The Fifth Modernization

"The Fifth Modernization" is an essay by human rights activist Wei Jingsheng, originally begun as a signed wall poster placed on the Democracy Wall in Beijing on December 5, 1978.[1]

The Fifth Modernization
Traditional Chinese 第五個現代化
Simplified Chinese 第五个现代化
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu Pinyin di4 wu3 {ge5 ge4} xian4 dai4 hua4
Yue: Cantonese
Jyutping dai6 ng5 go3 jin6 doi6 faa3


The poster called on the Communist Party of China to add democracy to the list of Four Modernizations which includes industry, agriculture, science and technology and national defense.[2] It openly stated democracy as an additional modernization which needs to be taken if China truly wants to modernize itself. The five Modernizations would include:


  1. ^ Brook, Daniel. [2005] (2005). Modern revolution: social change and cultural continuity in Czechoslovakia and China. University Press of America. ISBN 0-7618-3193-2, ISBN 978-0-7618-3193-8.
  2. ^ Schell, Orville. Shambaugh, David L. [1999] (1999). The China reader: the reform era. Random House, Inc. ISBN 0-679-76387-2, ISBN 978-0-679-76387-1.

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