The Cenotaph, Whitehall

The Cenotaph is a war memorial on Whitehall in London, England. Its origin is in a temporary structure erected for a peace parade following the end of the First World War, and after an outpouring of national sentiment it was replaced in 1920 by a permanent structure and designated the United Kingdom's official national war memorial.

Designed by Edwin Lutyens, the permanent structure was built from Portland stone between 1919 and 1920 by Holland, Hannen & Cubitts, replacing Lutyens' earlier wood-and-plaster cenotaph in the same location. An annual Service of Remembrance is held at the site on Remembrance Sunday, the closest Sunday to 11 November (Armistice Day) each year. Lutyens' cenotaph design has been reproduced elsewhere in the UK and in other countries of historical British allegiance including Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Bermuda and Hong Kong.

The Cenotaph
United Kingdom
UK-2014-London-The Cenotaph
For the British Empire (later Commonwealth) dead of both World Wars and the British military in later wars
Unveiled11 November 1920
Location51°30′09.6″N 0°07′34.1″W / 51.502667°N 0.126139°WCoordinates: 51°30′09.6″N 0°07′34.1″W / 51.502667°N 0.126139°W
Designed byEdwin Lutyens
Listed Building – Grade I
Official nameThe Cenotaph
Designated5 February 1970
Reference no.1357354


Greek Parade Paris 1919
Paris Victory Parade of 14 July 1919 and the temporary catafalque (right) by the Arc de Triomphe (left).

The first cenotaph was a wood-and-plaster structure designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens and erected in 1919.[1] It was one of a number of temporary structures erected for the London Victory Parade (also called the Peace Day Parade) on 19 July 1919. It marked the formal end of the First World War that had taken place with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles on 28 June 1919.[2][3] As one of a series of temporary wooden monuments constructed along the route of the parade, Whitehall's was not proposed until two weeks before the event. Following deliberations by the Peace Celebrations Committee, Lutyens was invited to Downing Street. There, the British Prime Minister, David Lloyd George, proposed that the monument should be a catafalque, like the one intended for the Arc de Triomphe in Paris for the corresponding Victory Parade in France, but Lutyens proposed instead that the design be based on a cenotaph.[4]

The temporary wood-and-plaster structure had the same shape as the later permanent stone structure, and consisted of a pylon that rose in a series of set-backs to the empty tomb (cenotaph) on its summit. The wreaths at each end and on top were made from laurel rather than the later carved stone sculptures. The location chosen along the parade route along Whitehall was between the Foreign Office and Richmond House. The unveiling (described in The Times as 'quiet' and 'unofficial') took place the day before the Victory Parade. During the parade, those saluting the temporary cenotaph included the allied commanders John Pershing, Ferdinand Foch, Douglas Haig and David Beatty. For some time after the parade, the base of the memorial was covered with flowers and wreaths by members of the public. Pressure mounted to retain it, and the British War Cabinet decided on 30 July 1919 that a permanent memorial should replace the wooden version and be designated Britain's official national war memorial.[3] The announcement was made on 23 October 1919 that the Portland stone version would be a "replica exact in every detail in permanent material of present temporary structure".[5]


Lutyens had first heard the term "cenotaph" in connection with Munstead Wood, the house he designed for Gertrude Jekyll in the 1890s. He designed a garden bench seat there, consisting of a large rectangular block of elm set on stone,[6] which acquired the name "Cenotaph of Sigismunda" at the suggestion of their friend Charles Liddell, a librarian at the British Museum.[4]

Whitehall's Cenotaph was constructed from Portland stone between 1919 and 1920 by Holland, Hannen & Cubitts.[2][7] It was undecorated apart from a carved wreath on each end and a smaller carved wreath on top. The words "The Glorious Dead" are inscribed twice, once below the wreaths on each end. Above the wreaths at each end are inscribed the dates of the First World War in Roman numerals (1914 – MCMXIV; and 1919 – MCMXIX). The wreaths at each end are 5 feet (1.5 m) in diameter, while the one on top is 3.6 feet (1.1 m) in diameter.[5]

Its sides are not parallel; if extended they would meet at a point about 300 metres (980 ft) above the ground. Similarly, the "horizontal" surfaces are sections of a sphere whose centre would be 900 feet (270 m) below ground.[8] This element of the design, called entasis, was not present in the temporary structure and was added by Lutyens as a refinement when designing the permanent structure.[4] It is 35 feet (11 m) tall and weighs 120 tonnes (120,000 kg).[5]

The architects waived their fee for designing the cenotaph, meaning that it cost £7,325 (equivalent to £270,000 in 2016) to build.[9] Construction began on 19 January 1920, and the original flags were sent to the Imperial War Museum.[5]


Cenotaph Unveiling, 1920
The unveiling ceremony on 11 November 1920.

The memorial was unveiled by King George V on 11 November 1920, the second anniversary of the Armistice with Germany which ended the First World War.[2][10] It was decided not to dedicate the memorial, as not all the dead it commemorates are Christian.[5] The unveiling ceremony was part of a larger procession bringing the Unknown Warrior to be laid to rest in his tomb nearby in Westminster Abbey. The funeral procession route passed the Cenotaph, where the waiting King laid a wreath on the Unknown Warrior's gun-carriage before proceeding to unveil the memorial which was draped in large Union Flags.[11]


The Cenotaph, Whitehall, London (14 July 2011) 4
The White Ensign, Union Flag, and Blue Ensign on the Cenotaph.

The Cenotaph is flanked on each side by flags of the United Kingdom which Lutyens had wanted to be carved in stone. Although he was overruled and cloth flags were used, his Rochdale cenotaph (unveiled 26 November 1922) has stone flags. In the years following 1919, the Cenotaph displayed a Union Flag, a White Ensign and a Red Ensign on one side and a Union Flag, a White Ensign, and a Blue Ensign on the other side. On 1 April 1943, an RAF Ensign was substituted for the White Ensign on the west side. The flags displayed as of 2007 represent the Royal Navy, the British Army, the Royal Air Force and the Merchant Navy. The Blue Ensign represents the Royal Naval Reserve, the Royal Fleet Auxiliary, and other government services; it is possible that it was also intended to represent Dominion forces.[5]

Initially the flags were changed for cleaning every six to eight weeks, but between 1922 and 1923 the practice gradually stopped until letters to the media led to its reintroduction. The initial lifespan of a flag was set at five periods of three months. By 1939, they were changed ten times a year, each flag washed twice before being disposed of. By 1924, it was decided that all discarded flags would be sent to the Imperial War Museum who could redistribute them to properly accredited organisations.[5]

Later history

Whitehall, along with other areas of London, was the scene of celebrations on 8 May 1945 when victory in Europe was declared in the Second World War. More formal processions past the Cenotaph took place during the London Victory Celebrations on 8 June 1946. The Cenotaph had been designed to commemorate the British Empire military dead of the First World War, but this was later extended to include those that died in the Second World War. The dates of the Second World War were added in Roman numerals on the sides of the memorial (1939—MCMXXXIX; and 1945—MCMXLV),[9] and the memorial was unveiled for a second time on Sunday 10 November 1946 by King George VI. The memorial is now also used to remember the dead of later wars in which British servicemen and servicewomen have fought. The Cenotaph was designated a Grade I listed building on 5 February 1970.[12]

Remembrance services

Wreaths Are Laid at the Cenotaph, London During Remembrance Sunday Service MOD 45152052
Wreaths being laid at the Cenotaph during the Remembrance Sunday service in 2010.

The Cenotaph is the site of the annual National Service of Remembrance held at 11:00 am on Remembrance Sunday, the closest Sunday to 11 November (Armistice Day). From 1919 until 1945, the remembrance service was held on Armistice Day, but since 1945 it has been held on Remembrance Sunday. Uniformed service personnel (excluding fire and ambulance personnel) salute the Cenotaph as they pass.[13]

Although the Armistice Day ceremony fell away during the Second World War, in recent years the tradition of holding a ceremony at the Cenotaph at 11am on 11 November has been reinstated by The Western Front Association, a UK-based charity dedicated to perpetuating the memory of those who served in the First World War.[14]

The first such modern ceremony was held on 11 November 1919, following a suggestion by King George V for a two-minute silence across the United Kingdom and a ceremony to take place in London. Thousands had gathered around the wood-and-plaster Cenotaph in Whitehall, where Prime Minister David Lloyd George walked from Downing Street to place a wreath. A wreath was also laid by a representative of the French President, and soldiers and sailors provided a guard of honour. There were also processions past the Cenotaph organised by veterans' associations.[15]

Reverse of Armistice Day Memorial Medal 1928
The Cenotaph featured on the reverse of the 1928 Armistice Day memorial medal by Charles Doman.

Annual remembrance services also take place at the Cenotaph on other days of the year. These include the regimental parade held by the Royal Tank Regiment on the Sunday following Remembrance Sunday. This is the closest to Cambrai Day (20 November), the anniversary of the Battle of Cambrai that was one of the earliest massed deployments of British tanks.[16][17] On Anzac Day, 25 April, a Wreath Laying Ceremony and Parade is held at the Cenotaph at 11 am, followed by a Service of Commemoration and Thanksgiving at Westminster Abbey.[18] An annual parade and service is also held by the Combined Irish Regiments Association to commemorate the war dead of the Irish regiments that were disbanded on 12 June 1922 after the First World War.[19] This parade is now held on the Sunday in June that follows the Queen's Birthday Parade.[20] The Belgian Parade at the Cenotaph has taken place yearly since 1934 on the Sunday preceding the Belgian National Day (21 July). Belgium is the only nation that is allowed to parade its troops in uniform and carrying arms in central London.[21] The War Widows Association of Great Britain hold their Annual Service of Remembrance at the Cenotaph on the day before Remembrance Sunday.[22]

Other cenotaphs

Rembrance Day Parade Bermuda
Remembrance Day parade, at the Cenotaph in the City of Hamilton, Bermuda, 1990.

Lutyens' first cenotaph design was for The Cenotaph, Southampton (unveiled 6 November 1920). The temporary Whitehall Cenotaph (unofficial unveiling on 18 July 1919) was followed by the permanent Whitehall Cenotaph (unveiled 11 November 1920). Lutyens' Whitehall Cenotaph design was used in the construction of other war memorials in the UK and in the British Empire. Two smaller versions that included several additions and differences were built as regimental memorials, the Queen's Own Royal West Kent Regiment Cenotaph in Maidstone, Kent, and the Royal Berkshire Regiment War Memorial in Reading, Berkshire. These were unveiled on 30 July 1921 and 13 September 1921 respectively.[23][24] The Midland Railway War Memorial, Derby, was unveiled on 15 December 1921. The Middlesbrough cenotaph, derived from Lutyens' design,[25] was unveiled on 11 November 1922.[26] The Rochdale Cenotaph was unveiled on 26 November 1922. The Hong Kong cenotaph, an almost exact replica, was unveiled in 1923 between the Statue Square and the City Hall in Hong Kong.[27]

The Manchester Cenotaph in Manchester, England (also the work of Lutyens), was unveiled on 12 July 1924 and has similarities and differences. The Welch Regimental War Memorial, in the form of a Lutyens 'Whitehall' cenotaph, was unveiled at Maindy Barracks, Cardiff, on 11 November 1924. The Toronto Cenotaph was unveiled on 11 November 1925 and is modelled on Whitehall's design. A two-thirds scale copy was unveiled in Hamilton, Bermuda, on 6 May 1925. A close copy of the Whitehall Cenotaph was unveiled in November 1929 in Auckland, New Zealand. An exact replica stands in London, Ontario, Canada, and was unveiled on 11 November 1934.[2]

Replica or similar cenotaphs

Cenotaph, Hong Kong 1

Hong Kong Cenotaph, Hong Kong


Auckland Cenotaph, New Zealand

Other cenotaph designs by Lutyens in the UK

See also


  1. ^ Lancaster, G.B. (31 October 1919). "The Glorious Dead". Ashburton Guardian. XL (9146). p. 7. Retrieved 2011-07-03.
  2. ^ a b c d "BBC – Remembrance – Cenotaph". BBC. Retrieved 3 July 2011.
  3. ^ a b Allan Greenberg. "Lutyens's Cenotaph". 48. Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians: 5–23. JSTOR 990403.
  4. ^ a b c Gliddon, Gerard; Skelton, Timothy John (2008). "Southampton and London: A Tale of Two Cenotaphs". Lutyens and the Great War. London: Frances Lincoln. pp. 36–47. ISBN 978-0-7112-2878-8.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g "Flags on the Cenotaph" (PDF). The Flag Institute. Retrieved 2011-07-03.
  6. ^ Massingham, Betty (1966). Miss Jekyll: Portrait of a Great Gardener. London: Country Life. pp. 140–142.
  7. ^ Holland and Hannen and Cubitts Ltd. (1920). Cubitts: its inception and development. London: Holland & Hannen and Cubitts Ltd. p. 10.
  8. ^ "Whitehall Cenotaph". MSN Encarta. Microsoft Corporation. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009.
  9. ^ a b Jones, Nigel R (2005). Architecture of England, Scotland, and Wales. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. p. 62. ISBN 0313318506.
  10. ^ "The Unknown Warrior". BBC History. Retrieved 2011-07-03.
  11. ^ Hornby, Martin (2008-07-07). The Burial of the Unknown Warrior. Martin Hornby, The Western Front Association, 7 July 2008. Retrieved 25 July 2011-07-25 from
  12. ^ Historic England. "The Cenotaph (1357354)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 2011-07-11.
  13. ^ "The Cenotaph in Whitehall". RAF Habbaniya Association. Retrieved 2011-07-03.
  14. ^ The Western Front Association
  15. ^ "All London Silent at Armistice Hour" (PDF). The New York Times. 12 November 1919.
  16. ^ Regimental Church and Collect, The Royal Tank Regiment Association, accessed 5 October 2011
  17. ^ Regimental Day, The Royal Tank Regiment Association, accessed 5 October 2011
  18. ^ "ANZAC DAY - Tuesday 25th April 2017". Australian High Commission, United Kingdom. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
  19. ^ The history of the Association, Combined Irish Regiments Old Comrades Association, accessed 5 October 2011
  20. ^ The history of the Association – today, Combined Irish Regiments Old Comrades Association, accessed 5 October 2011
  21. ^ "80th Belgian Cenotaph Parade". Retrieved 1 February 2017.
  22. ^ Lefort, Rebecca; Craig, Olga (13 November 2010). "War widows remember the husbands who died serving their country". Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
  23. ^ Historic England. "The Queen's Own Royal West Kent Regiment Cenotaph (1086395)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 6 August 2016.
  24. ^ Historic England. "The Royal Berkshire Regiment Cenotaph (1321912)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 6 August 2016.
  25. ^ Pevsner, Nikolaus (1966). Yorkshire: The North Riding. p. 252.
  26. ^ "North Yorkshire War Memorials – Middlesbrough". The Yorkshire Regiment – First World War Remembrance. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
  27. ^ "Brief Information on Proposed Grade 1 Items" (PDF). Leisure and Cultural Services Department, Hong Kong. Retrieved 3 July 2011.


External links

1920 in architecture

The year 1920 in architecture involved some significant events.

1920 in art

The year 1920 in art involved some significant events and new works.

1927 FA Cup Final

The 1927 FA Cup Final was an association football match between Cardiff City and Arsenal on 23 April 1927 at the original Wembley Stadium (then called Empire Stadium). The showpiece match of English football's primary cup competition, the Football Association Challenge Cup (better known as the FA Cup), it was the first such final to be broadcast on the radio. The victory by Cardiff marked the only occasion in the history of the tournament that the trophy had been won by a team outside England; the Cup had previously been referred to in the press as the "English Cup".

Each team had progressed through five rounds to reach the final, having each entered in the third round. Both teams required a single replay in different rounds to progress, but otherwise won each of their games. In the fifth round, Cardiff knocked the reigning champions, Bolton Wanderers out of the cup. Both teams had a mixture of home and away games on their route to the final, but Arsenal were not required to play outside London after the initial fourth round match. By the quarter-finals, the two teams were the only Football League Division One teams left in the competition.

Arsenal had injury problems with Horace Cope ruled out. Additional trains were put on to get Cardiff's fans to Wembley, and police reinforcements to keep fans at bay who had been sold fake tickets. A concert was held prior to the game, which included the first rendition of “Abide with Me”, which has since become a cup final tradition. It was the first FA Cup Final broadcast on the radio, which coined the phrase "back to square one". The match was watched by 91,206 in the stadium, and a further 15,000 fans listened in Cardiff's Cathays Park to the radio broadcast.

Both teams had opportunities to score, but the only goal of the game was credited to Hughie Ferguson after the ball slipped out of the hands of goalkeeper Dan Lewis, and he knocked the ball into the net with his elbow. Afterwards, he blamed his new wool jersey, saying that it was greasy. This resulted in the Arsenal tradition of washing goalkeeper jerseys before every match. Following the match, the press called it the "Singing Final" and highlighted that the FA Cup had gone to Wales for the first time. In the following years, Cardiff suffered a decline in their fortunes and didn't reach the FA Cup final again until 2008. Arsenal won the trophy in 1930.


A cenotaph is an empty tomb or a monument erected in honour of a person or group of people whose remains are elsewhere. It can also be the initial tomb for a person who has since been reinterred elsewhere. Although the vast majority of cenotaphs honour individuals, many noted cenotaphs are instead dedicated to the memories of groups of individuals, such as the lost soldiers of a country or of an empire.

Edwin Lutyens

Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens, (; LUT-yənz; 29 March 1869 – 1 January 1944) was an English architect known for imaginatively adapting traditional architectural styles to the requirements of his era. He designed many English country houses, war memorials and public buildings. In his biography, the writer Christopher Hussey wrote, "In his lifetime (Lutyens) was widely held to be our greatest architect since Wren if not, as many maintained, his superior". The architectural historian Gavin Stamp described him as "surely the greatest British architect of the twentieth (or of any other) century".Lutyens played an instrumental role in designing and building New Delhi, which would later on serve as the seat of the Government of India. In recognition of his contribution, New Delhi is also known as "Lutyens' Delhi". In collaboration with Sir Herbert Baker, he was also the main architect of several monuments in New Delhi such as the India Gate; he also designed Viceroy's House, which is now known as the Rashtrapati Bhavan.


England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world. The English language, the Anglican Church, and English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, and the country's parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by other nations. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation.England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the north (for example, the Lake District and Pennines) and in the west (for example, Dartmoor and the Shropshire Hills). The capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom, largely concentrated around London, the South East, and conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, and Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century.The Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland (through another Act of Union) to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Funeral march

A funeral march (Marche funèbre in French, Marcia funebre in Italian, Trauermarsch in German), as a musical genre, is a march, usually in a minor key, in a slow "simple duple" metre, imitating the solemn pace of a funeral procession. Some such marches are often considered appropriate for use during funerals and other sombre occasions, the most well-known being that of Chopin. Handel uses the name dead march, also used for marches played by a military band at military funerals and executions.

Grade I listed modern buildings in England

The following Grade I listed buildings in England were constructed after 1901:

Village College, Impington, Cambridgeshire

Sir Bernard Lovell Telescope, Jodrell Bank Laboratory, Cheshire

Ednaston Manor, walls & terracing, Derbyshire

Castle Drogo, Devon

Kingsgate Bridge, Durham

De La Warr Pavilion, Bexhill, East Sussex

Rodmarton Manor, Gloucestershire

Severn Bridge & Aust Viaduct (First Severn Crossing), M4 Motorway, Gloucestershire

Severn Bridge & Aust Viaduct, (First Severn Crossing), M48 Motorway, Gloucestershire

Church of St Jude, Hendon, Greater London

The Free Church, Hendon, Greater London

The British Museum: King Edward VII Galleries, wall & lions, Camden, Greater London

Royal College of Physicians, Camden, Greater London

Nos I, 1a, 1b, 1c And 1d And 2-32 Isokon Flats, Hampstead, Greater London

Tomb of Karl Marx & family, Highgate Cemetery, Greater London

27-35 Poultry, London

Penguin Pool, London Zoo, City Of Westminster

The Gorilla House, London Zoo, City Of Westminster

Queen Alexandra Memorial, Westminster

Statuary group of The Burghers of Calais, Westminster

Admiralty Arch, Westminster

Buckingham Palace: forecourt gate piers, gates, railings & lamps, Westminster

Queen Victoria Memorial, Westminster

Queen Victoria Memorial: gates And gate piers, balustrades, steps, wall & fountain, Westminster

The Cenotaph, Whitehall, Westminster

Highpoint I, Hornsey, Greater London

Highpoint II, Hornsey, Greater London

Finsbury Health Centre, Greater London

Royal Festival Hall, Lambeth, Greater London

Church of All Hallows, Twickenham, Greater London

Granada, Tooting, Greater London

Royd House, Altrincham, Greater Manchester

St James Church, Bramley, Hampshire

Sandham Memorial Chapel, Burghclere, Hampshire

Bedales Memorial Library, Lupton Hall And Corridor, Hampshire

Church of St Andrew, Mottisfont, Hampshire

Johnston Monument, Gilston Parish Church, Hertfordshire

22-26 The Cathedral Precincts, Canterbury, Kent

Christchurch Cathedral, Canterbury: library, Kent

The Salutation, Sandwich, Kent

Arch of Remembrance War Memorial, Victoria Park, Leicester

Royal Liver Building, railings & stone piers, Liverpool

Roman Catholic Cathedral of St John the Baptist, Norwich

Temple Of Piety On East Side Of Moon, Studley Royal, North Yorkshire

Goddards and gateway, terrace & loggia, York

Church of St Mary the Virgin, Wellingborough, Northamptonshire

Bell tower & remains of Town Walls, Berwick-upon-Tweed, Northumberland

Union Suspension Bridge, Berwick-upon-Tweed, Northumberland

Building D6 At Boots Factory Site, Beeston, Nottinghamshire

Building D10 At Boots Factory Site, Beeston, Nottinghamshire

Middleton Park, Oxfordshire

St Catherine's College, Oxford: Bicycle Store

St Catherine's College, Oxford: retaining wall

St Catherine's College, Oxford: master’s house & wall

St Catherine's College, Oxford: podium & buildings

St Catherine's College, Oxford: squash courts

Willis Faber Building, Ipswich, Suffolk

Church of St Lawrence, Chobham, Surrey

Dovecote, Mary Arden's House, Stratford On Avon, Warwickshire

Cathedral of St Michael, Coventry, West Midlands

Church of the Epiphany, Leeds, West Yorkshire

Lloyd's building, City of London

20 Bedford Square, Greater London

Known unto God

Known unto God is a phrase used on the gravestones of unknown soldiers in Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC) cemeteries. The phrase was selected by British poet Rudyard Kipling who worked for what was then the Imperial War Graves Commission during the First World War. The origin of the phrase is unknown but it has been linked to sections of the King James Bible. The phrase was re-used for those killed during the Second World War and appears on more than 212,000 gravestones across the world. In 2013 there was controversy when it was proposed that the phrase be removed from the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier at the Australian War Memorial.

Munstead Wood

Munstead Wood is a Grade I listed house and garden in Munstead Heath, Busbridge on the boundary of the town of Godalming in Surrey, England, 1 mile (1.6 km) south-east of the town centre. The garden was created first, by garden designer Gertrude Jekyll, and became widely known through her books and prolific articles in magazines such as Country Life. The Arts and Crafts style house, in which Jekyll lived from 1897 to 1932, was designed by architect Edwin Lutyens to complement the garden.

Munstead Wood was the first in a series of influential collaborations between Lutyens and Jekyll in house and garden design. The number of these collaborations has been put at around 120; other well known ones include Deanery Garden in Berkshire and Hestercombe House in Somerset.The entire original area of Jekyll's property is grade I listed in the National Register of Historic Parks and Gardens. Since Jekyll's time, it has been divided into six plots with different owners.The main house, which retains the name of Munstead Wood and whose plot contains most of the original gardens, is a grade I listed building. The properties in the other plots, which are to the north and west of the main house, also include listed buildings designed by Lutyens, in the lesser two categories; these were mostly Jekyll's outbuildings.

Purple poppy

The purple poppy is a symbol of remembrance in the United Kingdom for animals that served during wartime. The symbol was created in 2006 based on the principle of the traditional red remembrance poppy for Remembrance Day.In contemporary service, most animals in United Kingdom military service are military working dogs, particularly in the 1st Military Working Dog Regiment. Historically the greatest number of animal casualties in conflict have been horses and ponies.

Racial Volunteer Force

The Racial Volunteer Force (RVF) is a violent neo-Nazi splinter group of the British neo-Nazi group Combat 18 (C18) with close ties to the far right paramilitary group, British Freedom Fighters. Although originating as a breakaway group the RVF has since re-established links to C18 whilst maintaining a distinct identity.

Rudyard Kipling

Joseph Rudyard Kipling ( RUD-yərd; 30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936) was an English journalist, short-story writer, poet, and novelist. He was born in India, which inspired much of his work.

Kipling's works of fiction include The Jungle Book (1894), Kim (1901), and many short stories, including "The Man Who Would Be King" (1888). His poems include "Mandalay" (1890), "Gunga Din" (1890), "The Gods of the Copybook Headings" (1919), "The White Man's Burden" (1899), and "If—" (1910). He is regarded as a major innovator in the art of the short story; his children's books are classics of children's literature, and one critic described his work as exhibiting "a versatile and luminous narrative gift".Kipling was one of the most popular writers in the United Kingdom, in both prose and verse, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Henry James said: "Kipling strikes me personally as the most complete man of genius, as distinct from fine intelligence, that I have ever known." In 1907, at the age of 41, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, making him the first English-language writer to receive the prize and its youngest recipient to date. He was also sounded out for the British Poet Laureateship and on several occasions for a knighthood, both of which he declined.Kipling's subsequent reputation has changed according to the political and social climate of the age and the resulting contrasting views about him continued for much of the 20th century. George Orwell saw Kipling as "a jingo imperialist", who was "morally insensitive and aesthetically disgusting".

Literary critic Douglas Kerr wrote: "[Kipling] is still an author who can inspire passionate disagreement and his place in literary and cultural history is far from settled. But as the age of the European empires recedes, he is recognised as an incomparable, if controversial, interpreter of how empire was experienced. That, and an increasing recognition of his extraordinary narrative gifts, make him a force to be reckoned with."

The Minstrel Boy

"The Minstrel Boy" is an Irish patriotic song written by Thomas Moore (1779–1852) who set it to the melody of The Moreen, an old Irish air. It is widely believed that Moore composed the song in remembrance of a number of his friends, whom he met while studying at Trinity College, Dublin and who had participated in (and were killed during) the Irish Rebellion of 1798.

The song gained widespread popularity and became a favourite of many Irishmen who fought during the American Civil War and gained even more popularity after World War I. The song is notably associated with organisations that historically had a heavy representation of Irish-Americans, in particular the police and fire departments of New York, Boston and Chicago and those of various other major US metropolitan areas, even after those organisations have ceased to have a substantial over-representation of personnel of Irish ancestry. The melody is frequently played, typically on bagpipes, at funerals of members and/or officers of such organisations who have died or been killed in service. Unsurprisingly, given its lyrics, it is also associated with the Irish Army and with traditionally Irish regiments in the armies of the United Kingdom and the United States as well as other armies of the world.

Walford Davies

Sir Henry Walford Davies (6 September 1869 – 11 March 1941) was an English composer, organist, conductor and educator who held the title Master of the King's Music from 1934 until 1941.

Although a performing musician and composer, he served with the Royal Air Force during the First World War when he composed the well known Royal Air Force March Past.

Davies was musical adviser to the nascent British Broadcasting Corporation, and became known to a wide public for his explanatory talks on music between 1924 and 1941, which brought him great popularity with British radio audiences.

War Widows Association of Great Britain

War Widows Association of Great Britain is an advocacy group for widows and widowers of British military personnel killed in wartime. It was founded in 1971 to persuade the British government to make the widows' pension tax-free, a goal which it finally obtained in 1979. It represents war widows at remembrance ceremonies. The association holds an Annual Service of Remembrance at The Cenotaph, Whitehall, on the day before Remembrance Sunday.In the 2003 New Year Honours, Mary Brailsford of Chesterfield, Derbyshire was awarded an MBE (Member of the Order of the British Empire) "for services to the War Widows Association of Great Britain".One of the group's founders was

Kathleen Woodside from Liverpool. Her husband Charles was killed in Italy on 1 March 1945.

War memorial

A war memorial is a building, monument, statue or other edifice to celebrate a war or victory, or (predominating in modern times) to commemorate those who died or were injured in a war.

White poppy

The white poppy is a flower used as a symbol of pacifism, worn either in place of or in addition to the red remembrance poppy for Remembrance Day or Anzac Day.

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