The Christian Science Monitor

The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition.[1][2] It was founded in 1908 as a daily newspaper by Mary Baker Eddy, the founder of the Church of Christ, Scientist.[3] As of 2011, the print circulation was 75,052.[4]

According to the organization's website, "the Monitor's global approach is reflected in how Mary Baker Eddy described its object as 'To injure no man, but to bless all mankind.' The aim is to embrace the human family, shedding light with the conviction that understanding the world's problems and possibilities moves us towards solutions." The Christian Science Monitor has won seven Pulitzer Prizes and more than a dozen Overseas Press Club awards."[5]

The Christian Science Monitor
The Christian Science Monitor masthead
Christian Science Monitor
The cover of The Christian Science Monitor for April 26, 2009
TypeWeekly newspaper
Owner(s)Christian Science Publishing Society
EditorMark Sappenfield
Headquarters210 Massachusetts Avenue
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S. 02115
Circulation75,052 (2011)


Despite its name, the Monitor is not a religious-themed paper, and does not promote the doctrine of its patron church. However, at its founder Eddy's request, a daily religious article has appeared in every issue of the Monitor.

The paper has been known for avoiding sensationalism, producing a "distinctive brand of nonhysterical journalism".[6][7] In 1997, the Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, a publication critical of United States policy in the Middle East, praised the Monitor for its objective and informative coverage of Islam and the Middle East.[8]

In 2006, Jill Carroll, a freelance reporter for the Monitor, was kidnapped in Baghdad, and released safely after 82 days. Although Carroll was initially a freelancer, the paper worked tirelessly for her release, even hiring her as a staff writer shortly after her abduction to ensure that she had financial benefits, according to Bergenheim.[9] Beginning in August 2006, the Monitor published an account[10] of Carroll's kidnapping and subsequent release, with first-person reporting from Carroll and others involved.


The paper's overall circulation has ranged widely, from a peak of over 223,000 in 1970, to just under 56,000 shortly before the suspension of the daily print edition in 2009.[11] Partially in response to declining circulation and the struggle to earn a profit, the church's directors and the manager of the Christian Science Publishing Society were purportedly forced to plan cutbacks and closures (later denied), which led in 1989 to the mass protest resignations by its chief editor Kay Fanning (an ASNE president and former editor of the Anchorage Daily News), managing editor David Anable, associate editor David Winder, and several other newsroom staff. These developments also presaged administrative moves to scale back the print newspaper in favor of expansions into radio, a magazine, shortwave broadcasting, and television. Expenses, however, rapidly outpaced revenues, contradicting predictions by church directors. On the brink of bankruptcy, the board was forced to close the broadcast programs in 1992.



The Monitor's inception was, in part, a response by its founder Mary Baker Eddy to the journalism of her day, which relentlessly covered the sensations and scandals surrounding her new religion with varying degrees of accuracy. In addition, Joseph Pulitzer's New York World was consistently critical of Eddy, and this, along with a derogatory article in McClure's, furthered Eddy's decision to found her own media outlet.[5] Eddy also required the inclusion of "Christian Science" in the paper's name, over initial opposition by some of her advisors who thought the religious reference might repel a secular audience.[5]

Eddy also saw a vital need to counteract the fear often spread by media reporting:

Looking over the newspapers of the day, one naturally reflects that it is dangerous to live, so loaded with disease seems the very air. These descriptions carry fears to many minds, to be depicted in some future time upon the body. A periodical of our own will counteract to some extent this public nuisance; for through our paper, at the price at which we shall issue it, we shall be able to reach many homes with healing, purifying thought.[12]

Eddy declared that the Monitor's mission should be "to injure no man, but to bless all mankind".[5]

Radio and television

MonitoRadio was a radio service produced by the Church of Christ, Scientist between 1984 and 1997. It featured several one-hour news broadcasts a day, as well as top of the hour news bulletins. The service was widely heard on public radio stations throughout the United States. The Monitor later launched an international broadcast over shortwave radio, called the World Service of the Christian Science Monitor. Weekdays were news-led, but weekend schedules were exclusively dedicated to religious programming. That service ceased operations on June 28, 1997.[13]

In 1986, the Monitor started producing a current affairs television series, The Christian Science Monitor Reports, which was distributed via syndication to television stations across the United States. In 1988, the Christian Science Monitor Reports won a Peabody Award[14] for a series of reports on Islamic fundamentalism. That same year, the program was canceled and the Monitor created a daily television program, World Monitor, anchored by former NBC correspondent John Hart, which was initially shown on the Discovery Channel. In 1991, World Monitor moved to the Monitor Channel, a 24-hour news and information channel.[13] The channel launched on May 1, 1991 with programming from its Boston TV station.[15] The only religious programming on the channel was a five-minute Christian Science program early each morning.[16] In 1992, after eleven months on the air, the service was shut down amid huge financial losses.[17] Programming from the Monitor Channel was also carried nationally via the WWOR EMI Service (a nationally oriented feed of New Jersey TV station WWOR-TV, launched in 1990 due to the SyndEx laws put into place the year prior).


The print edition continued to struggle for readership, and, in 2004, faced a renewed mandate from the church to earn a profit. Subsequently, the Monitor began relying more on the Internet as an integral part of its business model. The Monitor was one of the first newspapers to put its text online in 1996, and was also one of the first to launch a PDF edition in 2001. It was also an early pioneer of RSS feeds.[18]

In 2005, Richard Bergenheim, a Christian Science practitioner, was named the new editor. Shortly before his death in 2008, Bergenheim was replaced by a veteran Boston Globe editor and former Monitor reporter John Yemma.[19]

In October 2008, citing net losses of $US18.9 million per year versus $US12.5 million in annual revenue, the Monitor announced that it would cease printing daily and instead print weekly editions starting in April 2009.[20][21] The last daily print edition was published on March 27, 2009.

The weekly magazine follows on from the Monitor's London edition, also a weekly, launched in 1960 and the weekly World Edition which replaced the London edition in 1974.[22] Mark Sappenfield became the editor in March 2017.[23]


Monitor staff have been the recipients of seven Pulitzer Prizes:


  1. ^ Barnett, Jim (April 27, 2010). "What advocacy nonprofits can learn from The Christian Science Monitor". Nieman Lab. Harvard College. Archived from the original on October 6, 2017. Retrieved November 19, 2017.
  2. ^ Kasuya, Jacquelyn (April 30, 2010). "Nonprofit Christian Science Monitor Seeks New Financial Model". The Chronicle of Philanthropy. Archived from the original on December 1, 2017. Retrieved November 19, 2017.
  3. ^ Koestler-Grack, Rachel (2013). Mary Baker Eddy. New York, N.Y.: Chelsea House. ISBN 978-1-43-814707-9.
  4. ^ Archived copy at WebCite (March 17, 2013). Audit Bureau of Circulations
  5. ^ a b c d "About the Monitor". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved February 5, 2007.
  6. ^ Alex Beam (June 9, 2005). "Appealing to a higher authority". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on September 8, 2008. Retrieved May 14, 2009.
  7. ^ Daniel Akst (Fall 2005). "Nonprofit Journalism: Removing the Pressure of the Bottom Line". Carnegie Reporter. Carnegie Corporation of New York. Archived from the original on March 11, 2015. Retrieved January 10, 2016.
  8. ^ Richard Curtiss (December 1997). "As U.S. Media Ownership Shrinks, Who Covers Islam?". Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. Archived from the original on April 27, 2013. Retrieved January 30, 2013.
  9. ^ "Carroll Reunites with family". CNN World. April 2, 2006. Archived from the original on September 12, 2013. Retrieved January 30, 2013.
  10. ^ Jill Carroll (August 14, 2006). "Hostage: The Jill Carroll Story". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved January 30, 2013.
  11. ^ [1] Archived September 10, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, Bloomberg Businessweek, October 28, 2008.
  12. ^ Mary Baker Eddy, Miscellaneous Writings 7:17-24
  13. ^ a b Bridge, Susan (1998). Monitoring the News. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 0-7656-0315-2.
  14. ^ "Peabody Awards "Islam in Turmoil"". Archived from the original on June 11, 2010. Retrieved April 10, 2009.
  15. ^ "Monitoring the 'Monitor'" (PDF). Broadcasting. 119 (27): 64. December 31, 1990. Retrieved April 6, 2017.
  16. ^ Faison, Seth, Jr. (April 6, 1992). "New Deadline for Monitor Channel". New York Times. p. D7. Archived from the original on April 2, 2017. Retrieved February 18, 2017.
  17. ^ Franklin, James L. (April 24, 1994). "Monitor Channel is missed". Boston Globe. p. 28. Archived from the original on October 25, 2012.
  18. ^ Gill, K. E (2005). "Blogging, RSS and the information landscape: A look at online news" (PDF). WWW 2005 Workshop on the Weblogging Ecosystem. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 20, 2012. Retrieved January 30, 2013.
  19. ^ Cook, David (June 9, 2008). "John Yemma named Monitor editor". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on May 3, 2009. Retrieved January 30, 2013.
  20. ^ Fine, Jon (October 28, 2008). "The Christian Science Monitor to Become a Weekly". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Archived from the original on March 10, 2016. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
  21. ^ Clifford, Stephanie (October 28, 2008). "Christian Science Paper to End Daily Print Edition". The New York Times. p. B8. Archived from the original on April 17, 2009. Retrieved October 28, 2008.
  22. ^ "Monitor Timeline". The Christian Science Monitor.
  23. ^ Cook, David T. (December 16, 2013). "New editor named to lead The Christian Science Monitor". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on August 3, 2017. Retrieved August 2, 2017.
  24. ^ "The Pulitzer Prizes; 1950 winners". Pulitzer. Retrieved April 19, 2010.
  25. ^ "The Pulitzer Prizes; 1967 winners". Pulitzer. Retrieved April 19, 2010.
  26. ^ "The Pulitzer Prizes; 1968 winners". Pulitzer. May 26, 1967. Retrieved April 19, 2010.
  27. ^ "The Pulitzer Prizes; 1969 winners". Pulitzer. October 14, 1968. Retrieved April 19, 2010.
  28. ^ "The Pulitzer Prizes; 1978 winners". Pulitzer. October 20, 1977. Retrieved April 19, 2010.
  29. ^ "The Pulitzer Prizes; 1996 winners". Pulitzer. Retrieved April 19, 2010.
  30. ^ "The Pulitzer Prizes; Editorial cartooning – Citation". Retrieved April 19, 2010.

Further reading

  • Merrill, John C. and Harold A. Fisher. The world's great dailies: profiles of fifty newspapers (1980) pp. 96–103

External links

1911 College Football All-America Team

The 1911 College Football All-America team is composed of college football players who were selected as All-Americans for the 1911 college football season. The only selector for the 1911 season who has been recognized as "official" by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is Walter Camp. Many other sports writers, newspapers, coaches and others also selected All-America teams in 1911. Others who selected All-Americans in 1911 include New York sports writer Wilton S. Farnsworth, The New York Globe, Minnesota coach Henry L. Williams, The Christian Science Monitor, former Yale stars Ted Coy and Charles Chadwick, and Baseball Magazine.

Brown–Kaufman amendment

The Brown–Kaufman amendment (or the SAFE Banking Act) was a failed 2010 amendment proposed in the United States Senate to be part of the Dodd–Frank bill by Democratic Senators Sherrod Brown (OH) and Ted Kaufman (DE). It sought to address the moral hazard of too big to fail by breaking up the largest banks with limits on the size of financial institutions. The Christian Science Monitor said the amendment was based on the idea that "too big to fail is too big to exist." The New York Times called it a liberal initiative with pure "populist appeal".The proposal failed on the Senate floor by a vote of 61 to 33 on May 6, 2010. Economist Simon Johnson emphasized that only a handful of Republicans voted for the bill and that the Obama administration opposed the amendment. After the vote, The American Prospect said the 33 "Yea" votes represented a "fascinating coalition – liberals and conservatives, Democratic leadership and three Republican conservatives." The New York Times said the amendment was strongly opposed by Wall Street; supporters included The New York Times' editorial page, the editorial board of The Christian Science Monitor, and Simon Johnson.To The Christian Science Monitor, former Federal Reserve chairman Alan Greenspan hinted at support for the idea behind the amendment with his statement that "If they’re too big to fail, they're too big." Related legislation was passed in the Bank Holding Act of 1970, which gave regulatory powers to the Federal Reserve to cap bank sizes, but it was weakly enforced. A previous (1994) law limited a bank's total deposits to less than 10% of the nation's total, but waivers were issued to JPMorgan Chase, Wells Fargo, and Bank of America.The amendment would have capped deposits and other liabilities and restricted bank assets to 10% of US GDP. At the time of the Senate vote, three banks, JPMorgan Chase, Wells Fargo, and Bank of America, exceeded that proposed amount. Any one bank's non-deposit liabilities would have been capped at 2% of GDP and for non-bank financial firms, the amount would have been 3%.

Captain Caution

Captain Caution is a 1940 American adventure film directed by Richard Wallace set during the War of 1812. The film stars Victor Mature, Bruce Cabot and Alan Ladd. It was based on the novel of the same name by Kenneth Roberts. Elmer Raguse was nominated for an Academy Award for Sound Recording.

David S. Rohde

David Stephenson Rohde (born August 7, 1967) is an American author and investigative journalist who currently serves as the online news director for The New Yorker. While a reporter for The Christian Science Monitor, he won the Pulitzer Prize for International Reporting in 1996 for his coverage of the Srebrenica massacre. From 2002 until 2005, he was co-chief of The New York Times' South Asia bureau, based in New Delhi, India. He later contributed to the newspaper's team coverage of Afghanistan and Pakistan that received the 2009 Pulitzer Prize for International Reporting and was a finalist in his own right in the category in 2010. He is also a global affairs analyst for CNN.While in Afghanistan, Rohde was kidnapped by members of the Taliban in November 2008, but managed to escape in June 2009 after seven months in captivity. While he was in captivity, The New York Times collaborated with a number of media outlets, including al-Jazeera and Wikipedia, to remove news of the kidnapping from the public eye.

Frank Scheck

Frank Scheck is an American film critic. He is best known for his reviews in the New York Post and The Hollywood Reporter. He formerly edited STAGES Magazine and worked as a theater critic for the Christian Science Monitor in the 1990s.

Geoff Wisner

Geoff Wisner is an author, book reviewer, and editor. His articles appear in publications such as The Christian Science Monitor, Words Without Borders, Transition Magazine, Boston Globe, Wall Street Journal, and Wild Earth. He is a graduate of Harvard University. He currently lives in New York City. He is married to Jennifer Marie Brissett, a writer.

Jill Carroll

Jill Carroll (born October 6, 1977) is an American former journalist (now working as a firefighter) who was kidnapped and ultimately released in Iraq.

Carroll was a reporter for the Christian Science Monitor at the time of her kidnapping. After finishing a fellowship at Harvard University's Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy she returned to work for the Monitor. After her release, Carroll wrote a series of articles on her recollection of her experiences in Iraq.

John Hughes (editor)

R. John Hughes (born April 28, 1930) is a Welsh–American journalist, a former Nieman Fellow at Harvard University, and winner of the Pulitzer Prize for his coverage of Indonesia and the Overseas Press Club Award for an investigation into the international narcotics traffic. He is a former president of the American Society of Newspaper Editors. Hughes has written two books and writes a nationally syndicated column for The Christian Science Monitor.

List of college athletics championship game outcomes

The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), founded in 1906, is the major governing body for intercollegiate athletics in the United States and currently conducts national championships in its sponsored sports, except for the top level of football. Before the NCAA offered a championship for any particular sport, intercollegiate national championships in that sport were determined independently. Although the NCAA sometimes lists these historic championships in its official records, it has not awarded retroactive championship titles.

Prior to NCAA inception of a sport, intercollegiate championships were conducted and usually espoused in advance as competitions for the national championship. Many winners were recognized in contemporary newspapers and other publications as the "national intercollegiate" champions. These are not to be confused with the champions of early 20th-century single-sport alliances of northeastern U.S. colleges that were named "Intercollegiate League" or "Intercollegiate Association." These leagues generally included some of the colleges that later became the Ivy League, as well as an assortment of other northeastern universities.

Even after the NCAA began organizing national championships, some non-NCAA organizations conducted their own national championship tournaments, usually as a supplement to the NCAA events. A notable example is that of NCAA Division III men's volleyball. Although the NCAA Men's National Collegiate Volleyball Championship, established in 1970, was in theory open to D-III schools, none had received a berth in that tournament. As a result, a separate championship event, open only to D-III schools, was created in 1997. That event was discontinued after its 2011 edition once the NCAA announced it would sponsor an official Division III championship starting in 2012.

The historical championship event outcomes included in the Section 1 list were decided by actual games organized for the purpose of determining a champion on the field of play. Lists of other championships for collegiate athletic organizations are referenced in Sections 2.1 through 2.6 of this list. (See Table of Contents)

Marc Cooper

Marc Cooper is an American journalist, author, journalism professor and blogger. He is a contributing editor to The Nation. He wrote the popular "Dissonance" column for LA Weekly from 2001 until November 2008. His writing has also appeared in such publications as the Los Angeles Times, The Atlantic Monthly, Harper's Magazine, The New Yorker, The Christian Science Monitor, Playboy and Rolling Stone. His translated work has been published in various European and Latin American publications, including the French daily Liberation and the Mexico City-based dailies La Jornada and Uno Mas Uno. He has also been a television producer for PBS, CBS News, and The Christian Science Monitor. His radio reports have aired on NBC, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and the BBC. During the 2008 presidential campaign he worked as editorial coordinator of The Huffington Post's citizen-journalism project OffTheBus as well as a senior editor of the overall site.

Michigan Wolverines swimming and diving

The Michigan Wolverines swimming and diving program has both a men's and women's team. The University of Michigan swimming program is one of the most highly respected college swimming programs in the country. The men's and women's teams, which had been coached separately, were combined in August 2012 by the University of Michigan Athletic Department under the leadership of head coach Mike Bottom.

Museum of Counterfeit Goods

The Tilleke & Gibbins Museum of Counterfeit Goods is a museum focused on intellectual property infringement in Yan Nawa District, Bangkok, Thailand. It is operated by Tilleke & Gibbins, a law firm with offices in Thailand and Vietnam. In the firm's Bangkok office on the 26th floor of Supalai Grand Tower, the museum is home to a variety of counterfeit and infringed goods that the firm has accumulated in its work.The museum receives over a thousand visitors each year. Local and international newspapers and magazines such as the Christian Science Monitor and Time magazine have published articles on the Tilleke & Gibbins museum.

Richard Strout

Richard Lee Strout (March 14, 1898 – August 19, 1990) was an American journalist and commentator. He was national correspondent for the Christian Science Monitor from 1923 and he wrote the "TRB from Washington" column for The New Republic from 1943 to 1983; he collected the best of his columns in TRB: Views and Perspectives on the Presidency (New York: Macmillan, 1979), a book notable for showing that Strout was one of the first observers of the American presidency to express worry about what later scholars and journalists came to call the imperial presidency.

Ron Charles (critic)

Ron Charles (born 1962 in St. Louis, Missouri) is a book critic at The Washington Post. His awards include the 2008 National Book Critics Circle Award Nona Balakian Citation for book reviews, and 1st Place for A&E Coverage from the Society for Features Journalism in 2011. He was one of three jurors for the 2014 Pulitzer Prize in Fiction.Before joining the Post in 2005, Charles was the book review editor and staff critic for seven years at The Christian Science Monitor.Sometime after August 2010, with his review of Jonathan Franzen's Freedom, Charles began a series of video book reviews for The Washington Post called "The Totally Hip Video Book Review". In the series, Charles, sometimes featuring his wife, high school English teacher Dawn Charles, hams it up with sight gags and intentionally bad jokes. It is a satirical look at current books in the news and the art of book reviewing.

Seventh-day Adventist education

The Seventh-day Adventist educational system is part of the Seventh-day Adventist Church and is overseen by the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists located in Silver Spring, Maryland. The educational system is a Christian school-based system.The Seventh-day Adventist Church associated with a total of 8,515 educational institutions operating in over 100 countries around the world with over 1.95 million students worldwide. The association of related educators published the Journal of Adventist Education, a magazine that focuses on seventh day adventist curriculum and teaching.The denominationally based school system began in the 1870s. The church supports holistic education:

Mental, physical, social, and spiritual health, intellectual growth, and service to humanity form a core of values that are essential aspects of the Adventist education philosophy.

Star Dudes

Star Dudes is an internet-based Flash animated cartoon series that premiered in 2000. Created by animator Rich Cando, the series presents the major events of several Star Wars films condensed down to less than five minutes per film. The stylized characters seen in the films speak only in word balloons, and all dialogue contains the word "Dude!"

One of the first Flash-animated series on the internet, the Star Dudes series attracted attention from the media, with profiles on the series appearing on TechTV's The Screen Savers, The Christian Science Monitor, The Independent, and Yahoo! Internet Life magazine.In 2002, the third Star Dudes film, Return of the Dude, was featured in the Design+ exhibition at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Taipei, Taiwan. In 2005, the original Star Dudes exhibited as part of the Spielzeugmuseum Star Wars toy exhibition in Nuremberg, Germany.

Cando announced a fifth Star Dudes short in 2002, but to date it has not been completed.

To Seek a Newer World

To Seek a Newer World is a 1967 book written by Robert Kennedy, in which he outlines his analysis on issues such as the war in Vietnam, nuclear power, welfare, and other issues. In response to the publication, New York Times critic Eliot Fremont-Smith stated, "To Seek a Newer World is addressed essentially-and in this reviewer's opinion, thoughtfully and constructively-to the double crisis of conscience and confidence which may be the common root of most of the major issues that now confront us". The book also was praised by the Christian Science Monitor.


Tubefilter, Inc. is a privately held company based in Los Angeles, California that operates media businesses focusing on the online entertainment industry. Tubefilter is best known for Tubefilter News, a blog targeted at the fans, creators, producers, "influencers" and distributors of web television content.Tubefilter News has been cited by Variety, and its staff have been quoted by the Washington Post, the Christian Science Monitor, The Wrap, and BusinessWeek, when covering the web television industry. It is ranked in the top 1,600 blogs worldwide according to Technorati.The company also operates the Streamy Awards, a weekly web television guide, and monthly web series meetups. In October 2009, Tubefilter acquired online entertainment and reviews site

Željko Kopanja

Željko Kopanja (21 October 1954 – 8 August 2016) was a Bosnian Serb newspaper editor and director of the newspaper Nezavisne Novine. The Christian Science Monitor described him as an equal critic of all parties without regard to ethnicity and "probably the most feared journalist in Bosnia and Herzegovina." On August 8, 2016 Željko Kopanja died from a cardiac arrest.

In October 1999, he lost both legs in a car bomb attack in apparent retaliation for his reporting on war crimes by Bosnian Serbs.

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