include them on the soundtrack, an unusual move at that time.[14]

According to a Variety article by Peter Bart in the May 15, 2005, issue, Lawrence Turman, his producer, then made a deal for Simon to write three new songs for the movie. By the time they had nearly finished editing the film, Simon had only written one new song. Nichols begged him for more, but Simon, who was touring constantly, told him he did not have the time. He did play him a few notes of a new song he had been working on; "It's not for the movie... it's a song about times past—about Mrs. Roosevelt and Joe DiMaggio and stuff." Nichols advised Simon, "It's now about Mrs. Robinson, not Mrs. Roosevelt."[15]

Reception

Critical response

The Graduate was met with generally positive reviews from critics upon its release. A.D. Murphy of Variety and Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times praised the film, with Murphy describing it as a "delightful satirical comedy-drama" [16] and Ebert claiming it was the "funniest American comedy of the year".[17] However, Life critic Richard Schickel felt the film "starts out to satirize the alienated spirit of modern youth, does so with uncommon brilliance for its first half, but ends up selling out to the very spirit its creators intended to make fun of... It's a shame-- they were halfway to something wonderful when they skidded on a patch of greasy kid stuff." Pauline Kael wondered, "How could you convince them [younger viewers] that a movie that sells innocence is a very commercial piece of work when they're so clearly in the market to buy innocence?"[18]

Modern critics continue to praise the film, if not always with the same ardor. For the film's thirtieth anniversary reissue, Ebert retracted some of his previous praise for the film, noting that he felt its time had passed and that he now had more sympathy for Mrs. Robinson than Benjamin (whom he considered "an insufferable creep"), viewing one's sympathy for Mrs. Robinson and disdainful attitude toward Ben as a function of aging and wisdom.[19] He, along with Gene Siskel, gave the film a positive if unenthusiastic review on the television program Siskel & Ebert.[20] Furthermore, the film's rating in the AFI list of the greatest American films fell from 7th in 1997 to 17th in the 2007 update. Lang Thompson, however, argued that "it really hasn't dated much".[21]

Review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes gives the film an approval rating of 89% based on 75 reviews, with an average rating of 8.81/10. The site's consensus reads, "The music, the performances, the precision in capturing the post-college malaise—The Graduate's coming-of-age story is indeed one for the ages."[22] On the similar website Metacritic, the film holds a score of 77 out of 100, based on 10 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews".[23]

Awards and honors

The film received Academy Award nominations for Best Picture (Lawrence Turman), Best Actor (Dustin Hoffman), Best Actress (Anne Bancroft), Best Supporting Actress (Katharine Ross), Best Adapted Screenplay (Buck Henry and Calder Willingham), and Best Cinematography (Robert L. Surtees). Mike Nichols won the Academy Award for Best Director.

The film also received Golden Globe Award nominations for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy (Hoffman), and Best Screenplay (Henry and Willingham). Bancroft won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy, Nichols won the Golden Globe Award for Best Director, Turman and Joseph E. Levin won the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy, Hoffman won the Golden Globe Award for New Star of the Year – Actor, and Ross won the Golden Globe Award for New Star of the Year – Actress.

In addition, the film won the BAFTA Award for Best Film, BAFTA Award for Best Direction (Nichols), BAFTA Award for Most Promising Newcomer to Leading Film Roles (Hoffman), the BAFTA Award for Best Editing (Sam O'Steen). Bancroft was nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role.

In 1996, The Graduate was selected for preservation in the U.S. National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant", and placed #21 on the list of highest-grossing films in the United States and Canada, adjusted for inflation.[5]

Years later in interviews, Bancroft conceded that, much to her surprise, Mrs. Robinson was the role with which she was most identified, and added "Men still come up to me and tell me 'You were my first sexual fantasy.'"

The film is listed in 1001 Movies You Must See Before You Die.[24]

The film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists:

Stage adaptation

Terry Johnson's adaptation of the original novel and the film ran both on London's West End and on Broadway, and has toured the United States. There is a Brazilian version adapted by Miguel Falabella. Several actresses have starred as Mrs. Robinson, including Kathleen Turner, Lorraine Bracco, Jerry Hall, Amanda Donohoe, Morgan Fairchild, Anne Archer, Vera Fischer, Patricia Richardson and Linda Gray.

The stage production adds several scenes that are not in the novel or the film, as well as using material from both film and novel. [31] It also uses songs by Simon & Garfunkel not used in the film, such as "Bridge Over Troubled Water" as well as music from other popular musicians from the era such as The Byrds and The Beach Boys.[32]

The West End production opened at the Gielgud Theatre on April 5, 2000, after previews from March 24, with Kathleen Turner starring as Mrs. Robinson.[33][34] The production closed in January 2002. Jerry Hall replaced Turner on July 31, 2000, followed by Amanda Donohoe from February 2001, Anne Archer from June 2001, and Linda Gray from October 2001.[35][36] The 2003 UK touring production starred Glynis Barber as Mrs. Robinson.[37]

The Broadway production opened at the Plymouth Theatre on April 4, 2002, and closed on March 2, 2003, after 380 performances. Directed by Terry Johnson, the play featured the cast of Jason Biggs as Benjamin Braddock, Alicia Silverstone as Elaine Robinson, and Kathleen Turner as Mrs. Robinson. The play received no award nominations.[38] Linda Gray briefly filled-in for Turner in September 2002. Lorraine Bracco replaced Turner from November 19, 2002.[39]

The Graduate ran at the Cape Playhouse (Dennis, Massachusetts) in July 2011, and starred Patricia Richardson.[40]

Possible sequel

Charles Webb has written a sequel to his original novel titled Home School, but initially refused to publish it in its entirety because of a contract he signed in the 1960s. When he sold film rights to The Graduate, he surrendered the rights to any sequels. If he were to publish Home School, Canal+, the French media company that owns the rights to The Graduate, would be able to adapt it for the screen without his permission.[41] Extracts of Home School were printed in The Times on May 2, 2006.[42] Webb also told the newspaper that there was a possibility he would find a publisher for the full text, provided he could retrieve the film rights using French copyright law.[43] On May 30, 2006, The Times reported that Webb had signed a publishing deal for Home School with Random House which he hoped would enable him to instruct French lawyers to attempt to retrieve his rights. The novel was published in Britain in 2007.[44]

See also

References

  1. ^ "THE GRADUATE (AA)". United Artists. British Board of Film Classification. July 1, 1970. Retrieved September 20, 2013.
  2. ^ "The Graduate, Box Office Information". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
  3. ^ Denisoff, R. Serge; Romanowski, William D. (1991). Risky Business: Rock in Film. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 9780887388439.
    • The Graduate: p. 167. "World net rental was estimated at more than $85 million by January 1971."
  4. ^ Variety's Film Reviews. December 20, 1967. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-8240-5210-2.
  5. ^ a b "Domestic Grosses, Adjusted for Ticket Price Inflation". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
  6. ^ The audio commentary by Mike Nichols and Steven Soderbergh in Criterion Collection BD and DVD.
  7. ^ McGee, Garry (November 22, 2011). Doris Day: Sentimental Journey. McFarland. p. 160. ISBN 978-0-7864-6107-3. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
  8. ^ Zeitlin, David (November 24, 1967). "The Graduate". Life. p. 111. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
  9. ^ Ahearn, Victoria (March 25, 2015). "Dustin Hoffman says he understands the worries of young singers in 'Boychoir'". 680 NEWS. Retrieved November 27, 2018.
  10. ^ a b Kashner, Sam (March 2008). "Here's to You, Mr. Nichols: The Making of The Graduate". Vanity Fair. Retrieved November 27, 2018.
  11. ^ Moore, Annette (Spring 2006). "USC's Lists & Urban Legends: Just a Few of the Feature Films Shot on the University Park Campus". USC Trojan Family Magazine. Archived from the original on May 27, 2013. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
  12. ^ "SILENT SALON 2015 // GIRL SHY". brownpapertickets.com.
  13. ^ "Girl Shy". doctormacro.com.
  14. ^ Harris, Mark (February 14, 2008). Pictures at a Revolution. The Penguin Press. pp. 360–1. ISBN 978-1-5942-0152-3.
  15. ^ Bart, Peter (May 15, 2005). "The perfect pic alignment". Variety. Variety.com.
  16. ^ A.D. Murphy (December 18, 1967). "Film Reviews—The Graduate". Variety. Variety.com. Retrieved March 15, 2018.
  17. ^ Ebert, Roger (December 26, 1967). "The Graduate". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved April 13, 2011.
  18. ^ Gray, Beverly, Seduced by Mrs. Robinson, Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill, 2017, pg. 166-167
  19. ^ Ebert, Roger (March 28, 1997). "The Graduate". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved April 13, 2011.
  20. ^ "LiarLiar / Crash / Selena / The Graduate (1997)". Siskel & Ebert at the Movies. Season 11. Episode 28. Siskel&Ebert.org. March 22, 1997. 3:40 minutes in. TV.com: Siskel & Ebert at the Movies Season 11 Episode 28. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
  21. ^ Thompson, Lang. "The Graduate". Turner Classic Movies, Inc. Retrieved February 16, 2017.
  22. ^ "The Graduate". Rotten Tomatoes. April 16, 2019.
  23. ^ "The Graduate". Metacritic.
  24. ^ Steven Jay Schneider, ed. (September 2003). 1001 Movies You Muse See Before You Die. London: Quintessence Editions Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7641-6151-3. Archived from the original on January 10, 2014.
  25. ^ "AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies" (PDF). American Film Institute. Retrieved July 17, 2016.
  26. ^ "AFI's 100 Years...100 Laughs" (PDF). American Film Institute. Retrieved July 17, 2016.
  27. ^ "AFI's 100 Years...100 Passions" (PDF). American Film Institute. Retrieved July 17, 2016.
  28. ^ "AFI's 100 Years...100 Songs" (PDF). American Film Institute. Retrieved July 17, 2016.
  29. ^ a b "AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes" (PDF). American Film Institute. Retrieved July 17, 2016.
  30. ^ "AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition)" (PDF). American Film Institute. Retrieved July 17, 2016.
  31. ^ Murray, Matthew. "Theatre Review. The Graduate", talkinbroadway.com, April 4, 2002.
  32. ^ Siegel, Barbara and Scott. "Reviews. The Graduate", theatermania.com, April 5, 2002
  33. ^ Shenton, Mark. Kathleen Turner to Graduate to West End as Mrs. Robinson", playbill.com, December 20, 1999.
  34. ^ Wolf, Matt. "Reviews. The Graduate Turner's Mrs. Robinson Turns Heads in London's West End", variety.com, April 10, 2000
  35. ^ " The Graduate's London term ends", bbc.co.uk, 18 January 2002
  36. ^ Davies, Hugh. "Curtain rises on the new Mrs Robinson", telegraph.co.uk, 12 Jun 2001.
  37. ^ "Glynis keeps her kit on and pulls it off". the Telegraph. September 5, 2003. Retrieved May 18, 2016.
  38. ^ " The Graduate on Broadway", ibdb.com, accessed May 12, 2015
  39. ^ Gans, Andrew and Simonson, Robert. "Lorraine Bracco Officially Opens in Broadway 'Graduate' Dec. 15", playbill.com, December 15, 2002.
  40. ^ Hetrick, Adam. "Cape Playhouse Casts Patricia Richardson, Joel Higgins, Dee Hoty, Josh Grisetti and Bradley Dean for Summer", playbill.com, June 3, 2011.
  41. ^ David Smith (March 25, 2005). "What happened next? (the author will let you know after he dies)". The Observer. guardian.co.uk. Retrieved October 12, 2007.
  42. ^ Webb, Charles (May 2, 2006). "Mrs Robinson Returns". The Times. timesonline.co.uk. Retrieved October 12, 2007.
  43. ^ Malvern, Jack (April 18, 2006). "The Graduate's not-so-happy sequel". The Times. timesonline.co.uk. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
  44. ^ Malvern, Jack (May 30, 2006). "At last, Mrs Robinson is getting her groove back". The Times. timesonline.co.uk. Retrieved April 13, 2011.

Bibliography

Further reading

External links

40th Academy Awards

The 40th Academy Awards honored film achievements of 1967. Originally scheduled for April 8, 1968, the awards were postponed to two days later, April 10, 1968, because of the Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.. Bob Hope was once again the host of the ceremony.

Due to the increasing rarity of black and white feature films, the awards for cinematography, art direction and costume design were combined into single categories rather than a distinction between color and monochrome. The Best Picture nominees were an eclectic group of films reflecting the chaos of their era. The event was the first one since the 1948 awards show to feature film clips from the Best Picture nominated films.

This year's nominations also marked the first time that three different films were nominated for the "Top Five" Academy Awards: Best Picture, Director, Actor, Actress and Screenplay. The three films were Bonnie and Clyde, The Graduate and Guess Who's Coming to Dinner. However, the winner of Best Picture was producer Walter Mirisch and director Norman Jewison's thriller/mystery film, In the Heat of the Night (with seven nominations and five wins – Best Picture, Best Actor, Best Screenplay, Best Film Editing and Best Sound).

The Graduate is, as of the 91st Academy Awards, the last film to win Best Director and nothing else.

Due to an all-out push by Academy President Gregory Peck, 18 of the 20 acting nominees were present at the ceremony. Only Katharine Hepburn and the late Spencer Tracy, who was nominated posthumously, were missing.

Buck Henry

Henry Zuckerman (born December 9, 1930), credited as Buck Henry, is an American actor, writer, film director, and television director. He has been nominated for an Academy Award twice, in 1968 for Best Adapted Screenplay for The Graduate and in 1979 for Best Director for Heaven Can Wait.

City University of New York

The City University of New York (CUNY ) is the public university system of New York City. It is the largest urban university system in the United States. CUNY was founded in 1847 and comprises 24 campuses: eleven senior colleges, seven community colleges, one undergraduate honors college, and seven post-graduate institutions. The university enrolls more than 275,000 students, and counts thirteen Nobel Prize winners and twenty-four MacArthur Fellows among its alumni.

Claremont Graduate University

Claremont Graduate University (CGU) is a private, all-graduate research university in Claremont, California. Founded in 1925, CGU is a member of the Claremont Colleges which includes five undergraduate (Pomona College, Claremont McKenna College, Harvey Mudd College, Scripps College, Pitzer College) and two graduate (CGU and Keck Graduate Institute of Applied Life Sciences) institutions of higher education.

The university is organized into seven separate units: the School of Arts & Humanities; School of Community & Global Health; Drucker School of Management; School of Educational Studies; the School of Social Science, Policy, & Evaluation; the Center for Information Systems & Technology; and the Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

Clark University

Clark University is a private research university in Worcester, Massachusetts. Founded in 1887 with a large endowment from its namesake Jonas Gilman Clark, a prominent businessman, Clark was one of the first modern research universities in the United States. Originally an all-graduate institution, Clark's first undergraduates entered in 1902. The university now offers 46 majors, minors, and concentrations in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and engineering and allows students to design specialized majors and engage in pre-professional programs. It is noted for its programs in the fields of psychology, geography, physics, biology, and entrepreneurship and is a member of the Higher Education Consortium of Central Massachusetts which enables students to cross-register to attend courses at other area institutions including Worcester Polytechnic Institute and the College of the Holy Cross. As a liberal arts–based research university, Clark makes substantial research opportunities available to its students, notably at the undergraduate level through LEEP project funding, yet is also respected for its intimate environment as the second smallest university counted among the top 66 national universities by U.S. News & World Report and as one of 40 Colleges That Change Lives.Graduate and professional programs are offered through the Graduate School, the Graduate School of Management, the Graduate School of Geography, the Frances L. Hiatt School of Psychology, the Gustaf H. Carlson School of Chemistry, the Adam Institute for Urban Teaching and School Practice, the International Development, Community and Environment (IDCE), and the School of Professional Studies.The university competes intercollegiately in 17 NCAA Division III varsity sports as the Clark Cougars and is a part of the New England Women's and Men's Athletic Conference. Intramural and club sports are also offered in a wide range of activities.Clark faculty and alumni have founded numerous companies and organizations including Panera Bread, the American Psychological Association, and the American Physical Society, and have played leading roles in the development of modern rocketry, the wind chill factor, and the birth control pill. The university is also the alma mater of at least three living billionaires, in addition to its alumni having won three Pulitzer Prizes and an Emmy Award.

Dustin Hoffman

Dustin Lee Hoffman (born August 8, 1937) is an American actor and director. Hoffman has been called one of the greatest actors of all time. He is known for his versatile portrayals of antiheroes and emotionally vulnerable characters. He is the recipient of numerous accolades including two Academy Awards, six Golden Globe Awards

(including the Cecil B. DeMille Award), four BAFTAs, three Drama Desk Awards and, two Emmy Awards. Hoffman received the AFI Life Achievement Award in 1999 and the Kennedy Center Honors Award in 2012.

Hoffman first drew critical praise for starring in the play, Eh?, for which he won a Theatre World Award and a Drama Desk Award. His breakthrough film role was as Benjamin Braddock in critically acclaimed and iconic The Graduate (1967). Since that time, Hoffman's career has largely been focused on the cinema, with sporadic returns to television and to the stage. Hoffman's films include Midnight Cowboy, Little Big Man, Papillon, Lenny, Marathon Man, All the President's Men, Kramer vs. Kramer, Tootsie, Rain Man, Hook, and Wag the Dog. He made his directorial debut in 2012, with Quartet.

Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering

The Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) is an examination that primarily tests the comprehensive understanding of various undergraduate subjects in engineering and science. GATE is conducted jointly by the Indian Institute of Science and seven Indian Institutes of Technologies at Roorkee, Delhi, Guwahati, Kanpur, Kharagpur, Chennai (Madras) and Mumbai (Bombay) on behalf of the National Coordination Board – GATE, Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resources Development (MHRD), Government of India.

The GATE score of a candidate reflects the relative performance level of a candidate. The score is used for admissions to various post-graduate education programs (e.g. Master of Engineering, Master of Technology, Doctor of Philosophy) in Indian higher education institutes, with financial assistance provided by MHRD and other government agencies. Recently, GATE scores are also being used by several Indian public sector undertakings for recruiting graduate engineers in entry-level positions. It is one of the most competitive examinations in India. GATE is also recognized by various institutes outside India, such as Nanyang Technological University in Singapore.

Graduate Center, CUNY

The Graduate School and University Center of the City University of New York (The Graduate Center) is a public research institution and post-graduate university in New York City. It is the principal doctoral-granting institution of the City University of New York (CUNY) system. The school is situated in a nine-story landmark building at 365 Fifth Avenue at the corner of 34th Street in the Midtown neighborhood of Manhattan, across the corner from the Empire State Building. The Graduate Center has 4,600 students, 31 doctoral programs, 14 master's programs, and 30 research centers and institutes. A core faculty of approximately 140 is supplemented by over 1,800 additional faculty members drawn from throughout CUNY's eleven senior colleges and New York City's cultural and scientific institutions.

The Graduate Center is categorized as a "Doctoral University - Highest Research Activity" in the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. The Graduate Center faculty include recipients of the Nobel Prize, Pulitzer Prize, the National Humanities Medal, the National Medal of Science, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Rockefeller Fellowship, the Schock Prize, the Bancroft Prize, the Wolf Prize, Grammy Awards, the George Jean Nathan Award for Dramatic Criticism, Guggenheim Fellowships, the New York City Mayor's Award for Excellence in Science and Technology, the Presidential Early Career Awards for Scientists and Engineers, and memberships in the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the National Academy of Sciences.

In addition to academics, the Graduate Center extends its intellectual and cultural resources to the general public, offering access to a wide range of events, including lectures, symposia, performances, and workshops.

Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies

Not to be confused with the similarly-named Geneva School of Diplomacy and International RelationsThe Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, or the Graduate Institute (in French: Institut de hautes études internationales et du développement (previously known as Institut (universitaire) de hautes études internationales), abbreviated IHEID (previously HEI, IHEI, or IUHEI) is a higher education institute located in Geneva, Switzerland, but not a officially recognised Swiss university.The institution counts one UN secretary-general (Kofi Annan), seven Nobel Prize recipients, one Pulitzer Prize winner, and numerous ambassadors, foreign ministers, and heads of state among its alumni and faculty. Founded by two senior League of Nations officials, the Graduate Institute maintains strong links with that international organisation's successor, the United Nations, and many alumni have gone on to work at UN agencies. The school is a full member of the APSIA.Founded in 1927, the Graduate Institute of International Studies (IHEI or HEI) is continental Europe's oldest school of international relations and was the world's first university dedicated solely to the study of international affairs. It offered one of the first doctoral programmes in international relations in the world. In 2008, the Graduate Institute absorbed the Graduate Institute of Development Studies, a smaller post-graduate institution also based in Geneva founded in 1961. The merger resulted in the current Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies.Today the school enrolls about 800 graduate students from over 100 countries. Foreign students make up nearly 80% of the student body and the school is officially a bilingual English-French institution, although the majority of classes are in English. With Maison de la Paix acting as its primary seat of learning, the Institute's campuses are located blocks from the United Nations Office at Geneva, International Labour Organization, World Trade Organization, World Health Organization, International Committee of the Red Cross, World Intellectual Property Organization and many other international organizations.It runs joint degree programmes with universities such as Smith College and Yale University, and is Harvard Kennedy School's only partner university to co-deliver double degrees.

Graduate Management Admission Test

The Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT ( (JEE-mat))) is a computer adaptive test (CAT) intended to assess certain analytical, writing, quantitative, verbal, and reading skills in written English for use in admission to a graduate management program, such as an MBA. It requires knowledge of certain specific grammar and knowledge of certain specific algebra, geometry, and arithmetic. According to the test owning company, the Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC), the GMAT assesses analytical writing and problem-solving abilities, while also addressing data sufficiency, logic, and critical reasoning skills that it believes to be vital to real-world business and management success. It can be taken up to five times a year. No more than 8 times total. Attempts must be at least 16 days apart.GMAT is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council. More than 7,000 programs at approximately 2,300+ graduate business schools around the world accept the GMAT as part of the selection criteria for their programs. Business schools use the test as a criterion for admission into a wide range of graduate management programs, including MBA, Master of Accountancy, Master of Finance programs and others. The GMAT is administered in standardized test centers in 114 countries around the world. According to a survey conducted by Kaplan Test Prep, the GMAT is still the number one choice for MBA aspirants despite the increasing acceptability of GRE scores. According to GMAC, it has continually performed validity studies to statistically verify that the exam predicts success in business school programs.

Graduate Record Examinations

The Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) is a standardized test that is an admissions requirement for most graduate schools in the United States. The GRE is owned and administered by Educational Testing Service (ETS). The test was established in 1936 by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.According to ETS, the GRE aims to measure verbal reasoning, quantitative reasoning, analytical writing, and critical thinking skills that have been acquired over a long period of learning. The content of the GRE consists of certain specific algebra, geometry, arithmetic, and vocabulary sections. The GRE General Test is offered as a computer-based exam administered at Prometric testing centers. In the graduate school admissions process, the level of emphasis that is placed upon GRE scores varies widely between schools and departments within schools. The importance of a GRE score can range from being a mere admission formality to an important selection factor.

The GRE was significantly overhauled in August 2011, resulting in an exam that is not adaptive on a question-by-question basis, but rather by section, so that the performance on the first verbal and math sections determines the difficulty of the second sections presented. Overall, the test retained the sections and many of the question types from its predecessor, but the scoring scale was changed to a 130 to 170 scale (from a 200 to 800 scale).The cost to take the test is US$205, although ETS will reduce the fee under certain circumstances. They also promote financial aid to those GRE applicants who prove economic hardship. ETS does not release scores that are older than five years, although graduate program policies on the acceptance of scores older than five years will vary.

Graduate Theological Union

The Graduate Theological Union (GTU) is a consortium of eight private independent American theological schools and eleven centers and affiliates. Seven of the theological schools are located in Berkeley, California. The GTU was founded in 1962 and their students can take courses at the University of California, Berkeley. Additionally, some of the GTU consortial schools are part of other California universities such as Santa Clara University (Jesuit School of Theology) and California Lutheran University (Pacific Lutheran Theological Seminary). Most of the GTU consortial schools are located in Berkeley area with the majority north of the campus in a neighborhood known as "Holy Hill" due to the cluster of GTU seminaries and centers located there.

Graduate diploma

A graduate diploma (GradD, GDip, GrDip, GradDip) is generally a qualification taken after completion of a first degree, although the level of study varies in different countries from being at the same level as the final year of a bachelor's degree to being at a level between a master's degree and a doctorate. In some countries the graduate diploma and postgraduate diploma are synonymous, while in others (particularly where the graduate diploma is at undergraduate degree level) the postgraduate diploma is a higher qualification.

Katharine Ross

Katharine Juliet Ross (born January 29, 1940) is an American film and stage actress. She had starring roles as Elaine Robinson in The Graduate (1967), for which she received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress; as Etta Place in Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969), for which she won a BAFTA Award for Best Actress; and as Joanna Eberhart in The Stepford Wives (1975). She won a Golden Globe for Voyage of the Damned (1976).

Mike Nichols

Mike Nichols (born Mikhail Igor Peschkowsky; November 6, 1931 – November 19, 2014) was an American film and theater director, producer, actor, and comedian. He was noted for his ability to work across a range of genres and for his aptitude for getting the best out of actors regardless of their experience. Nichols began his career in the 1950s with the comedy improvisational troupe The Compass Players, predecessor of The Second City, in Chicago. He then teamed up with his improv partner, Elaine May, to form the comedy duo Nichols and May. Their live improv act was a hit on Broadway, and the first of their three albums won a Grammy Award.

After Nichols and May disbanded in 1961, he began directing plays, and quickly became known for his innovative productions and ability to elicit polished performances. His Broadway directing debut was Neil Simon's Barefoot in the Park in 1963, with Robert Redford and Elizabeth Ashley. He next directed Luv in 1964, and in 1965 directed another Neil Simon play, The Odd Couple. He received a Tony Award for each of those plays. In 2012, he won his sixth Tony Award for Best Direction of a Play with a revival of Death of a Salesman. Nichols directed and/or produced more than twenty-five Broadway plays.

In 1966, Warner Brothers invited Nichols to direct his first film, Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, starring Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton. The groundbreaking film inspired some critics to declare Nichols the "new Orson Welles". It won five Academy Awards (out of 13 nominations), and was the top-grossing film of 1966. Nichols's next film, The Graduate (1967) starred then unknown actor Dustin Hoffman, alongside Anne Bancroft and Katharine Ross. It was another critical and financial success, became the highest-grossing film of the year, and received seven Academy Award nominations, winning Nichols the Academy Award for Best Director.

Among the other films Nichols directed were Catch-22 (1970), Carnal Knowledge (1971), Silkwood (1983), Working Girl (1988), Wolf (1994), The Birdcage (1996), Closer (2004) and Charlie Wilson's War (2007).

Along with an Academy Award, Nichols won a Grammy Award (the first for a comedian born outside the United States), four Emmy Awards, nine Tony Awards, and three BAFTA Awards. His other honors included the Lincoln Center Gala Tribute in 1999, the National Medal of Arts in 2001, the Kennedy Center Honors in 2003 and the AFI Life Achievement Award in 2010. His films received a total of 42 Academy Award nominations, and seven wins. He is one of the few people who have won Academy, Emmy, Grammy and Tony Awards.

Mrs. Robinson

"Mrs. Robinson" is a song by American music duo Simon & Garfunkel from their fourth studio album, Bookends (1968). Produced by the duo and Roy Halee, it is famous for its inclusion in the 1967 film The Graduate. The song was written by Paul Simon, who pitched it to director Mike Nichols alongside Art Garfunkel after Nichols rejected two other songs intended for the film. The song contains a famous reference to baseball star Joe DiMaggio.

"Mrs. Robinson" became the duo's second chart-topper, hitting number one on the Billboard Hot 100, as well as peaking within the top 10 of the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Spain, among other countries. In 1969, it became the first rock song to win the Grammy Award for Record of the Year. The song has been covered by a number of artists, including Frank Sinatra, the Lemonheads, and Bon Jovi. In 2004, it finished at No. 6 on AFI's 100 Years...100 Songs survey of top tunes in American cinema.

Rush University

Rush University is a private university in Chicago, Illinois. The university, founded in 1972, is the academic arm of Rush University Medical Center.

Rush University comprises:

Rush Medical College

Rush University College of Nursing

Rush University College of Health Sciences

The Graduate College of Rush UniversityRush encompasses a 664-bed hospital serving adults and children, the 61-bed Johnston R. Bowman Health Center and Rush University. The campus occupies an 8-acre (3.2 ha) site on Chicago's Near West Side, in the Illinois Medical District, which also includes its teaching hospital, Rush University Medical Center.

Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU) is a health science university of the U.S. federal government. The primary mission of the school is to prepare graduates for service to the U.S. at home and abroad in the medical corps as medical professionals, nurses, and physicians.

The university consists of the F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine, a medical school, which includes a full health sciences graduate education program, the Daniel K. Inouye Graduate School of Nursing, the Postgraduate Dental College, and the College of Allied Health Sciences. The university's main campus is located in Bethesda, Maryland. USU was established in 1972 under legislation sponsored by U.S. Representative Felix Edward Hébert of Louisiana. It graduated its first class in 1980. USU is accredited by the Commission of Education, Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools.

Uniformed Services University falls under the office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs.

University of Nottingham

The University of Nottingham is a public research university in Nottingham, United Kingdom. It was founded as University College Nottingham in 1881, and was granted a royal charter in 1948.

Nottingham's main campus (University Park) with Jubilee Campus and teaching hospital (Queen's Medical Centre) are located within the City of Nottingham, with a number of smaller campuses and sites elsewhere in Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire. Outside the UK, the university has campuses in Semenyih, Malaysia and Ningbo, China. Nottingham is organised into five constituent faculties, within which there are more than 50 schools, departments, institutes and research centres. Nottingham has about 45,500 students and 7,000 staff, and had an income of £656.5 million in 2017/18, of which £120.1 million was from research grants and contracts.Nottingham was ranked #11 overall in the UK by the 2019 QS Graduate Employability Rankings. The QS Graduate Employability Rankings measure how successful students are at securing a top job after graduation from university. In addition, the 2017 High Fliers survey stated Nottingham was the seventh most targeted university by the UK's top employers between 2016-17. In 2010, Nottingham was ranked 13th in the world in terms of the number of alumni listed among CEOs of the Fortune Global 500, together with the Tohoku (Japan) and the Stanford University (U.S.) It is also ranked 2nd (joint with Oxford) in the 2012 Summer Olympics table of British medal winners. In the 2011 and 2014 GreenMetric World University Rankings, University Park was ranked as the world's most sustainable campus. The institution's alumni have been awarded a variety of prestigious accolades, including 3 Nobel Prizes, a Fields Medal, a Turner Prize, and a Gabor Medal and Prize.

The university is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the European University Association, the Russell Group, Universitas 21, Universities UK, the Virgo Consortium, and participates in the Sutton Trust Summer School programme as a member of the Sutton 30.

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