The Bottom

The Bottom (formerly Botte) is the capital and largest town of the island of Saba,[1] the Caribbean Netherlands, and is the first stop on the way from Saba's Port in Fort Bay towards the rest of the island. It has approximately 500 inhabitants of the total 1,991 islanders.

The Bottom
The Bottom, with the campus of the School of Medicine at the bottom right
The Bottom, with the campus of the School of Medicine at the bottom right
Map of Saba showing The Bottom
Map of Saba showing The Bottom
Coordinates: 17°37′34″N 63°14′57″W / 17.62611°N 63.24917°WCoordinates: 17°37′34″N 63°14′57″W / 17.62611°N 63.24917°W
Country Netherlands
Public body Saba
Population
 • Total462
Time zoneUTC-4 (AST)
ClimateAw

History

The original name of the town was De Botte, old Dutch for "The Bowl", referring to its geographical position in a valley surrounded by the various Mountains. "The Bottom" is an English corruption of this name.

Infrastructure

The Bottom is home to the government offices, a hospital, a nursing home, a sports field, three churches, a library, various shops and the 200 students of the Saba University School of Medicine.[1]

Events

As capital of the island, The Bottom hosts a number of events throughout the year. During the summer the 'Saba Carnival' is held here. It's a parade full of colour accompanied with the music of steel drums and local artists. It is a highly anticipated event on the Saban calendar as most of the island meets together to dance, sing and enjoy the festival. The Saba Carnival usually lasts for a few days in which the island focuses on The Bottom.

Another event held in the Bottom is 'Saba Day'. This is the national day of the island in which all offices, schools and stores are closed. The island celebrates its diversity and culture through various activities and parades. The Bottom holds host to a concert at the sports field where local and other Caribbean artists come to perform. There are fishing competitions at sea, drawing competitions for children etc.

Gallery

The mayor of Saba

Saba's Government House

The Bottom Central Park with Fire Department (6549994025)

The Bottom Central Park with Fire Department

The Bottom, Saba's Capital (6549984361)

The Bottom's signboard

See also

References

  1. ^ a b The villages of Saba (Saba Tourist Bureau)
  2. ^ "The Bottom, Saba: Summary of Climatological Data, Period 1971-2000" (PDF). Meteorological Department Curaçao. Retrieved 22 September 2016.

External links

Media related to The Bottom at Wikimedia Commons

Anchor

An anchor is a device, normally made of metal, used to connect a vessel to the bed of a body of water to prevent the craft from drifting due to wind or current. The word derives from Latin ancora, which itself comes from the Greek ἄγκυρα (ankura).Anchors can either be temporary or permanent. Permanent anchors are used in the creation of a mooring, and are rarely moved; a specialist service is normally needed to move or maintain them. Vessels carry one or more temporary anchors, which may be of different designs and weights.

A sea anchor is a drogue, not in contact with the seabed. It is used to control a drifting vessel, or to limit the speed of a sailing yacht running "under bare poles" in a storm.

Benthic zone

The benthic zone is the ecological region at the lowest level of a body of water such as an ocean, lake, or stream, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface layers. Organisms living in this zone are called benthos and include microorganisms (e.g., bacteria and fungi) as well as larger invertebrates, such as crustaceans and polychaetes. Organisms here generally live in close relationship with the substrate and many are permanently attached to the bottom. The benthic boundary layer, which includes the bottom layer of water and the uppermost layer of sediment directly influenced by the overlying water, is an integral part of the benthic zone, as it greatly influences the biological activity that takes place there. Examples of contact soil layers include sand bottoms, rocky outcrops, coral, and bay mud.

Bottom quark

The bottom quark or b quark, also known as the beauty quark, is a third-generation quark with a charge of −1/3 e.

All quarks are described in a similar way by electroweak and quantum chromodynamics, but the bottom quark has exceptionally low rates of transition to lower-mass quarks. The bottom quark is also notable because it is a product in almost all top quark decays, and is a frequent decay product of the Higgs boson.

Casement window

A casement is a window that is attached to its frame by one or more hinges at the side. They are used singly or in pairs within a common frame, in which case they are hinged on the outside. Casement windows are often held open using a casement stay. Windows hinged at the top are referred to as awning windows, and ones hinged at the bottom are called hoppers.

Crater depth

The depth of any crater in a solid planet or moon - whether it is an impact crater, a volcanic crater, or a subsidence crater - may be measured from the local surface to the bottom of the crater, or from the rim of the crater to the bottom.

The diagram above shows the full (side) view of a typical crater. Depth "A" measures from the surface to the bottom of the crater. Depth "B" measures from the mean height of the rim to the bottom of the crater.

Demersal fish

Demersal fish live and feed on or near the bottom of seas or lakes (the demersal zone). They occupy the sea floors and lake beds, which usually consist of mud, sand, gravel or rocks. In coastal waters they are found on or near the continental shelf, and in deep waters they are found on or near the continental slope or along the continental rise. They are not generally found in the deepest waters, such as abyssal depths or on the abyssal plain, but they can be found around seamounts and islands. The word demersal comes from the Latin demergere, which means to sink.

Demersal fish are bottom feeders. They can be contrasted with pelagic fish which live and feed away from the bottom in the open water column.

Demersal fish fillets contain little fish oil (one to four percent), whereas pelagic fish can contain up to 30 percent.

Draft (hull)

The draft or draught of a ship's hull is the vertical distance between the waterline and the bottom of the hull (keel), with the thickness of the hull included; in the case of not being included the draft outline would be obtained. Draft determines the minimum depth of water a ship or boat can safely navigate. The draft can also be used to determine the weight of the cargo on board by calculating the total displacement of water and then using Archimedes' principle. A table made by the shipyard shows the water displacement for each draft. The density of the water (salt or fresh) and the content of the ship's bunkers has to be taken into account. The closely related term "trim" is defined as the difference between the forward and aft drafts.

English football league system

The English football league system, also known as the football pyramid, is a series of interconnected leagues for men's association football clubs in England, with five teams from Wales, one from Guernsey and one from Jersey also competing. The system has a hierarchical format with promotion and relegation between leagues at different levels, allowing even the smallest club the theoretical possibility of ultimately rising to the very top of the system, although in practice it would take a team at the bottom levels at least two decades of consistently finishing at or near the top of each successive league to reach the top level, and even then additional restrictions, particularly in regard to stadium facilities, would then come into effect at the highest levels that could prevent a club from being allowed access to the top levels. There are more than 140 individual leagues, containing more than 480 divisions.The exact number of clubs varies from year to year as clubs join and leave leagues, fold or merge altogether, but an estimated average of 15 clubs per division implies that more than 7,000 teams of nearly 5,300 clubs are members of a league in the English men's football league system.

As there are no official definitions of any level below 11, any references to the structure at level 12 and below should not be regarded as definitive.

The pyramid for women's football in England runs separately to nine tiers and some England-based men's clubs play outside the English football league system.

Eredivisie

The Eredivisie (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈeːrədivizi]; "Honour Division" or "Premier Division") is the highest echelon of professional football in the Netherlands. The league was founded in 1956, two years after the start of professional football in the Netherlands. As of the 2018–19 season it is ranked the 11th best league in Europe by UEFA.The top division consists of 18 clubs. Each club meets every other club twice during the season, once at home and once away. At the end of each season, the club at the bottom is automatically relegated to the second level of the Dutch league system, the Eerste Divisie (First Division). At the same time, the champion of the Eerste Divisie will be automatically promoted to the Eredivisie. The next two clubs from the bottom of the Eredivisie go to separate promotion/relegation play-offs with eight high-placed clubs from the Eerste Divisie.

The winner of the Eredivisie claims the Dutch national championship. Ajax has won most titles, 25 (34 national titles). PSV Eindhoven are next with 21 (24), and Feyenoord follow with 10 (15). Since 1965, these three clubs have won all but three Eredivisie titles (the 1981 and 2009 titles went to AZ and FC Twente won the 2010 title). Ajax, PSV and Feyenoord are known as the "Big Three" of Dutch football. They are the only ones in their current forms to have appeared in every edition of the Eredivisie since its formation. A fourth club, FC Utrecht, is the product of a 1970 merger between three of that city's clubs, one of which, VV DOS, had also never been relegated out of the Eredivisie.

From 1990 to 1999, the official name of the league was PTT Telecompetitie (after the sponsor, PTT Telecom), which was changed to KPN Telecompetitie (because PTT Telecom changed its name to KPN Telecom in 1999) and to KPN Eredivisie in 2000. From 2002 to 2005, the league was called the Holland Casino Eredivisie. Since the 2005–06 season, the league has been sponsored by the Sponsorloterij (lottery), but for legal reasons its name could not be attached to the league (the Dutch government was against the name, because the Eredivisie would, after Holland Casino's sponsorship, yet again be sponsored by a company providing games of chance).

On 8 August 2012 it was made public that tycoon Rupert Murdoch had secured the rights to the Eredivisie for 12 years at the expense of 1 billion euros, beginning in the 2013–14 season. Within this deal the five largest Eredivisie clubs should receive 5 million euros per year for the duration of the contract.

Fishfinder

A fishfinder or sounder (Australia) is an instrument used to locate fish underwater by detecting reflected pulses of sound energy, as in sonar. A modern fishfinder displays measurements of reflected sound on a graphical display, allowing an operator to interpret information to locate schools of fish, underwater debris, and the bottom of body of water. Fishfinder instruments are used both by sport and commercial fishermen. Modern electronics allows a high degree of integration between the fishfinder system, marine radar, compass and GPS navigation systems.

Inning

An inning in baseball, softball, and similar games is the basic unit of play, consisting of two halves or frames, the "top" (first half) and the "bottom" (second half). In each half, one team bats until three outs are made, with the other team playing defense. A full game typically is scheduled for nine innings, although this may be shortened due to weather or extended if the score is tied at the end of the scheduled innings. Inning, in baseball and softball, is always singular, which contrasts with cricket and rounders in which the singular is "innings".

Kisses on the Bottom

Kisses on the Bottom is the fifteenth solo studio album by Paul McCartney consisting primarily of covers of traditional pop music and jazz. Released in February 2012 on Starbucks' Hear Music label, it was McCartney's first studio album since Memory Almost Full in 2007. The album was produced by Tommy LiPuma and includes just two original compositions by McCartney: "My Valentine" and "Only Our Hearts". The former features Eric Clapton on guitar, while the latter features Stevie Wonder on harmonica. Kisses on the Bottom peaked at number 3 on the UK Albums Chart and number 5 on the US Billboard 200, while also topping Billboard magazine's Jazz Albums chart.

In addition to the standard release, the album was made available in a "Deluxe" edition, which added the songs "Baby's Request" – written by McCartney and originally recorded by Wings for their 1979 album Back to the Egg – and another cover, "My One and Only Love". In November 2012, an expanded edition of Kisses on the Bottom, subtitled Complete Kisses, was released exclusively on the iTunes store. The latter release features the fourteen-track album with four bonus tracks, and the complete iTunes Live from Capitol Studios performance.

Mariana Trench

The Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench is located in the western Pacific Ocean about 200 kilometres (124 mi) east of the Mariana Islands, and has the deepest natural trench in the world. It is a crescent-shaped trough in the Earth's crust averaging about 2,550 km (1,580 mi) long and 69 km (43 mi) wide. The maximum known depth is 10,994 metres (36,070 ft) (± 40 metres [130 ft]) at the southern end of a small slot-shaped valley in its floor known as the Challenger Deep. However, some unrepeated measurements place the deepest portion at 11,034 metres (36,201 ft). By comparison: if Mount Everest was placed into the trench at this point, its peak would still be over two kilometres (1.2 mi) under water.At the bottom of the trench the water column above exerts a pressure of 1,086 bars (15,750 psi), more than 1,000 times the standard atmospheric pressure at sea level. At this pressure, the density of water is increased by 4.96%, so that 95.27 litres (20.96 imp gal; 25.17 US gal) of water under the pressure of the Challenger Deep would contain the same mass as 100 litres (22 imp gal; 26 US gal) at the surface. The temperature at the bottom is 1 to 4 °C (34 to 39 °F).The trench is not the part of the seafloor closest to the center of the Earth. This is because the Earth is an oblate spheroid, not a perfect sphere; its radius is about 25 kilometres (16 mi) smaller at the poles than at the equator. As a result, parts of the Arctic Ocean seabed are at least 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) closer to the Earth's center than the Challenger Deep seafloor.

In 2009, the Marianas Trench was established as a United States National Monument. Xenophyophores have been found in the trench by Scripps Institution of Oceanography researchers at a record depth of 10.6 kilometres (6.6 mi) below the sea surface. Data has also suggested that microbial life forms thrive within the trench.

Net income

In business and accounting, net income (also total comprehensive income, net earnings, net profit, bottom line, sales profit, or credit sales) is an entity's income minus cost of goods sold, expenses and taxes for an accounting period. It is computed as the residual of all revenues and gains over all expenses and losses for the period, and has also been defined as the net increase in shareholders' equity that results from a company's operations. In the context of the presentation of financial statements, the IFRS Foundation defines net income as synonymous with profit and loss. The difference between revenue and the cost of making a product or providing a service, before deducting overheads, payroll, taxation, and interest payments. This is different from operating income (earnings before interest and taxes).A common synonym for net profit when discussing financial statements (which include a balance sheet and an income statement) is the bottom line. This term results from the traditional appearance of an income statement which shows all allocated revenues and expenses over a specified time period with the resulting summation on the bottom line of the report.

In simplistic terms, net profit is the money left over after paying all the expenses of an endeavor. In practice this can get very complex in large organizations or endeavors. The bookkeeper or accountant must itemise and allocate revenues and expenses properly to the specific working scope and context in which the term is applied.

Definitions of the term can, however, vary between the UK and US. In the US, net profit is often associated with net income or profit after tax (see table below).

The net profit margin percentage is a related ratio. This figure is calculated by dividing net profit by revenue or turnover, and it represents profitability, as a percentage.

It is a measure of the profitability of a venture after accounting for all costs and taxes. It is the actual profit, and includes the operating expenses that are excluded from gross profit.

Net income is usually calculated per annum, for each fiscal year. It is the same as net profit but a distinct accounting concept from profit, i.e. the amount of money the company has made before its company-specific deductions are subtracted. Net income can also be calculated by adding a company's operating income to non-operating income and then subtracting off taxes."How does a company decide whether it is successful or not? Probably the most common way is to look at the net profits of the business. Given that companies are collections of projects and markets, individual areas can be judged on how successful they are at adding to the corporate net profit."

Pelagic zone

The pelagic zone consists of the water column of the open ocean, and can be further divided into regions by depth. The word "pelagic" is derived from Ancient Greek πέλαγος (pélagos), meaning 'open sea'. The pelagic zone can be thought of in terms of an imaginary cylinder or water column that goes from the surface of the sea almost to the bottom. Conditions differ deeper in the water column such that as pressure increases with depth, the temperature drops and less light penetrates. Depending on the depth, the water column, rather like the Earth's atmosphere, may be divided into different layers.

The pelagic zone occupies 1,330 million km3 (320 million mi3) with a mean depth of 3.68 km (2.29 mi) and maximum depth of 11 km (6.8 mi). Fish that live in the pelagic zone are called pelagic fish. Pelagic life decreases with increasing depth. It is affected by light intensity, pressure, temperature, salinity, the supply of dissolved oxygen and nutrients, and the submarine topography, which is called bathymetry. In deep water, the pelagic zone is sometimes called the open-ocean zone and can be contrasted with water that is near the coast or on the continental shelf. In other contexts, coastal water not near the bottom is still said to be in the pelagic zone.

The pelagic zone can be contrasted with the benthic and demersal zones at the bottom of the sea. The benthic zone is the ecological region at the very bottom of the sea. It includes the sediment surface and some subsurface layers. Marine organisms living in this zone, such as clams and crabs, are called benthos. The demersal zone is just above the benthic zone. It can be significantly affected by the seabed and the life that lives there. Fish that live in the demersal zone are called demersal fish, and can be divided into benthic fish, which are denser than water so they can rest on the bottom, and benthopelagic fish, which swim in the water column just above the bottom. Demersal fish are also known as bottom feeders and groundfish.

Race to the bottom

The race to the bottom is a socio-economic phrase which is used to describe government deregulation of the business environment, or reduction in tax rates, in order to attract or retain economic activity in their jurisdictions. An outcome of globalization and free trade, the phenomenon may occur when competition increases between geographic areas over a particular sector of trade and production. The principal effect and intent of these actions is to make labor rates "more competitive" (i.e. lower), the principal cost of business, together with other factors (pensions, environmental protection and other externalities), and thus the metaphor where the bottom is the lowest wage that can be paid for that labor.

RuPaul's Drag Race (season 11)

The eleventh season of RuPaul's Drag Race began airing on February 28, 2019, on VH1. The cast for this season features fourteen new queens and one returning queen who were announced via a live video on January 24, 2019, hosted by season 10 winner Aquaria and Adam Rippon. Season 10 contestant Vanessa Vanjie Mateo returned to the competition.

Sirloin steak

The sirloin steak is cut from the sirloin where the T-bone, porterhouse, and club steaks are cut. The sirloin is actually divided into several types of steak. The top sirloin is the most prized of these and is specifically marked for sale under that name. The bottom sirloin, which is less tender and much larger, is typically marked for sale simply as "sirloin steak". The bottom sirloin, in turn, connects to the sirloin tip roast.

In a common British, South African, and Australian butchery, the word sirloin refers to cuts of meat from the upper middle of the animal, similar to the American short loin, while the American sirloin is called the rump. Because of this difference in terminology, in these countries, the T-bone steak is regarded as a cut of the sirloin.

Top, bottom and versatile

In human sexuality, top, bottom, and versatile are sex positions during sexual activity, especially between two men. A top is usually a person who penetrates, a bottom is usually one who receives penetration, and a versatile engages in both activities or is open to engaging in either activity. These terms may be elements of self-identity that indicate an individual's usual preference, but might also describe broader sexual identities.The terms top, bottom, and versatile (or switch) are also used in BDSM to describe unrelated identities and practices.

Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea (TV series)

Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea is an American science fiction television series based on the 1961 film of the same name. Both were created by Irwin Allen, which enabled the movie's sets, costumes, props, special effects models, and sometimes footage, to be used in the production of the television series. Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea was the first of Irwin Allen's four science fiction television series, and the longest-running. The show's theme was underwater adventure.

Voyage was broadcast on ABC from September 14, 1964, to March 31, 1968, and was the decade's longest-running American science fiction television series with continuing characters. The 110 episodes produced included 32 shot in black-and-white (1964–1965), and 78 filmed in color (1965–1968). The first two seasons took place in the then-future of the 1970s. The final two seasons took place in the 1980s. The show starred Richard Basehart and David Hedison.

Climate data for The Bottom, Saba (1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 30.4
(86.7)
30.8
(87.4)
30.7
(87.3)
31.7
(89.1)
31.9
(89.4)
32.5
(90.5)
32.8
(91.0)
33.2
(91.8)
33.2
(91.8)
32.1
(89.8)
32.0
(89.6)
31.1
(88.0)
33.2
(91.8)
Average high °C (°F) 28.1
(82.6)
27.7
(81.9)
28.3
(82.9)
29.2
(84.6)
30.0
(86.0)
30.4
(86.7)
30.5
(86.9)
30.9
(87.6)
30.8
(87.4)
30.4
(86.7)
29.8
(85.6)
28.6
(83.5)
29.6
(85.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 25.7
(78.3)
25.3
(77.5)
25.7
(78.3)
26.6
(79.9)
27.4
(81.3)
28.1
(82.6)
28.1
(82.6)
28.5
(83.3)
28.5
(83.3)
28.2
(82.8)
27.4
(81.3)
26.3
(79.3)
27.2
(81.0)
Average low °C (°F) 24.1
(75.4)
23.6
(74.5)
23.9
(75.0)
24.7
(76.5)
25.6
(78.1)
26.2
(79.2)
26.0
(78.8)
26.4
(79.5)
26.5
(79.7)
26.3
(79.3)
25.4
(77.7)
24.7
(76.5)
25.3
(77.5)
Record low °C (°F) 20.8
(69.4)
20.0
(68.0)
21.4
(70.5)
22.1
(71.8)
22.6
(72.7)
23.1
(73.6)
21.8
(71.2)
22.0
(71.6)
22.4
(72.3)
22.4
(72.3)
22.6
(72.7)
21.3
(70.3)
20.0
(68.0)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 36.8
(1.45)
75.3
(2.96)
35.4
(1.39)
28.1
(1.11)
95.9
(3.78)
44.4
(1.75)
60.8
(2.39)
77.0
(3.03)
60.5
(2.38)
35.5
(1.40)
134.5
(5.30)
76.5
(3.01)
760.5
(29.94)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 10.3 10.3 6.3 4.0 6.7 5.8 5.8 6.3 7.3 3.5 10.0 9.7 86.0
Average relative humidity (%) 82.0 82.3 78.2 78.8 78.0 81.9 84.5 88.8 87.4 81.2 71.1 74.5 80.7
Source: Meteorological Department Curaçao[2]
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