The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria

The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (or simply the Global Fund) is an international financing organization that aims to “attract, leverage and invest additional resources to end the epidemics of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria to support attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals established by the United Nations.”[1] A public-private partnership, the organization maintains its secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland.[2] The organization began operations in January 2002.[2] Microsoft founder Bill Gates was one of the first private foundations among many bilateral donors to provide seed money for the partnership.[3]

The Global Fund is the world's largest financier of AIDS, TB, and malaria prevention, treatment, and care programs.[4] As of July 2018, the organization had disbursed more than USD 38 billion to support these programs.[5] According to the organization, in 2017 it financed the distribution of 197 million insecticide-treated nets to combat malaria, provided anti-tuberculosis treatment for 5 million people, supported 17.5 million people on antiretroviral therapy for AIDS, and since its founding saved 27 million lives worldwide.[6]

The Global Fund is a financing mechanism rather than an implementing agency. Programs are implemented by in-country partners such as ministries of health, while the Global Fund secretariat, whose staff only have an office in Geneva, monitor the programs. Implementation is overseen by Country Coordinating Mechanisms, country-level committees consisting of in-country stakeholders that need to include, according to Global Fund requirements, a broad spectrum of representatives from government, NGOs, faith-based organizations, the private sector, and people living with the diseases. This system has kept the Global Fund secretariat smaller than other international bureaucracies. The model has also raised concerns about conflict of interest, as some of the stakeholders represented on the Country Coordinating Mechanisms may also receive money from the Global Fund, either as grant recipients, sub-recipients, private persons (e.g. for travel or participation at seminars) or contractors.

The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria
The Global Fund logo
FoundedJanuary 28, 2002 (first Board of Directors meeting)
FocusAccelerating the end of AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria as epidemics
Location
Key people
Peter Sands, (Executive Director, March 2018 -)
Websitewww.theglobalfund.org

Creation

At the end of the 20th century, international political will to improve coordinated efforts to fight the world's deadliest infectious diseases began to materialize. Through various multilateral fora, consensus around creating a new international financial vehicle to combat these diseases emerged. In this context the World Health Organization called for a "Massive Attack on Diseases of Poverty" in December 1999. The original concept suggested tackling “malaria, tuberculosis, unsafe pregnancy, AIDS, diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections and measles.”[7] This list would steadily narrow to only include the three diseases the Global Fund fights today: HIV/AIDS, TB, and malaria.[8][9][10]

In April 2001, in Abuja, Nigeria at a summit of African leaders, United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan made the first explicit public call by a highly visible global leader for this new funding mechanism, proposing "the creation of a Global Fund, dedicated to the battle against HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases."[11] Secretary General Annan made the first contribution to the Global Fund in 2001. Having just been named the recipient of the 2001 Philadelphia Liberty Medal, Annan announced he would donate his USD 100,000 award to the Global Fund "war chest" he had just proposed creating.[12] In June 2001 the United Nations General Assembly endorsed the creation of a global fund to fight HIV/AIDS.[13]

The G8 formally endorsed the call for the creation of the Global Fund at its summit in July 2001 in Genoa, Italy, although pledges were significantly lower than the USD 7 billion to USD 10 billion annually Kofi Annan insisted was needed.[14] According to the G8’s final communique, “At Okinawa last year, we pledged to make a quantum leap in the fight against infectious diseases and to break the vicious cycle between disease and poverty. To meet that commitment and to respond to the appeal of the UN General Assembly, we have launched with the UN Secretary-General a new Global Fund to fight HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. We are determined to make the Fund operational before the end of the year. We have committed $1.3 billion. The Fund will be a public-private partnership and we call on other countries, the private sector, foundations, and academic institutions to join with their own contributions - financially, in kind and through shared expertise.”[15]

The Global Fund's initial 18-member policy-setting board held its first meeting in January 2002, and issued its first call for proposals.[16] [17] The first secretariat was established in January 2002 with Paul Ehmer serving as team leader, soon replaced by Anders Nordstrom of Sweden who became the organization’s interim executive director. By the time the Global Fund Secretariat became operational, the organization had received USD 1.9 billion in pledges.

In March 2002, a panel of international public health experts was named to begin reviewing project proposals that same month. In April 2002, the Global Fund awarded its first batch of grants – worth USD 378 million – to fight the three diseases in 31 countries.[18]

Fundraising

Since the Global Fund was created in 2002, public sector contributions have constituted 95 percent of all financing raised; the remaining 5 percent comes from the private sector or other financing initiatives such as Product Red.[19] The Global Fund states that from 2002 to 2016, more than 51 donor governments pledged a total of USD 38.5 billion and paid USD 37.3 billion.[20] From 2001 through 2016, the largest contributor by far has been the United States, followed by France, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Japan.[20] The donor nations with the largest percent of gross national income contributed to the fund from 2008 through 2010 were Sweden, Norway, France, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Spain.

The Global Fund typically raises and spends funds during three-year "replenishment" fund-raising periods. Its first replenishment was launched in 2005, the second in 2007, the third in 2010, the fourth in 2013, and the fifth in 2016.[21]

Alarms were raised prior to the third replenishment meeting in October 2010 about a looming deficit in funding, which would have led to people undergoing ARV treatment losing access, increasing the chance of them becoming resistant to treatment. UNAIDS Executive Director Michel Sidibé dubbed the scenario of a funding deficit an "HIV Nightmare".[22] The Global Fund stated it needed at least USD 20 billion for the third replenishment (covering programs 2011-2013), and USD 13 billion just to "allow for the continuation of funding of existing programs."[23] Ultimately, USD 11.8 billion was mobilized at the third replenishment meeting, with the United States being the largest contributor - followed by France, Germany, and Japan. The Global Fund stated the USD 1.2 billion lack in funding would "lead to difficult decisions in the next three years that could slow down the effort to beat the three diseases."[24]

In November 2011, the organization's board cancelled all new grants for 2012, only having enough money to support existing grants.[25] However, following the Global Fund’s May 2012 board meeting, it announced that an additional USD 1.6 billion would be available in the 2012-2014 period for investment in programs.[26]

In December 2013, the fourth replenishment meeting was held in Washington D.C. USD 12 billion was pledged in contributions from 25 countries, as well as the European Commission, private foundations, corporations, and faith-based organizations for the 2014–2016 period.[27] It was the largest amount ever committed to fighting the three diseases.[28]

The fifth replenishment meeting took place September 2016 in Montreal, Canada, and was hosted by Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau. Donors pledged USD 12.9 billion (at 2016 exchange rates) for the 2017-2019 period.[29]

France and French President Emmanuel Macron will host the sixth replenishment meeting in 2019 for the 2020-2022 period.[30]

Leadership

Richard Feachem was named the Global Fund's first executive director in April 2002[31] and faced early criticism from activists for stating the Global Fund has "plenty" of money to start.[32]

Feachem served from July 2002 through March 2007. Dr. Michel Kazatchkine was then selected as executive director over the Global Fund’s architect, David Nabarro, even though Nabarro was “considered the strongest of three shortlisted candidates to head the Global Fund ... A selection committee has evaluated the three nominees' qualifications and ranked ‘Nabarro first, Kazatchkine second and (Alex) Cotinho third,’ according to a Fund source.”[33]

In September 2011, the AIDS Healthcare Foundation called for Kazatchkine's resignation in the wake of isolated yet unprecedented reports of "waste, fraud, and corruption" in order that "reforms may begin in earnest".[34] In January 2012, Kazatchkine ultimately declared his resignation, following the decision made by the Global Fund board in November 2011 to appoint a general manager, leaving Kazatchkine’s role to that of chief fund-raiser and public advocate.[35] Communications later disclosed by the United States government stated that Kazatchkine's performance was deemed unsatisfactory by the Global Fund board, notably in relation to the funding of activities related to the First Lady of France at the time, Carla Bruni-Sarkozy.[36]

Following Kazatchkine’s resignation, the Global Fund announced the appointment of Gabriel Jaramillo, the former chairman and chief executive officer of Sovereign Bank, to the newly created position of general manager. Jaramillo, who had retired one year earlier, had since served as a Special Advisor to the Office of the Special Envoy for Malaria of the Secretary General of the United Nations, and was a member of the high-level independent panel that looked at the Global Fund’s fiduciary controls and oversight mechanisms. Jaramillo reorganized and reduced Global Fund staff in response to the previous year's critics of the Global Fund.[37]

Dr. Mark R. Dybul was appointed executive director in November 2012.[38] He previously served as the United States Global AIDS Coordinator, leading the implementation of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) from 2006 to 2009. Dybul ended his appointment in 2017.

A nominating process to find a successor to Dybul ran into trouble in 2017 because nominees had spoken out against Donald Trump as a candidate for president of the United States.[39] The Global Fund board named Global Fund Chief of Staff Marijke Wijnroks of the Netherlands as interim executive director while the nominating process restarted.[40]

The Global Fund board selected banker Peter Sands as executive director in 2017.[41] He assumed the role in 2018.

Operations

The Global Fund was formed as an independent, non-profit foundation under Swiss law and hosted by the World Health Organization in January 2002.[42] In January 2009, the organization became an administratively autonomous organization, terminating its administrative services agreement with the World Health Organization.[43]

The initial objective of the Global Fund — to provide funding to countries on the basis of performance — was supposed to make it different from other international agencies at the time of its inception. Other organizations may have staff that assist with the implementation of grants. However, the Global Fund's five-year evaluation in 2009 concluded that without a standing body of technical staff, the Global Fund is not able to ascertain the actual results of its projects. It has therefore tended to look at disbursements or the purchase of inputs as performance. It also became apparent shortly after the organization opened that a pure funding mechanism could not work on its own, and it began relying on other agencies – notably the World Health Organization – to support countries in designing and drafting their applications and in supporting implementation. The United Nations Development Programme, in particular, bears responsibility for supporting Global Fund-financed projects in a number of countries. As a result, the organization is most accurately described as a financial supplement to the existing global health architecture rather than as a separate approach.

The Global Fund Secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland, employs about 700 staff.[44] There are neither offices nor staff based in other countries.[45]

In 2013, the Global Fund adopted a new way of distributing its funds in countries to fight AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria.[46] Under this funding model, eligible countries receive an allocation of money every three years for possible use during same the three-year period.[47] The total amount of all allocations across all countries depends on the amount contributed by governments and other donors through the "replenishment" fundraising during the same three-year period.[48] The countries, through their “country coordinating mechanism” committees, submit applications outlining how they’ll use the allocation.[49] The committees name entities, called “principal recipients,” to carry about programs within their respective countries.[50] An independent "technical review panel" reviews the applications.[51] Once the applications are approved, the Global Fund provides funding to the principal recipients based on achievement toward agreed indicators and actual expenses.[52] Performance and expenses are periodically reviewed by a “local fund agent,” which in most countries is an international financial audit company.[53]

Corruption and misuse of funds

In January 2011, the Associated Press reported vast corruption in some programs financed by the Global Fund, citing findings of the Global Fund Office of the Inspector General – an auditing unit independent from the Global Fund Secretariat – that up to two-thirds of funds in some of the reviewed grants were lost to fraud.[54] The Office of the Inspector General report showed that systematic fraud patterns had been used across countries.[54] The Global Fund responded to the story with a news release, stating, "The Global Fund has zero tolerance for corruption and actively seeks to uncover any evidence of misuse of its funds. It deploys some of the most rigorous procedures to detect fraud and fight corruption of any organization financing development."[55]

After the Associated Press story, a number of op-eds, including one by Michael Gerson published in the Washington Post in February 2011, sought to put the controversy surrounding the misuse of Global Fund grants in perspective. Gerson stated, "The two-thirds figure applies to one element of one country's grant - the single most extreme example in the world. Investigations are ongoing, but the $34 million in fraud that has been exposed represents about three-tenths of 1 percent of the money the fund has distributed. The targeting of these particular cases was not random; they were the most obviously problematic, not the most typical."[56]

Global Fund spokesman Jon Liden told the Associated Press, "The messenger is being shot to some extent. We would contend that we do not have any corruption problems that are significantly different in scale or nature to any other international financing institution."[54] Subsequent Global Fund statements omitted any reference to other agencies.

Previous reviews of grants and the Global Fund had shown substantial misconduct in some programs, lack of adequate risk management, and operational inefficiency of the Global Fund.[57] Cases of corruption had also been found in several African countries such as Mali, Mauritania, Djibouti, and Zambia.[54]

Sweden, the Global Fund’s 11th-biggest contributor at the time (2011), suspended its USD 85 million annual donation until the corruption problems were resolved.[54] Germany, the third-biggest contributor at the time, also blocked any financing until a special investigation was complete.[58] Funding was eventually restored.

Other cases of abuse of funds, corruption and mismanagement in a series of grants forced the Global Fund to suspend or terminate the grants after such dealings became publicly known in Uganda, Zimbabwe, Philippines, and Ukraine.

In February 2011, the Financial Times reported that the Global Fund board failed to act previously on concerns over accountability including on the conclusion of an external evaluation in 2009 that criticized the organization’s weak procurement practices.[59] Warnings of inadequate controls had also been reported periodically.[60] The Financial Times also reported that its own review found that neither Global Fund staff nor “local fund agents” (the entities entrusted with audit-like tasks at the country level) had noticed the deficiencies reported by the inspector general.[59]

In 2012, the Global Fund hired a chief risk officer, Cees Klumper.[61] After pushing countries to reclaim stolen funds from the parties responsible and recovering only about half, the organization began in 2014 as a last resort reducing future grants by twice the amount of misappropriated funds.[62] As of February 2016, this resulted in USD 14.8 million of reductions (collectively) for Bangladesh, Guatemala, Nigeria and Sri Lanka.

References

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  23. ^ Hellevik, Siri Bjerkreim: HIV Nightmare Averted - For Now, NIBR International Blog, October 14, 2020 Archived June 24, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
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  25. ^ "Obama Embraces 'End of AIDS,' Promises To Accelerate HIV Treatment". NPR.org. Retrieved 2017-04-21.
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  27. ^ "Donors Pledge $12 Billion for Global Fund". VOA.
  28. ^ "Historic Replenishment of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria Only a Starting Point". results.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2014-08-30.
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  46. ^ Lopez Gonzalez, Laura. "A beginner's guide to the Global Fund's new funding model". Making Malaria History. Global Health Posts. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  47. ^ "The Global Fund launches new funding model to support countries in responding to HIV, TB and malaria". UNAIDS. The Global Fund launches new funding model to support countries in responding to HIV, TB and malaria. 1 March 2013. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  48. ^ "The Global Fund's New Funding Model:What it Might Mean for You and Your Country" (PDF). Eurasian Harm Reduction Network: 8. March 2013.
  49. ^ "Understanding the New Funding Model: An Aidspan Guide" (PDF). 30 April 2014: 7. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  50. ^ "Understanding the New Funding Model: An Aidspan Guide" (PDF). 30 April 2014: 8. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
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  52. ^ The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (7 March 2018). "Operational Policy Manual" (PDF). Retrieved 28 May 2018.
  53. ^ Rivers, Bernard. "What is a Local Fund Agent?". Aidspan. Aidspan. Retrieved 23 January 2003.
  54. ^ a b c d e "AP Enterprise: Fraud plagues global health fund". Associated Press. 23 January 2011. Retrieved 6 October 2016.
  55. ^ "News Release: Global Fund statement on abuse of funds in some countries". The Global Fund. January 24, 2011. Archived from the original on August 30, 2012. Retrieved 2012-01-26.
  56. ^ Gerson, Michael (February 4, 2011). "Putting fraud in global health spending in context". The Washington Post.
  57. ^ Summary Paper on the Five-Year Evaluation Synthesis Report Archived 2010-02-10 at the Wayback Machine, 5-year review study paid by the GFATM pp 13, 2009
  58. ^ Minister Niebel on Corruption at the GFATM Archived 2011-07-17 at the Wayback Machine, BMZ message, January 25, 2011 German only
  59. ^ a b Jack, Andrew (4 February 2011). "UN health fund to review practices". Financial Times. Financial Times. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  60. ^ A spoonful of ingenuity, The Economist, Jan. 7, 2010.
  61. ^ Mungcal, Ivy (27 March 2012). "Cees Klumper is Global Fund's new chief risk officer". Devex. Devex. Retrieved 27 March 2012.
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External links

Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria

The Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm) is a financing mechanism intended to expand access to affordable and effective antimalarial medication (artemisinin-based combination therapies, ACTs). It works primarily through the commercial private sector, in addition to the public and non-governmental organization sectors which are the more traditional routes for development assistance in malaria control. Its goal is to drive down the price of the most effective malaria medicines so that millions of people can afford to buy them. The program has been called "one of the most important recent advances in fighting malaria" and "a triumph of international cooperation." The AMFm is hosted and managed by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria in Geneva, Switzerland.The premise of the AMFm is that a factory-gate global subsidy, with measures to support its implementation, will save lives and reduce malaria-related mortality by increasing access to ACTs, and delay the onset of widespread resistance to the artemisinin in ACTs. It includes three elements: (i) price reductions through negotiations with ACT manufacturers, (ii) a buyer subsidy through a 'co-payment' at the top of the global supply chain and (iii) supporting interventions at the country level to promote the appropriate use of ACTs.AMFm Phase 1 was formally launched in April 2009 and began operations in July 2010. AMFm Phase 1 is being implemented through nine pilot programs in eight countries: Cambodia, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Niger, Nigeria, Tanzania (mainland and Zanzibar) and Uganda. There are early signs AMFm Phase 1 is effectively increasing availability and decreasing prices of ACTs; however the Global Fund Board will only take a decision on the future of AMFm at the end of 2012 on the basis of an independent evaluation. As part of the Copenhagen Consensus 2012, a panel of leading economists concluded that the AMFm was "one of the best returns on health that could be made globally" and ranked it two of 16 priority solutions to advance global welfare.In November 2012 the Global Fund Board decided to modify the existing AMFm business line by integrating lessons learned from Phase 1 into Global Fund core grant management and financial processes. The AMFm was subsequently renamed the Private Sector Co-payment Mechanism.

Anders Nordström

Anders Nordström (born 9 March 1960) is a Swedish physician who served as Acting Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO) from 22 May 2006 to 8 November 2006.

Nordström trained as a physician at Karolinska Institutet and has experience in the field of national and international health policy and planning and strategic leadership. Nordström worked with the Swedish Red Cross in Cambodia and the International Committee of the Red Cross in Iran. He has also worked for the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) for over 12 years, including 3 years in Zambia.

In 2002, he was the Interim Executive Director for the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. He became Assistant Director-General for General Management at WHO in July 2003 and, on May 2006, Acting Director-General on the death of Lee Jong-wook. Later named WHO Assistant Director-General for Health Systems and Services, one of his main contributions was to advance policy for manpower in health services, especially for low-income countries.

He was Director general for Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency from January 2008 to May 2010. He was dismissed as Sida's head in May 2010 amid controversy over fraud and corruption in the agency's development aid program in Zambia, with Nordström singled out for attention over lack of proper management.Despite the events of 2010, in April 2012 Sweden appointed Nordström as the declared "world's first Global Health Ambassador". [1]

In April 2015, after a tenure as Sweden's Ambassador for Global Health, Mr Nordström was appointed back to WHO as the organisation's country representative to Sierra Leone.[2]

DHIS

The District Health Information System (DHIS) is used in more than 60 countries around the world. DHIS is an open source software platform for reporting, analysis and dissemination of data for all health programs, developed by the Health Information Systems Programme (HISP). The core development activities of the DHIS 2 platform (see note on releases and versions further down) are coordinated by the Department of Informatics at the University of Oslo, and supported by NORAD, PEPFAR, The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, UNICEF and the University of Oslo.

The solution covers aggregated data (e.g. routine health facility data, staffing, equipment, infrastructure, population estimates), and event data (disease outbreaks, survey/audit data, patient satisfaction surveys, longitudinal patient records etc.). The system supports the capture of data linked to any level in an organisational hierarchy, any data collection frequency, a high degree of customisation at both the input and output side. DHIS 2 comes with easy to use analytics through tailored Dashboards, charts, pivot tables and maps, and can be extended with Apps or used by third-party software through the open Web-API. It has been translated into a number of languages.

The DHIS was originally developed for three health districts in Cape Town in 1998-99, but has since spread via the HISP network to more than 40 countries in Africa, Asia and Latin-America. The initial scope - routine monthly Primary Health Center data – has systematically been expanded to cover nearly all aspects of health data and information, and recently been used by other sectors such as Education, Water and Sanitation, Forestry, and Food Security.

Debrework Zewdie

Dr. Debrework Zewdie, former Director (September 1994–November 2014) of the World Bank Global AIDS Program and Deputy Executive Director and COO of the Global Fund, is an Ethiopian national who has led strategy, policy implementation, and management of development programs at country, regional, and global levels for international bodies such as the World Bank and The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. As an immunologist, she conceptualized and managed the groundbreaking US$1 billion Multi-country HIV/AIDS Program that changed the AIDS funding landscape and pioneered the large-scale multi-sectorial response with direct financing to civil society and the private sector. Dr. Zewdie led the articulation of the World Bank's first global strategy on HIV/AIDS and the Global HIV/AIDS Program of Action. As a founding UNAIDS Global Coordinator, she has been instrumental in making the unique cooperative structure of the UNAIDS family a working reality, fostering strong inter-agency partnerships. She is an advocate for women's health and was a founding Vice President and member of the Society for Women and AIDS in Africa (SWAA). She established institutional rigor at the Global Fund and led its wide-ranging internal reform which culminated in the ongoing corporate transformation program. Dr. Zewdie has a Ph.D. in clinical immunology from the University of London, a postdoctoral fellowship at SYVA Company (a diagnostic company in Palo Alto, California), and was a Senior MacArthur Fellow at the Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies. Dr. Zewdie was a Richard L. and Ronay A. Menschel Senior Leadership Fellow at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health in 2015. During her Fellowship at the Harvard Chan School, she also participated as a speaker on Voices in Leadership, an original webcast series, in a discussion titled, "Leadership in Getting AIDS on the World Bank Agenda", moderated by Dr. Barry Bloom.

Elizabeth Mataka

Elizabeth Mataka was the United Nations Special Envoy for HIV/AIDS in Africa, as appointed on May 21, 2007 by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, replacing Stephen Lewis. She served in this position till 13 July 2012. Mataka is a national of Botswana and a resident of Zambia. She served as the vice-chair of the board of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.

HIV/AIDS in Japan

HIV/AIDS in Japan has been recognized as a serious health issue in recent years. However, overall awareness amongst the general population of Japan regarding sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS, remains low.Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) first came to attention in the 1980s in the United States, followed by global interest in the years that followed. Among the many countries affected, Japan's population of affected people remains low in comparison to other developed countries such as the United States and other European countries, the number of cases continues to rise. Official reports indicate that 6 homosexual men were diagnosed in 1985, which grew to 100 people infected by 1990.

The primary group affected in the 1980s was hemophiliacs, but that shifted to sexual transmission in the late 80s and early 90s. Due to poor media coverage and the lack of momentum from activist groups, large misconceptions about the disease, homosexuals, and foreigners spread about the general population.

Today, Japan remains one of the top providers of funds for global efforts such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria and World Health Organization for HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment.

James Munange Ogoola

Justice James Manage Ogoola is the former Principal Judge of the High Court of Uganda and a Justice of the COMESA Court of Justice in Lusaka, Zambia. He is the chairperson of the Judicial Service Commission of Uganda. Previously, he served as the chairman of the commission of inquiry into the mismanagement of The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. He was an Acting Justice of the Supreme Court of Uganda. He is a member of The East African Court of Justice.

John Parsons (Inspector General)

John Parsons was the Inspector General for the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria ("The Global Fund") from 2008 to November 2012. Under his leadership, the Office of the Inspector General (OIG) revealed that up to two-thirds of certain Global Fund grants may have been lost to corruption through forged documents, improper bookkeeping, the diversion of donated prescription drugs to the black market, and other irregularities. Two OIG reports (one covering grants to a sub-recipient in Bangladesh and another to a principal recipient in Djibouti) identified losses of $10M, which was more than 50 percent of the total funds disbursed to the recipient governments and non-governmental organisations.In a controversial decision, the Global Fund's Board terminated Parsons in November 2012. A news release issued by the Global Fund on the removal of Parsons as Inspector General stated that the Board "made its decision based on factors including: a performance review; an independent external peer review of the audit function; and a report to the Board by its Audit and Ethics Committee." However, the Board has not substantiated the performance allegations or released Parsons' performance reviews. The Aids Healthcare Foundation (AHF) called Parsons' dismissal a "hatchet job."

Lieve Fransen

Lieve Fransen is a Senior Adviser to European Policy Centre on health, social and migration policies. Formerly, after having been since 2011 the Director for Social Policies in the Directorate for Employment and Social affairs for the European Commission. Before that she was Director for Representations in the Directorate for Communication and was in charge of the 35 Representations with 500 staff and for more than 500 networks across the European Union .

She started her career as a Medical Doctor in Africa during the 1970s and 1980s (mainly in Mozambique, Kenya and Rwanda). In several African countries she developed new initiatives and ensured implementation through international cooperation and strategic planning. In 1987 she created the AIDS Task Force, an international foundation where she was executive director until 1993.

In 1993 she joined the European Commission as the Head of the Health, AIDS and Population Sector. She was in charge of negotiating tiered pricing for pharmaceutical products for developing countries. During this period, she was also the guest editor for the Policy Research Department of the World Bank. In 2001 she became the Head of the Social and Human Development Unit in Directorate-General for Development in charge of social protection, employment, health, education and gender.

She was a founding board member and vice-chair of the Board of the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) representing the European Commission and several EU member states from 2000 to 2007, where she helped create a large public/private partnership and performance-based fund (8 billion pledges in 4 years).She has written more than 100 peer-reviewed publications and numerous policy documents for the European Council and the European Parliament. She holds a PhD from the University of Antwerp in social policies and public health. She was awarded the National Order of the Lion of the Republic of Senegal (1999) for special merit in the fight against HIV/AIDS and she received the Jonathan Mann Award for Health and Human Rights (2000).

Mark R. Dybul

Mark R. Dybul (born 1963) is an American diplomat, physician and medical researcher. He served as the executive director of The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria from 2012 until 2017.

Michel Kazatchkine

Michel Kazatchkine is a French physician, diplomat and advocate, best known for his work in international AIDS treatment issues. From February 2007 to March 2012 he was director of The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. On July 20, 2012, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appointed him as his United Nations Special Envoy for HIV/AIDS in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.Professor Kazatchkine is also a Senior Fellow with the Global Health Program of the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva, a member of the Global Commission on Drug Policy and serves as Chair of the Board of the Robert Carr Civil Society Networks Fund.

Peter Sands (banker)

Peter Alexander Sands (born 8 January 1962) is a British banker, and the executive director of the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. He was the chief executive (CEO) of Standard Chartered from November 2006 to June 2015.

Product Red

Product Red, stylized as (PRODUCT)RED™, is a licensed brand that seeks to engage the private sector in raising awareness and funds to help eliminate HIV/AIDS in eight African countries. It is licensed to partner companies including Nike, American Express (UK), Apple Inc., The Coca-Cola Company, Starbucks, Converse, Electronic Arts, Head, Buckaroo, Penguin Classics (UK & International), Gap, Armani, Hallmark (US), SAP, Beats Electronics, and Supercell. The concept was founded in 2006 by U2 frontman and activist Bono, together with Bobby Shriver of the ONE Campaign and DATA. The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is a recipient of Product Red's money.

As part of a new business model, each partner company creates a product with the Product Red logo. In return for the opportunity to increase revenue through the Product Red license, up to 50% of profits gained by each partner is donated to the Global Fund. As Product Red is owned by Red, a portion of the contributions received from the partner brands is assigned as profit. Such an amalgamation of humanitarian aid and for-profit businesses is one example of "ethical consumerism".

In 2012, ONE acquired (RED) as a division of ONE. Both organizations were co-founded by Bono and Bobby Shriver.

Purnima Mane

Purnima Mane is an internationally respected expert on sexual and reproductive health who served as the President and CEO of Pathfinder International, a post she held between February 2012 and April 2016. Earlier, she served as United Nations Assistant Secretary-General and United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) Deputy Executive Director (Programme), a position she was appointed to in March 2007. Mane joined UNFPA from the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), where she served as Director of Policy, Evidence and Partnership.

Mane joined the World Health Organization’s Global Programme on AIDS in 1994, moving to UNAIDS at its inception in 1996, where she provided oversight to the area of behavioural sciences research and gender and AIDS. She also managed the Executive Office.

From 1999 to 2003, she worked at the Population Council in New York, where she later became Vice-president and Director of International Programmes. In 2003, she went on to work for the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, where she was Chief Fund Portfolio Director and Director, Asia.

She returned to UNAIDS in 2004 as Director, Policy, Evidence and Partnerships, serving as a vital member of the senior management team.

Mane has a distinguished track record as an international expert on gender and HIV and led the process of developing the HIV Prevention Policy, which was endorsed by the UNAIDS Programme Coordinating Board in June 2005 and the first UNAIDS Strategic Plan (1996-2000).

Mane holds a doctorate from Tata Institute of Social Sciences in Mumbai, where she later went on to become an Associate Professor. Before joining UNAIDS, Mane worked for over 13 years in India on public health and gender-related issues.

Seb Bishop

Sebastian Luke (Seb) Bishop (born 1974) was the CEO of GOOP, Gwyneth Paltrow's lifestyle company, from 2011 to 2014. Prior to joining GOOP, Bishop was the International CEO of (RED), the organisation created by Bono and Bobby Shriver to raise money for The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. He had previously started the firm Espotting at the age of 26.Bishop was educated at Highgate School and began Espotting with his school-friend Daniel Ishag in a basement flat in 2000. He expanded the business across Europe before merging with US based FindWhat.com in June 2004 in a deal which valued the company at $186m. He is also the Chairman of Steak, a search-inspired communications agency.

In 2007 Bishop was one of 8 British entrepreneurs featured in the Channel 4 documentary 'Millionaires' Mission.' He spent 3 weeks in a remote region of Uganda, using Western entrepreneurial skills to try and bring sustainable relief from poverty to affected communities.

Tadashi Yamamoto

Tadashi Yamamoto (March 11, 1936 – April 15, 2012) was one of Japan's leading internationalists and a pioneering proponent of efforts to strengthen nongovernmental ties between Japan and the United States as well as between Japan and other countries. Yamamoto championed the view that civilian diplomacy and person-to-person exchanges conducted by nongovernmental organizations had a critical role to play in international relations. He was the founder and longtime president of the Japan Center for International Exchange (JCIE) a foreign policy think tank established in 1970 which promotes bilateral relations and exchanges between nongovernmental organizations. Yamamoto also helped to found the Shimoda Conference in 1967, a private sector forum for the discussion of bilateral issues between American and Japanese policymakers and policy experts. The Wall Street Journal

has called him "an ardent champion of the U.S.-Japan alliance."Yamamoto served as the President of the Japan Center for International Exchange (JCIE) from 1970 until his death in 2012. As head of the JCIE, Yamamoto simultaneously served as director for a number of forums, including the German-Japan Forum, the UK-Japan 21st Century Group, the Korea-Japan Forum, the Trilateral Commission Pacific Asia Group, and the Friends of the Global Fund, Japan, which works to promote the goals of The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria throughout Asia.In addition to the Shimoda Conference and the JCIE, Yamamoto also founded the Korea-Japan Forum, the U.S.-Japan Parliamentary Exchange Program, and the Trilateral Commission.

Tedros Adhanom

Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus (Ge'ez: ቴዎድሮስ አድሓኖም ገብረኢየሱስ; born March 3, 1965) is an Ethiopian politician, academic, and public-health authority who since 2017 has been Director-General of the World Health Organization. He served in the Government of Ethiopia as Minister of Health from 2005 to 2012 and as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2012 to 2016.Tedros joined the Ministry of Health in 1986, after graduating from the University of Asmara. An internationally recognized malaria researcher, as Minister of Health, Tedros received praise for a number of innovative and system-wide health reforms that substantially improved access to health services and key outcomes. Amongst them were hiring and training roughly 40,000 female health extension workers, cutting infant mortality from 123 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2006 to 88 in 2011, and increasing the hiring of health cadres including medical doctors and midwives. In July 2009, he was elected Board Chair of The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria for a two-year term.Tedros was elected as Director-General of the World Health Organization by the World Health Assembly on 23 May 2017. He took office for a five-year term on 1 July 2017.

The International Pharmacopoeia

The International Pharmacopoeia (Pharmacopoeia Internationalis, Ph. Int.) is a pharmacopoeia issued by the World Health Organization as a recommendation, with the aim to provide international quality specifications for pharmaceutical substances (active ingredients and excipients) and dosage forms, together with supporting general methods of analysis, for global use. Its texts can be used or adapted by any WHO member state wishing to establish legal pharmaceutical requirements.

The Ph.Int. is based primarily on medicines included in the current WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML) and medicines included in the current invitations to manufacturers to submit an expression of interest (EOI) to the WHO Prequalification Team – Medicines (PQT) and those of interest to other UN Organizations. In recent years, priority has been given to medicines of importance in low and middle income countries, which may not appear in any other pharmacopoeias, including child-friendly dosage forms.

The Ph.Int. is designed to serve all Member States, especially their national and regional regulatory authorities, organizations in the United Nations system, and regional and interregional harmonization efforts, and they underpin important public health initiatives, including the prequalification and procurement of quality medicines through major international entities, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, and UNICEF.

The monographs published in the Ph.Int. are established in an independent manner via a consultative procedure and based on international experience.

Monographs on radiopharmaceuticals developed with the International Atomic Energy Agency.

Youth of JAZAS

Yugoslav Youth Association Against AIDS – Youth of JAZAS (Serbian: Omladina JAZAS-a ) is non-profit, humanitarian organization committed to HIV prevention and support to the people living with HIV.

Ever since its establishment in 1994, it has continuously been implementing projects of peer education, social and psychological support, protection of human rights, promoting voluntary activism, distribution of condoms etc.

In addition, the Youth of JAZAS is also dedicated to vulnerable groups: people of different sexual orientations, sex workers, drug users, young Romani population, MARA (most at risk adolescents). Also, the work of this organization includes education of health care providers, the police, public prosecutors, judges and Members of Parliament, ensuring that people living with HIV and vulnerable groups are involved in policy making processes at national and local level, and have their mandatory contribution to policies that guarantee their human rights and antidiscriminatory attitudes in Serbian Society.

Eleven non-governmental organizations in Serbia share the same name, the same visual identity, goal and values of the Youth of JAZAS, working together according to Memorandum of cooperation in the following cities: Belgrade, Novi Sad, Požarevac, Pančevo, Valjevo, Kragujevac, Niš, Užice, Kosovska Mitrovica, Zaječar and Žitište.

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