The Daily Telegraph

The Daily Telegraph, known online as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally. It was founded by Arthur B. Sleigh in 1855 as Daily Telegraph & Courier.

The Telegraph is widely regarded as a national "newspaper of record" and it maintains an international reputation for quality, having been described by the BBC as "one of the world's great titles".[5] The paper's motto, "Was, is, and will be", appears in the editorial pages and has featured in every edition of the newspaper since 19 April 1858.[6]

The paper had a circulation of 363,183 in December 2018,[4] having declined following industry trends from 1.4 million in 1980.[7] Its sister paper, The Sunday Telegraph, which started in 1961, had a circulation of 281,025 as of December 2018.[4] The Telegraph has the largest circulation for a broadsheet newspaper in the UK and the sixth largest circulation of any UK newspaper as of 2016. The two sister newspapers are run separately, with different editorial staff,[8] but there is cross-usage of stories. Articles published in either may be published on the Telegraph Media Group's www.telegraph.co.uk website, under the title of The Telegraph. Editorially, the paper is considered conservative.[9]

The Telegraph has been the first newspaper to report on a number of notable news scoops, including the 2009 MP expenses scandal, which led to a number of high-profile political resignations and for which it was named 2009 British Newspaper of the Year,[10] and its 2016 undercover investigation on the England football manager Sam Allardyce.[11] However, critics, including the paper's former chief political commentator Peter Oborne, accuse it of being unduly influenced by advertisers, especially HSBC.[12][13]

The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph
Largerdailytelegraph
160th anniversary edition front page on 29 June 2015
TypeDaily newspaper
FormatBroadsheet
Owner(s)Telegraph Media Group
EditorChris Evans[1]
Founded29 June 1855 (as Daily Telegraph & Courier)
Political alignment
HeadquartersLondon, England
CountryUnited Kingdom
Circulation363,183 (as of December 2018)[4]
Sister newspapersThe Sunday Telegraph
ISSN0307-1235
OCLC number49632006
Websitewww.telegraph.co.uk

History

Founding and early history

The Daily Telegraph and Courier was founded by Colonel Arthur B. Sleigh in June 1855 to air a personal grievance against the future commander-in-chief of the British Army, Prince George, Duke of Cambridge.[3][14] Joseph Moses Levy, the owner of The Sunday Times, agreed to print the newspaper, and the first edition was published on 29 June 1855. The paper cost 2d and was four pages long.[3] Nevertheless, the first edition stressed the quality and independence of its articles and journalists:[6]

We shall be guided by a high tone of independent action.

However, the paper was not a success, and Sleigh was unable to pay Levy the printing bill.[14] Levy took over the newspaper, his aim being to produce a cheaper newspaper than his main competitors in London, the Daily News and The Morning Post, to expand the size of the overall market. Levy appointed his son, Edward Levy-Lawson, Lord Burnham, and Thornton Leigh Hunt to edit the newspaper. Lord Burnham relaunched the paper as The Daily Telegraph, with the slogan "the largest, best, and cheapest newspaper in the world".[15] Hunt laid out the newspaper's principles in a memorandum sent to Levy: "We should report all striking events in science, so told that the intelligent public can understand what has happened and can see its bearing on our daily life and our future. The same principle should apply to all other events—to fashion, to new inventions, to new methods of conducting business".[16]

In 1876, Jules Verne published his novel Michael Strogoff, whose plot takes place during a fictional uprising and war in Siberia. Verne included among the book's characters a war correspondent of The Daily Telegraph, named Harry Blount—who is depicted as an exceptionally dedicated, resourceful and brave journalist, taking great personal risks to follow closely the ongoing war and bring accurate news of it to The Telegraph's readership, ahead of competing papers.[17]

New Daily Telegraph Offices Fleet Street ILN 1882
In 1882 The Daily Telegraph moved to new Fleet Street premises, which were pictured in the Illustrated London News.

1901 to 1945

In 1908, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany gave a controversial interview to The Daily Telegraph that severely damaged Anglo-German relations and added to international tensions in the build-up to World War I.[18][19] In 1928 the son of Baron Burnham, Harry Lawson Webster Levy-Lawson, 2nd Baron Burnham, sold the paper to William Berry, 1st Viscount Camrose, in partnership with his brother Gomer Berry, 1st Viscount Kemsley and Edward Iliffe, 1st Baron Iliffe.

In 1937, the newspaper absorbed The Morning Post, which traditionally espoused a conservative position and sold predominantly amongst the retired officer class. Originally William Ewart Berry, 1st Viscount Camrose, bought The Morning Post with the intention of publishing it alongside The Daily Telegraph, but poor sales of the former led him to merge the two. For some years the paper was retitled The Daily Telegraph and Morning Post before it reverted to just The Daily Telegraph. In the late 1930s Victor Gordon Lennox, The Telegraph's diplomatic editor, published an anti-appeasement private newspaper The Whitehall Letter that received much of its information from leaks from Sir Robert Vansittart, the Permanent Under-Secretary of the Foreign Office, and Rex Leeper, the Foreign Office's Press Secretary.[20] As a result, Gordon Lennox was monitored by MI5.[20] In 1939, The Telegraph published Clare Hollingworth's scoop that Germany was to invade Poland.[21]

In November 1940, with Fleet Street subjected to almost daily bombing raids by the Luftwaffe, The Telegraph started printing in Manchester at Kemsley House (now The Printworks entertainment venue), which was run by Camrose's brother Kemsley. Manchester quite often printed the entire run of The Telegraph when its Fleet Street offices were under threat. The name Kemsley House was changed to Thomson House in 1959. In 1986 printing of Northern editions of the Daily and Sunday Telegraph moved to Trafford Park and in 2008 to Newsprinters at Knowsley, Liverpool.

During the Second World War, The Daily Telegraph covertly helped in the recruitment of code-breakers for Bletchley Park. The ability to solve The Telegraph's crossword in under 12 minutes was considered to be a recruitment test. The newspaper was asked to organise a crossword competition, after which each of the successful participants was contacted and asked if they would be prepared to undertake "a particular type of work as a contribution to the war effort". The competition itself was won by F. H. W. Hawes of Dagenham who finished the crossword in less than eight minutes.[22]

1946 to 1985

Both the Camrose (Berry) and Burnham (Levy-Lawson) families remained involved in management until Conrad Black took control in 1986. On the death of his father in 1954, Seymour Berry, 2nd Viscount Camrose assumed the chairmanship of the Daily Telegraph with his brother Michael Berry, Baron Hartwell as his editor-in-chief. During this period, the company saw the launch of sister paper The Sunday Telegraph in 1960.[23]

1986 to 2004

Canadian businessman Conrad Black, through companies controlled by him, bought the Telegraph Group in 1986. Black, through his holding company Ravelston Corporation, owned 78% of Hollinger Inc. which in turn owned 30% of Hollinger International. Hollinger International in turn owned the Telegraph Group and other publications such as the Chicago Sun-Times, the Jerusalem Post and The Spectator.

On 18 January 2004, Black was dismissed as chairman of the Hollinger International board over allegations of financial wrongdoing. Black was also sued by the company. Later that day it was reported that the Barclay brothers had agreed to purchase Black's 78% interest in Hollinger Inc. for £245m, giving them a controlling interest in the company, and to buy out the minority shareholders later. However, a lawsuit was filed by the Hollinger International board to try to block Black from selling his shares in Hollinger Inc. until an investigation into his dealings was completed. Black filed a countersuit but, eventually, United States judge Leo Strine sided with the Hollinger International board and blocked Black from selling his Hollinger Inc. shares to the twins.

On 7 March 2004, the twins announced that they were launching another bid, this time just for The Daily Telegraph and its Sunday sister paper rather than all of Hollinger Inc. Current owner of the Daily Express, Richard Desmond, was also interested in purchasing the paper, selling his interest in several pornographic magazines to finance the initiative. Desmond withdrew in March 2004, when the price climbed above £600m,[24] as did Daily Mail and General Trust plc a few months later on 17 June.[25]

2004 to present

In November 2004, The Telegraph celebrated the tenth anniversary of its website, Electronic Telegraph, now renamed www.telegraph.co.uk. The Electronic Telegraph launched in 1995 with 'The Daily Telegraph Guide to the Internet' by writer Sue Schofield for an annual charge of £180.00. On 8 May 2006 the first stage of a major redesign of the website took place, with a wider page layout and greater prominence for audio, video and journalist blogs.

On 10 October 2005, The Daily Telegraph relaunched to incorporate a tabloid sports section and a new standalone business section. The Daily Mail's star columnist and political analyst Simon Heffer left that paper in October 2005 to rejoin The Daily Telegraph, where he has become associate editor. Heffer has written two columns a week for the paper since late October 2005 and is a regular contributor to the news podcast. In November 2005 the first regular podcast service by a newspaper in the UK was launched.[26] Just before Christmas 2005, it was announced that The Telegraph titles would be moving from Canada Place in Canary Wharf, to new offices at Victoria Plaza at 111 Buckingham Palace Road near Victoria Station in central London.[27] The new office features a "hub and spoke" layout for the newsroom to produce content for print and online editions.

In October 2006, with its relocation to Victoria, the company was renamed the Telegraph Media Group, repositioning itself as a multimedia company. On 2 September 2008, the Daily Telegraph was printed with colour on each page for the first time when it left Westferry for Newsprinters at Broxbourne, Hertfordshire, another arm of the Murdoch (Rupert Murdoch) company.[28] The paper is also printed in Liverpool and Glasgow by Newsprinters. In May 2009, the daily and Sunday editions published details of MPs' expenses. This led to a number of high-profile resignations from both the ruling Labour administration and the Conservative opposition.

In June 2014, The Telegraph was criticised by Private Eye for its policy of replacing experienced journalists and news managers with less-experienced staff and search engine optimisers.[29]

Political stance

The Daily Telegraph has been politically conservative in modern times.[30] The personal links between the paper's editors and the leadership of the Conservative Party, along with the paper's generally right-wing stance and influence over Conservative activists, have resulted in the paper commonly being referred to, especially in Private Eye, as the Torygraph.[30] Even when Conservative support was shown to have slumped in the opinion polls and Labour gained the ascendant, the newspaper remained loyal to the Conservatives. This loyalty continued after Labour ousted the Conservatives from power by an election result in 1997, and in the face of Labour election wins in 2001 and the third successive Labour election win in 2005.

When the Barclay brothers purchased the Telegraph Group for around £665m in late June 2004, Sir David Barclay suggested that The Daily Telegraph might no longer be the "house newspaper" of the Conservatives in the future. In an interview with The Guardian he said, "Where the government are right we shall support them". The editorial board endorsed the Conservative Party in the 2005 general election.

During the 2014 Scottish independence referendum the paper supported the Better Together 'No' Campaign.[31][32][33][34] Alex Salmond, the former leader of the SNP, called The Telegraph "extreme" on Question Time in September 2015.[35]

1997 Conservative
2001 Conservative
2005 Conservative
2010 Conservative
2014 Indyref Better Together
2015 Conservative
2016 EU referendum Leave campaign (Brexit)
2017 Conservative

Sister publications

The Sunday Telegraph

The Daily Telegraph's sister Sunday paper was founded in 1961. The writer Sir Peregrine Worsthorne is probably the best known journalist associated with the title (1961–97), eventually being editor for three years from 1986. In 1989 the Sunday title was briefly merged into a seven-day operation under Max Hastings's overall control. In 2005 the paper was revamped, with Stella being added to the more traditional television and radio section. It costs £2.00 and includes separate Money, Living, Sport and Business supplements. Circulation of The Sunday Telegraph in July 2010 was 505,214 (ABC)

The Young Telegraph

The Young Telegraph was a weekly section of The Daily Telegraph published as a 14-page supplement in the weekend edition of the newspaper. The Young Telegraph featured a mixture of news, features, cartoon strips and product reviews aimed at 8–12-year-olds. It was edited by Damien Kelleher (1993–97) and Kitty Melrose (1997–1999). Launched in 1990, the award-winning supplement also ran original serialised stories featuring popular brands such as Young Indiana Jones and the British children's sitcom Maid Marian and Her Merry Men.

In 1995, an interactive spin-off called Electronic Young Telegraph was launched on floppy disk. Described as an interactive computer magazine for children, Electronic Young Telegraph was edited by Adam Tanswell, who led the relaunch of the product on CD-Rom in 1998.[36] Electronic Young Telegraph featured original content including interactive quizzes, informative features and computer games, as well as entertainment news and reviews. It was later re-branded as T:Drive in 1999.

Website

Telegraph.co.uk is the online version of the newspaper. It uses banner title The Telegraph and includes articles from the print editions of The Daily Telegraph and The Sunday Telegraph, as well as web-only content such as breaking news, features, picture galleries and blogs. It was named UK Consumer Website of the Year in 2007[37] and Digital Publisher of the year in 2009[38] by the Association of Online Publishers.[39] The site is overseen by Kate Day,[40] digital director of Telegraph Media Group. Other staff include Shane Richmond, head of technology (editorial),[41] and Ian Douglas, head of digital production.[42] The site, which has been the focus of the group's efforts to create an integrated news operation producing content for print and online from the same newsroom, completed a relaunch during 2008 involving the use of the Escenic content management system, popular among northern European and Scandinavian newspaper groups. Telegraph TV is a Video on Demand service run by The Daily Telegraph and the Sunday Telegraph. It is hosted on The Telegraph's website, telegraph.co.uk.

Telegraph.co.uk became the most popular UK newspaper site in April 2008.[43] It was overtaken by Guardian.co.uk in April 2009 and later by "Mail Online".[44] As of December 2010, "Telegraph.co.uk" is now the third most visited British newspaper website with 1.7 million daily browsers compared to 2.3 million for "Guardian.co.uk" and nearly 3 million for "Mail Online".[45]

In November 2012, international customers accessing the Telegraph.co.uk site would have to sign up for a subscription package. Visitors had access to 20 free articles a month before having to subscribe for unlimited access. In March 2013 the pay meter system was also rolled out in the UK.[46]

History

The website was launched, under the name electronic telegraph at midday on 15 November 1994 at the headquarters of The Daily Telegraph at Canary Wharf in London Docklands. It was Europe's first daily web-based newspaper. At this time, the modern internet was still in its infancy, with as few as 10,000 websites estimated to have existed at the time – compared to more than 100 billion by 2009. In 1994, only around 1% of the British population (some 600,000 people) had internet access at home, compared to more than 80% in 2009.[47]

Initially the site published only the top stories from the print edition of the newspaper but it gradually increased its coverage until virtually all of the newspaper was carried online and the website was also publishing original material. The website, hosted on a Sun Microsystems Sparc 20 server and connected via a 64 kbit/s leased line from Demon Internet, was edited by Ben Rooney. Key personnel behind the launch of the site were Matthew Doull and Saul Klein and the then marketing manager of The Daily Telegraph, Hugo Drayton, and the webmaster Fiona Carter. Drayton later became managing director of the newspaper.

An early coup for the site was the publication of articles by Ambrose Evans-Pritchard on Bill Clinton and the Whitewater controversy. The availability of the articles online brought a large American audience to the site. In 1997, the Clinton administration issued a 331-page report that accused Evans-Pritchard of peddling "right-wing inventions". Derek Bishton, who by then had succeeded Rooney as editor, later wrote: "In the days before ET it would have been highly unlikely that anyone in the US would have been aware of Evans-Pritchard's work – and certainly not to the extent that the White House would be forced to issue such a lengthy rebuttal."[48] Bishton, who later became consulting editor for Telegraph Media Group, was followed as editor by Richard Burton, who was made redundant in August 2006. Edward Roussel replaced Burton.

My Telegraph

My Telegraph offers a platform for readers to have their own blog, save articles, and network with other readers. Launched in May 2007, My Telegraph won a Cross Media Award from international newspaper organisation IFRA in October 2007.[49] One of the judges, Robert Cauthorn, described the project as "the best deployment of blogging yet seen in any newspaper anywhere in the world".

Notable stories

In December 2010 Telegraph reporters posing as constituents secretly recorded Business Secretary Vince Cable. In an undisclosed part of the transcript given to the BBC's Robert Peston by a whistleblower unhappy that The Telegraph had not published Cable's comments in full, Cable stated in reference to Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation takeover bid for BSkyB, "I have declared war on Mr Murdoch and I think we are going to win."[50] Following this revelation, Cable had his responsibility for media affairs – including ruling on Murdoch's takeover plans – withdrawn from his role as business secretary.[51]

In May 2011 the Press Complaints Commission upheld a complaint regarding The Telegraph's use of subterfuge: "On this occasion, the commission was not convinced that the public interest was such as to justify proportionately this level of subterfuge."[52] In July 2011 a firm of private investigators hired by The Telegraph to track the source of the leak concluded "strong suspicion" that two former Telegraph employees who had moved to News International, one of them Will Lewis, had gained access to the transcript and audio files and leaked them to Peston.[53]

2009 MP expenses scandal

In May 2009, The Daily Telegraph obtained a full copy of all the expenses claims of British Members of Parliament. The Telegraph began publishing, in instalments from 8 May 2009, certain MPs' expenses.[54]

The Telegraph justified the publication of the information because it contended that the official information due to be released would have omitted key information about redesignating of second-home nominations.[55] This led to a number of high-profile resignations from both the ruling Labour administration and the Conservative opposition.

2016 Sam Allardyce investigation

In September 2016 Telegraph reporters posing as businessmen filmed England manager Sam Allardyce, offering to give advice on how to get around on FA rules on player third party ownership and negotiating a £400,000 deal.[11] The investigation saw Allardyce leave his job by mutual consent on 27 September and making the statement "entrapment has won".[56]

Awards

The Daily Telegraph has been named the National Newspaper of the Year in 2009, 1996 and 1993, while The Sunday Telegraph won the same award in 1999.

Its investigation on the 2009 expenses scandal was named the "Scoop of the Year" in 2009, with William Lewis winning "Journalist of the Year".[57] The Telegraph won "Team of the Year" in 2004 for its coverage of the Iraq War.[57] The paper also won "Columnist of the Year" three years' running from 2002 to 2004: Zoë Heller (2002), Robert Harris (2003) and Boris Johnson (2004).[57]

Charity and fundraising work

In 1979, following a letter in The Daily Telegraph and a Government report highlighting the shortfall in care available for premature babies, Bliss, the special care baby charity, was founded. In 2009, as part of the Bliss 30th birthday celebrations, the charity was chosen as one of four beneficiaries of the newspaper's Christmas Charity Appeal.[58] In February 2010 a cheque was presented to Bliss for £120,000.[59]

The newspaper runs a charity appeal every Christmas, choosing different charities each year. In 2009, £1.2 million was raised.

Criticisms

Accusation of news coverage influence by advertisers

In July 2014, the Daily Telegraph was criticised for carrying links on its website to pro-Kremlin articles supplied by a Russian state-funded publication that downplayed any Russian involvement in the downing of the passenger jet Malaysia Airlines Flight 17.[60] These had featured on its website as part of a commercial deal, but were later removed.[61] The paper is paid £900,000 a year to include the supplement Russia Beyond the Headlines, a publication sponsored by the Rossiyskaya Gazeta, the Russian government's official newspaper. It is paid a further £750,000 a year for a similar arrangement with the Chinese state in relation to the pro-Beijing China Watch advertising supplement.[62][63]

In February 2015 the chief political commentator of the Daily Telegraph, Peter Oborne, resigned. Oborne accused the paper of a "form of fraud on its readers"[12] for its coverage of the bank HSBC in relation to a Swiss tax-dodging scandal that was widely covered by other news media. He alleged that editorial decisions about news content had been heavily influenced by the advertising arm of the newspaper because of commercial interests.[13] Professor Jay Rosen at New York University stated that Oborne's resignation statement was "one of the most important things a journalist has written about journalism lately".[13]

Oborne cited other instances of advertising strategy influencing the content of articles, linking the refusal to take an editorial stance on the repression of democratic demonstrations in Hong Kong to the Telegraph's support from China. Additionally, he said that favourable reviews of the Cunard cruise liner Queen Mary II appeared in the Telegraph, noting: "On 10 May last year The Telegraph ran a long feature on Cunard's Queen Mary II liner on the news review page. This episode looked to many like a plug for an advertiser on a page normally dedicated to serious news analysis. I again checked and certainly Telegraph competitors did not view Cunard's liner as a major news story. Cunard is an important Telegraph advertiser."[12] In response, the Telegraph called Oborne's statement an "astonishing and unfounded attack, full of inaccuracy and innuendo".[13]

In January 2017, the Telegraph Media Group had a higher number of upheld complaints than any other UK newspaper by its regulator IPSO.[64] Most of these findings pertained to inaccuracy, as with other UK newspapers.[65]

In October 2017, a number of major western news organisations whose coverage had irked Beijing were excluded from Xi Jinping's speech event launching a new politburo. However, the Daily Telegraph had been granted an invitation to the event.[66]

In April 2019, Business Insider reported The Telegraph had partnered with Facebook to publish articles "downplaying 'technofears' and praising the company".[67]

Premature obituaries

The paper published premature obituaries for Cockie Hoogterp, the second wife of Baron Blixen,[68] Dave Swarbrick in 1999,[68] and Dorothy Southworth Ritter, the widow of Tex Ritter and mother of John Ritter, in August 2001.[68]

Notable people

Editors

Name Tenure
Thornton Leigh Hunt 1855 to 1873
Edwin Arnold 1873 to 1888
John le Sage 1888 to 1923
Fred Miller 1923 to 1924
Arthur Watson 1924 to 1950
Colin Coote 1950 to 1964
Maurice Green 1964 to 1974
Bill Deedes 1974 to 1986
Max Hastings 1986 to 1995
Charles Moore 1995 to 2003
Martin Newland 2003 to 2005
John Bryant 2005 to 2007
William Lewis 2007 to 2009
Tony Gallagher 2009 to 2013
Jason Seiken 2013 to 2014
Chris Evans 2014 to Present

Notable columnists and journalists

See also

References

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  7. ^ United Newspapers PLC and Fleet Holdings PLC, Monopolies and Mergers Commission (1985), pp. 5–16.
  8. ^ During 1989, the daily and Sunday papers were merged into a seven-day operation under Max Hastings's overall control, but then the editorship was split again.
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  22. ^ The Daily Telegraph, "25000 tomorrow" 23 May 2006
  23. ^ The Daily Telegraph, "Obituary: Lord Hartwell" 4 April 2001
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  25. ^ Gibson, Owen (17 June 2004). "Barclays favourites to land Telegraph". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
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  28. ^ "Daily Telegraph unveils full-colour redesign". Press Gazette. 2 September 2008. Retrieved 18 September 2009.
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  30. ^ a b Curtis, Bryan (25 October 2006). "Strange days at the Daily Telegraph". Slate. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  31. ^ Booker, Christopher (27 December 2014). "The insecure Scots have turned in on themselves and against us". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
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  33. ^ Hodges, Dan (16 December 2014). "England won't put up with Scotlands behaviour for long". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
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  39. ^ UK Association of Online Publishers (AOP) | Newspaper brands shine at AOP Awards Archived 11 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
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  53. ^ Halliday, Josh (23 July 2011). "News Corp boss 'linked' to leak of Vince Cable's Rupert Murdoch comments". The Guardian. London.
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  57. ^ a b c Press Gazette, Roll of Honour Archived 16 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
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  60. ^ Spence, Alex (July 2014). "Telegraph and TV channel criticised over crash reports", The Times, 22 July 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014
  61. ^ Spence, Alex (July 2014). "Telegraph spikes 'Russian propaganda'", The Times, 30 July 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
  62. ^ Private Eye No. 1374, "Street of Shame", 5–18 September 2014, pg. 6.
  63. ^ "China spends big on propaganda in Britain... but returns are low | Hong Kong Free Press". Hongkongfp.com. 3 April 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  64. ^ "Rulings and regulation statements". IPSO.
  65. ^ Mayhew, Freddy (19 September 2016). "Daily Telegraph tops IPSO naughty list with nine upheld complaints followed by The Times and Daily Express". Press Gazette.
  66. ^ Phillips, Tom (25 October 2017). "Protest after Western media 'troublemakers' barred from Xi Jinping speech". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
  67. ^ "Facebook is partnering with a big UK newspaper to publish sponsored articles downplaying 'technofears' and praising the company". Business Isider. 3 April 2019. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
  68. ^ a b c McKie, Andrew (30 August 2001). "The day I managed to 'kill off' Tex Ritter's wife". The Daily Telegraph (London).

Further reading

  • Burnham, E. F. L. (1955). Peterborough Court: the story of the Daily Telegraph. Cassell.
  • Merrill, John C. and Harold A. Fisher. The world's great dailies: profiles of fifty newspapers (1980) pp 111–16
  • The House The Berrys Built by Duff Hart-Davis. Concerns the history of The Daily Telegraph' from its inception to 1986. Illustrated with references and illustrations of William Ewart Berry, 1st Viscount Camrose (later called Lord Camrose).
  • William Camrose: Giant of Fleet Street by his son Lord Hartwell. Illustrated biography with black-and-white photographic plates and includes an index. Concerns his links with The Daily Telegraph.

External links

Boris Johnson

Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson (born 19 June 1964), better known as Boris Johnson, is a British politician, journalist and popular historian who has been the Member of Parliament (MP) for Uxbridge and South Ruislip since 2015, having been the MP for Henley from 2001 to 2008. He was Mayor of London from 2008 to 2016, and from 2016 to 2018 he served as Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs. A member of the Conservative Party, Johnson identifies as a one-nation conservative and has been associated with both economically and socially liberal policies.

Born in New York to wealthy upper-middle class English parents, Johnson was educated at the European School of Brussels, Ashdown House, and Eton College. He read Classics at Balliol College, Oxford, where he was elected President of the Oxford Union in 1986. He began his career in journalism at The Times but was sacked for falsifying a quotation. He later became The Daily Telegraph's Brussels correspondent, with his articles exerting a strong influence on growing Eurosceptic sentiment among the British right wing. He was assistant editor from 1994 to 1999 before taking the editorship of The Spectator from 1999 to 2005. Joining the Conservatives, he was elected MP for Henley in 2001, and under leaders Michael Howard and David Cameron served in the Shadow Cabinet. He largely adhered to the Conservatives' party line but adopted a more socially liberal stance on issues like LGBT rights in parliamentary votes.

Selected as Conservative candidate for the 2008 London mayoral election, Johnson defeated Labour incumbent Ken Livingstone and resigned his seat in the House of Commons. During his first term as Mayor of London, he banned alcohol consumption on much of the capital's public transport, championed London's financial sector, and introduced the New Routemaster buses, cycle hire scheme, and Thames cable car. In 2012, he was re-elected to the office, again defeating Livingstone; during his second term he oversaw the 2012 Summer Olympics. In 2015 he was elected MP for Uxbridge and South Ruislip, stepping down as Mayor the following year. In 2016, Johnson became a prominent figure in the successful Vote Leave campaign to withdraw the United Kingdom from the European Union. He was appointed Foreign Secretary by Theresa May, but resigned in criticism of May's approach to Brexit and the Chequers Agreement two years later. Johnson is a candidate for Leader of the Conservative Party in the 2019 leadership contest.

Johnson is a controversial figure in British politics and journalism. Supporters have praised him as an entertaining, humorous, and popular figure with appeal beyond traditional Conservative voters. Conversely, he has been criticised by figures on both the left and right, who have accused him of elitism, cronyism, dishonesty, laziness, and using racist and homophobic language. Johnson is the subject of several biographies and a number of fictionalised portrayals.

David Cameron

David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2010 to 2016. He was the Member of Parliament (MP) for Witney from 2001 to 2016 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 2005 to 2016. He identifies as a one-nation conservative, and has been associated with both economically liberal and socially liberal policies.

Born in London to an upper-middle-class family, Cameron was educated at Heatherdown School, Eton College, and Brasenose College, Oxford. From 1988 to 1993 he worked at the Conservative Research Department, assisting the Conservative Prime Minister John Major, before leaving politics to work for Carlton Communications in 1994. Becoming an MP in 2001, he served in the opposition shadow cabinet under Conservative leader Michael Howard, and succeeded Howard in 2005. Cameron sought to rebrand the Conservatives, embracing an increasingly socially liberal position. The 2010 general election led to Cameron becoming Prime Minister as the head of a coalition government with the Liberal Democrats – the youngest holder of the office since the 1810s. His premiership was marked by the ongoing effects of the late-2000s financial crisis; these involved a large deficit in government finances that his government sought to reduce through austerity measures. His administration introduced large-scale changes to welfare, immigration policy, education, and healthcare. It privatised the Royal Mail and some other state assets, and legalised same-sex marriage in Great Britain.

Internationally, his government intervened militarily in the Libyan Civil War and later authorised the bombing of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant; domestically, his government oversaw the referendum on voting reform and Scottish independence referendum, both of which confirmed Cameron's favoured outcome. When the Conservatives secured an unexpected majority in the 2015 general election he remained as Prime Minister, this time leading a Conservative-only government. To fulfil a manifesto pledge, he introduced a referendum on the UK's continuing membership of the EU. Cameron supported continued membership; following the success of the Leave vote, he resigned to make way for a new Prime Minister and was succeeded by Theresa May.Cameron has been praised for modernising the Conservative Party and for decreasing the United Kingdom's national deficit. Conversely, he has been criticised by figures on both the left and right, and has been accused of elitism and political opportunism.

Disappearance of Madeleine McCann

Madeleine Beth McCann (born 12 May 2003) disappeared on the evening of 3 May 2007 from her bed in a holiday apartment in Praia da Luz, a resort in the Algarve region of Portugal, sparking what one newspaper called "the most heavily reported missing-person case in modern history". Her whereabouts remain unknown.Madeleine was holidaying with her parents, Kate and Gerry McCann; her two-year-old twin siblings; and a group of family friends and their children. She and the twins were left asleep at 20:30 in the ground-floor apartment, while their parents dined with friends in a restaurant 55 metres (180 ft) away. The parents checked on the children throughout the evening, until Madeleine's mother discovered she was missing at 22:00. Over the following weeks, particularly after misinterpreting a British DNA analysis, the Portuguese police came to believe that Madeleine had died in an accident in the apartment and that her parents had covered it up. The McCanns were given arguido (suspect) status in September 2007, which was lifted when Portugal's attorney general archived the case in July 2008 because of a lack of evidence.The parents continued the investigation using private detectives until Scotland Yard opened its own inquiry, Operation Grange, in 2011. The senior investigating officer announced that he was treating the disappearance as "a criminal act by a stranger", most likely a planned abduction or burglary gone wrong. In 2013, Scotland Yard released e-fit images of men they wanted to trace, including one of a man seen carrying a child toward the beach that night. Shortly after this, the Portuguese police reopened their inquiry. Operation Grange was scaled back in 2015, but the remaining detectives continued to pursue a small number of inquiries described in April 2017 as significant.The disappearance attracted sustained international interest and saturation coverage in the UK reminiscent of the death of Diana in 1997. The McCanns were subjected to intense scrutiny and baseless allegations of involvement in their daughter's death, particularly in the tabloid press and on Twitter. In 2008 they and their travelling companions received damages and apologies from Express Newspapers, and in 2011 the McCanns testified before the Leveson Inquiry into British press misconduct, lending support to those arguing for tighter press regulation.

Henry Cecil

Sir Henry Richard Amherst Cecil (11 January 1943 – 11 June 2013) was a British flat racing horse trainer. He was widely regarded as one of the greatest trainers in history. Cecil was Champion Trainer 10 times and trained 25 domestic Classic winners, comprising four winners of The Derby, eight winners of The Oaks, six winners of the 1,000 Guineas, three of the 2,000 Guineas and four winners of the St. Leger Stakes. His success in The Oaks and the 1,000 Guineas made him particularly renowned for his success with fillies. He was the master trainer at Royal Ascot, where he successfully trained 75 winners.Describing his approach to training, Cecil told The Daily Telegraph: "I do everything by instinct really, not by the book. I like to think I’ve got a feeling for and understand my horses, that they tell me what to do really."Cecil was knighted for services to horse racing in the Queen's 2011 Birthday Honours.

Jeremy Hunt

Jeremy Richard Streynsham Hunt (born 1 November 1966) is a British politician serving as Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs since 2018. A member of the Conservative Party, he has been the Member of Parliament (MP) for South West Surrey since 2005. Hunt identifies as a one-nation conservative; he has been associated with both economically liberal and socially liberal policies. He has been characterised as a "metropolitan liberal" by the Financial Times and he campaigned for remain in the 2016 EU referendum. Hunt is a candidate for Leader of the Conservative Party in the 2019 leadership contest.

The son of a senior officer in the Royal Navy, Hunt was born in Kennington and studied Philosophy, Politics, and Economics at Magdalen College, Oxford, where he was President of the Oxford University Conservative Association. He was first elected to the House of Commons in 2005, and was promoted to the Shadow Cabinet as Shadow Minister for Disabled People and later as Shadow Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport. Hunt served in the Cameron Government as Culture Secretary and Minister for the Olympics from 2010 to 2012, where he spearheaded the drive for local TV, resulting in Ofcom awarding local TV broadcasting licences to several cities and towns. Hunt also oversaw the 2012 London Olympics, which received widespread acclaim.

He served as Health Secretary from 2012 until 2018. As Health and Social Care Secretary, he oversaw the imposition of a controversial new junior doctors' contract in England after the failure of negotiations. During the dispute, junior doctors undertook multiple strikes, the first such industrial action for forty years. Hunt was re-appointed Health Secretary in the May Government; and was appointed to the additional portfolio of social care in England in January 2018. On 3 June 2018, Hunt became the longest-serving Health Secretary in British political history. The following month, he was appointed Foreign Secretary, following the resignation of Boris Johnson over the Chequers Agreement.

Michael Gove

Michael Andrew Gove (; born Graeme Logan; 26 August 1967) is a British Conservative Party politician serving as Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs since 2017, and as Member of Parliament (MP) for Surrey Heath since 2005. Gove served in the Cameron Government as Secretary of State for Education from 2010 to 2014 and Secretary of State for Justice from 2015 to 2016. He is a candidate for Conservative Party leader in the 2019 leadership election.

Born in Edinburgh, Gove grew up in Aberdeen and attended Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford, where he took a BA in English, graduating with an upper second, after which he began his career as a journalist as an author and a columnist for The Times. He was first elected to the House of Commons in the 2005 election for the safe Conservative seat of Surrey Heath. He was appointed to the Shadow Cabinet by David Cameron in 2007 as Shadow Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families.

After the formation of the Coalition Government in 2010, Gove was appointed Education Secretary. Gove sought to expand the academies programme introduced by the previous Labour Government. At its 2013 conference, Gove was criticised by the National Association of Head Teachers, whose members condemned the "climate of bullying, fear and intimidation" they said he had created during his time as Education Secretary, and passed a vote of no confidence in his policies. Votes of no confidence were passed by the Association of Teachers and Lecturers, National Union of Teachers and NASUWT at their conferences in 2013.In a 2014 Cabinet reshuffle, Gove was moved to the post of Chief Whip. Following the 2015 election, Gove was promoted to the office of Justice Secretary and Lord Chancellor. In 2016, Gove played a major role in the UK's referendum on EU membership as the co-convenor of Vote Leave and along with Boris Johnson and Gisela Stuart, became a key figurehead of the campaign.

On 30 June 2016, Gove, who was campaign manager for Boris Johnson's leadership bid, to become Prime Minister, withdrew his support on the morning that Johnson was due to declare, and announced his own candidacy in the leadership election. In the first round of voting, Gove came third to Theresa May and Andrea Leadsom. He was eliminated from the leadership race on the second ballot on 7 July 2016. Following her appointment as Prime Minister, May sacked him from the position of Justice Secretary on 14 July 2016; however, he returned to the Cabinet following the 2017 general election as Environment Secretary.

Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex

Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex, (born Henry Charles Albert David; 15 September 1984) is a member of the British royal family. He is the younger son of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Diana, Princess of Wales, and is sixth in the line of succession to the British throne. He was officially styled Prince Henry of Wales from birth until his marriage, but is known as Prince Harry.Harry was educated at schools in the United Kingdom and spent parts of his gap year in Australia and Lesotho. He then underwent officer training at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. He was commissioned as a cornet (i.e. second lieutenant) into the Blues and Royals, serving temporarily with his brother, Prince William, and completed his training as a troop leader. In 2007–08, he served for over ten weeks in Helmand, Afghanistan, but was pulled out after an Australian magazine revealed his presence there. He returned to Afghanistan for a 20-week deployment in 2012–13 with the Army Air Corps. He left the army in June 2015.

Harry launched the Invictus Games in 2014 and remains patron of its foundation. He also gives patronage to several other organisations, including the HALO Trust, the London Marathon Charitable Trust, and Walking With The Wounded. On 19 May 2018, he married the American actress Meghan Markle. Hours before the wedding, his grandmother Queen Elizabeth II conferred on him the titles Duke of Sussex, Earl of Dumbarton and Baron Kilkeel, all in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. The couple's son, Archie Mountbatten-Windsor, was born on 6 May 2019.

Telegraph Media Group

The Telegraph Media Group (TMG, previously the Telegraph Group) is the proprietor of The Daily Telegraph and The Sunday Telegraph. It is a subsidiary of Press Holdings. David and Frederick Barclay acquired the group in July 2004, after months of intense bidding and lawsuits, from Hollinger Inc. of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, the newspaper group controlled by the Canadian-born British businessman Conrad Black.

In 2015, TMG made an operating profit of £51 million. Profits before tax were £47m, and turnover for the 53 weeks up to 3 January 2016 was £319m, according to unaudited accounts leaked to The Guardian. If these figures are accurate, then this was an increase from 2014 levels on both accounts.

The Daily Mirror (Sydney)

The Daily Mirror was an afternoon paper established by Ezra Norton in Sydney, Australia in 1941, gaining a licence from the Minister for Trade and Customs, Eric Harrison, despite wartime paper rationing. In October 1958, Norton and his partners sold his newspapers to the Fairfax Group, which immediately sold it to Rupert Murdoch's News Limited. It was merged with its morning sister paper The Daily Telegraph on 8 October 1990 to form The Daily Telegraph-Mirror, which in 1996 reverted to The Daily Telegraph, in the process removing the last vestige of the old Daily Mirror.

Frank McGuinness, father of journalist P. P. McGuinness, also played a role in launching the newspaper.

Charles Buttrose, father of Ita Buttrose (launch editor of Cleo magazine and subsequently editor of The Australian Women's Weekly), was a journalist on, and then the editor of, The Daily Mirror.

The Daily Telegraph (Sydney)

The Daily Telegraph is an Australian daily tabloid newspaper published in Sydney, New South Wales, by Nationwide News Limited, a division of News Corp Australia, formerly News Limited.

The Daily Telegraph is published Monday through Saturday and is available throughout Sydney, across most of regional and remote New South Wales, the Australian Capital Territory and South East Queensland.

Amongst those ranked by Nielsen, the Telegraph's website is the 6th most popular Australian news website, and the most popular paid-subscription Australian news website. with a unique monthly audience of 2,841,381 readers.

Theresa May

Theresa Mary May (; née Brasier, 1 October 1956) is a British politician serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom since 2016. She was Home Secretary from 2010 to 2016 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 2016 until 2019. May was first elected to be the Member of Parliament (MP) for Maidenhead in 1997. Ideologically, she identifies herself as a one-nation conservative.May grew up in Oxfordshire and attended St Hugh's College, Oxford. After graduating in 1977, she worked at the Bank of England and UK Payments Administration. She also served as a councillor for Durnsford in Merton. After two unsuccessful attempts to be elected to the House of Commons, she was elected as the MP for Maidenhead in 1997. From 1999 to 2010, May held a number of roles in Shadow Cabinets. She was also Chairwoman of the Conservative Party from 2002 to 2003. When the coalition government was formed after the 2010 general election, May was appointed Home Secretary and Minister for Women and Equalities, but gave up the latter role in 2012. Reappointed after the Conservative success in the 2015 general election, she became the longest-serving home secretary in over 60 years. During her tenure she pursued reform of the Police Federation, implemented a harder line on drugs policy including the banning of khat, oversaw the introduction of elected Police and Crime Commissioners, the deportation of Abu Qatada, the creation of the National Crime Agency, and brought in additional restrictions on immigration. She is to date, the only woman to hold two of the Great Offices of State.

In July 2016, after David Cameron resigned, May was elected as Conservative Party Leader unopposed by party members, becoming Britain's second female Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher having been the first. As Prime Minister, May began the process of withdrawing the UK from the European Union, triggering Article 50 in March 2017. The following month, she announced a snap general election, with the aims of strengthening her hand in Brexit negotiations and highlighting her "strong and stable" leadership. This resulted in a hung parliament, in which the number of Conservative seats fell from 330 to 317, despite the party winning its highest vote share since 1983. The loss of an overall majority prompted her to enter a confidence and supply arrangement with the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) to support a minority government. Since forming a second ministry on 11 June 2017, May has faced a significant number of ministerial resignations.

May survived a vote of no confidence from Conservative MPs in December 2018 and a Parliamentary vote of no confidence in January 2019. She said that she would not lead her party in the next general election scheduled for 2022 under the Fixed-term Parliaments Act, but did not rule out leading it into a snap election. She carried out the Brexit negotiations with the European Union, adhering to the Chequers Agreement, which resulted in the draft Withdrawal Agreement between the UK and the EU. This agreement was defeated by Parliament in January 2019 in the largest majority against a British government in history. She later announced a revised deal, but this was defeated in Parliament by 391 votes to 242. In March 2019, May committed to stepping down as Prime Minister if Parliament passed her Brexit deal, to make way for a new leader in the second phase of Brexit; however, the Withdrawal Agreement was rejected for a third time. On 24 May 2019, she announced her resignation as party leader which took effect on 7 June. She stated that she would remain in office as Prime Minister until a successor is chosen after the Conservative Party elects a new leader in July 2019.

United Kingdom parliamentary expenses scandal

The United Kingdom parliamentary expenses scandal was a major political scandal that emerged in 2009, concerning expenses claims made by members of the United Kingdom Parliament over the previous years. The disclosure of widespread misuse of allowances and expenses permitted to Members of Parliament (MPs) aroused widespread anger among the UK public and resulted in a large number of resignations, sackings, de-selections and retirement announcements together with public apologies and the repayment of expenses. Several members or former members of the House of Commons, and members of the House of Lords, were prosecuted and sentenced to terms of imprisonment.

A February 2008 Freedom of Information Act request for the release of details of MPs' expenses claims was allowed by an Information Tribunal but challenged by The House of Commons Authorities on the grounds that it was ‘unlawfully intrusive’. In May 2008 the High Court (England and Wales) ruled in favour of releasing the information. In April 2009 the House of Commons authorities announced that publication of expenses, with certain information deemed ‘sensitive’ removed, would be made in July 2009. But before this could take place the expenses records and documentation were leaked to The Daily Telegraph newspaper, which began publishing details in daily instalments from 8 May 2009. These disclosures dominated the British media for weeks. On 18 June 2009 the details of all MPs' expenses and allowance claims approved from 2004 to 2008 were published on the official Parliament website with detail such as addresses, claims that were not approved for payment and correspondence between MPs and the parliamentary fees office removed, bringing further accusations of unnecessary secrecy and allegations that this might have prevented serious abuses from being disclosed.Since most claims revolved around MPs' second homes in London, a panel was established to investigate all claims relating to the ‘second homes’ allowance between 2004 and 2008. Headed by former civil servant Sir Thomas Legg, the panel published its findings on 12 October as MPs returned to Westminster following the summer recess. Each MP received a letter stating whether or not he or she would be required to repay any expenses claimed. Details of voluntary repayments by MPs amounting to almost £500,000 were also officially published.It was announced on 5 February 2010 that criminal charges of false accounting were to be prosecuted against four parliamentarians, all later jailed. On 19 May charges were brought against two more, on 13 and 14 October 2010 two more faced legal proceedings. Three peers were suspended on 18 October 2010 due to their expenses claims.

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