The Bill is a British police procedural television series, first broadcast on ITV from 16 October 1984 until 31 August 2010. The programme originated from a one-off drama, Woodentop, broadcast in August 1983.
In its final year on air, The Bill was broadcast once a week, usually on Tuesdays or Thursdays, in a one-hour format. The programme focused on the lives and work of one shift of police officers, rather than on any particular aspect of police work. The Bill was the longest-running police procedural television series in the United Kingdom, and among the longest running of any British television series at the time of its cancellation. The title originates from "Old Bill", a slang term for the police.
Although highly acclaimed by fans and critics, the series attracted controversy on several occasions. An episode broadcast in 2008 was criticised for featuring fictional treatment for multiple sclerosis. The series has also faced more general criticism concerning its levels of violence, particularly prior to 2009, when it occupied a pre-watershed slot.
Throughout its 27-year run, the programme was always broadcast on the main ITV network. In later years, episodes of the show were repeated on ITV3 on their week of broadcast. The series has also been repeated on other digital stations, including Gold, Alibi, Watch, Dave and Drama.
In March 2010, executives at ITV announced that the network did not intend to recommission The Bill, and that filming on the series would cease on 14 June 2010. The last episode aired on 31 August 2010.
An image from the final opening credits of The Bill
Although originally only intended as a one-off, Woodentop impressed ITV to the extent that a full series was commissioned, first broadcast on 16 October 1984 with one post-watershed episode per week, featuring an hour-long, separate storyline for each episode of the first three series. The first episode of the full series was "Funny Ol' Business – Cops & Robbers". With serialisation, the name of the show changed from Woodentop to The Bill. In its first four years the series was broadcast between July onwards each year, with a 12-week summer break from May until the next July. With a full ensemble cast to explore new characters not featured or just mentioned in Woodentop, the focus of the storylines soon shifted away from new recruit Carver and towards Detective Inspector Roy Galloway and Sergeant Bob Cryer.
The series then changed to two episodes, each of 30 minutes on Tuesdays and Thursdays, per week in 1988 (from July 1988 onwards, the series also began being broadcast all year round without a summer break), increasing to three a week beginning in 1993, with the third episode being broadcast on Fridays. In 1998, The Bill returned to hour-long episodes, which later became twice-weekly, with the Friday episode being dropped, at which point the series adopted a much more serialised approach. When Paul Marquess took over as executive producer in 2002, as part of a drive for ratings, the series was revamped, bringing in a more soap opera type feel to many of its stories. Many veteran characters were written out, leading to the Sun Hill fire during 2002. Marquess stated that the clearout was necessary to introduce "plausible, powerful new characters". As part of the new serial format, much more of the characters' personal lives were explored, however, as Marquess put it, the viewers still "don't go home with them". The change also allowed The Bill to become more reflective of modern policing with the introduction of officers from ethnic minorities, most notably the new superintendent, Adam Okaro. It also allowed coverage of the relationship of homosexual Sergeant Craig Gilmore and PC Luke Ashton, a storyline which Marquess was determined to explore before rival Merseybeat.
In 2005, Johnathan Young took over as executive producer. The serial format was dropped and The Bill returned to stand-alone episodes with more focus on crime and policing than on the personal lives of the officers. 2007 saw the reintroduction of episode titles, which had been dropped in 2002. In 2009, The Bill moved back to the 9pm slot it previously held and the theme tune, "Overkill", was replaced as part of a major overhaul of the series.
On 26 March 2010, ITV announced it would be cancelling the series later that year after 26 years on air. ITV said that this decision reflected the "changing tastes" of viewers. The last episode of The Bill was filmed in June 2010 and broadcast on 31 August 2010 followed by a documentary titled Farewell The Bill. Fans of the show started a 'Save the Bill' campaign on social networking website Facebook in an effort to persuade ITV to reconsider the cancellation, and some radio broadcasters, including BBC Radio 1's Chris Moyles, presented special features on the programme's cancellation.
At the time of the series' end in August 2010, The Bill was the United Kingdom's longest-running police drama and was among the longest-running of any British television series. The series finale, entitled "Respect", was aired in two parts and was dedicated to "the men and women of the Metropolitan Police Service past and present". The finale storyline concerned gang member Jasmine Harris being involved in the murder of fellow member Liam Martin who died in the arms of Inspector Smith after being stabbed. Jasmine is then gang raped because she talked to the police and when Callum Stone found the person responsible he was held at gunpoint. Of the title for the finale, executive producer Johnathan Young said "It's called "Respect" and we hope it will respect the heritage of the show". The finale episodes featured all the cast and the final scene was specially written so all cast members would be featured. Following the final episode, ITV aired a documentary entitled Farewell The Bill which featured interviews from past and present cast and crew members. The finale was watched by 4.4 million viewers, with Farewell The Bill averaging 1.661 million viewers.
Throughout the series, there have been three filming locations for Sun Hill police station. From the first series, the police station consisted of a set of buildings in Artichoke Hill, Wapping, East London. However, these buildings were next to the News International plant and during the winter of 1985–86 there was much industrial action which resulted in some altercations between the strikers and what they thought were the real police but were actually actors working on The Bill. Working conditions got so dire, that the production team realised they needed to find another base to set Sun Hill police station.
The second location was an old record distribution depot in Barlby Road, North Kensington in North West London . Filming began here in March 1987. In 1989, the owners of the Barlby Road site ordered The Bill out, due to their redevelopment plans for the area. After an extensive search, two sites were selected, the favourite being a disused hospital in Clapham. However, this fell through and the second option was chosen – an old wine distribution warehouse in Merton, South West London. The move was made in March 1990 and was disguised on screen by the 'ongoing' refurbishment of Sun Hill police station and then finally the explosion of a terrorist car-bomb in the station car-park, which ended up killing PC Ken Melvin.
The fictional Sun Hill suburb is located in the fictional London borough of Canley in the East End, north of the River Thames. The Borough of Canley is approximately contiguous to the real-life London Borough of Tower Hamlets, and in the first few years of The Bill, Sun Hill police station was actually stated as being located in Wapping in Tower Hamlets. Sun Hill has a London E1 postcode (the 'address' of Sun Hill police station is given as '2 Sun Hill Road, Sun Hill, Canley E1 4KM'.), which corresponds to the real-life areas of Whitechapel and Stepney.
When filming The Bill, some scenes were re-enacted indoors with microphones surrounding the actors and the extra sounds being "dubbed" on later. Some of the more aggressive scenes were also filmed indoors either for dubbing or safety reasons. The sirens used in the series were added later in the dubbing suite as The Bill did not have permission to use them while on location. However, the police uniforms used in the series were genuine, again making The Bill unique amongst police dramas. When the series ended, London's Metropolitan Police Service, after talks with the production company, bought 400 kilograms of police-related paraphernalia, including flat caps and stab vests etc. to prevent them falling into the hands of criminals after the programme's production ceased.
The Bill is unique amongst police dramas in that it takes a serial format, focusing on the work and lives of a single shift of police officers, rather than on one particular area of police work. Also unique is that The Bill adapted to this format after several series, whereas comparable series started with the serial format.
Broadcast in the United Kingdom
During its initial broadcast, The Bill was always shown on ITV. In 2009, STV, ITV's regional franchise in Central and Northern Scotland, opted out of broadcasting the series along with a number of other dramas, a decision that later became the subject of legal proceedings between STV and the main ITV network. The legal dispute was settled on 27 April 2011, with ITV receiving £18 million from STV.
Aside from repeats of episodes on ITV3, which occurred on the original week of their broadcast, the show has regularly been repeated on other digital stations. Re-runs of the series began on 1 November 1992, when new digital channel UKTV Gold began broadcasting. The channel broadcast repeats of the series for nearly 16 years, until 6 October 2008, when the channel was given a revamp by the owners of the network. During the 16-year period, re-runs of the series covered every episode broadcast between 16 October 1984, and 8 March 2007. On 7 October 2008, UKTV launched a new British drama channel, Alibi, and from this point on, episodes of the series were broadcast at 8am. Alibi broadcast episodes until 23 December 2009, when the show was taken from the channel's schedule due to poor viewer feedback. During the 14 months that the show broadcast on Alibi, the channel covered all of the episodes broadcast between 25 August 1998 and 27 February 2002. On 27 January 2010, UKTV relocated The Bill to one of its more recent entertainment channels, Watch, which began by airing the episode "Sweet Revenge", broadcast on 21 March 2007, continuing in broadcast order, carrying on from where UKTV Gold, had finished. Through the course of the year, the channel continued to broadcast episodes from the latter years of the show, concluding in November 2010 with the episode "Conviction: Judgement Day", broadcast on 16 July 2009. Following a short break from the network, the series returned in December 2010, beginning with Episode #001, broadcast on 28 February 2002. This continued on from the broadcast order of episodes repeated on Alibi, carrying on from where the network had finished. As of April 2012, Watch had repeated every single episode from 28 February 2002 to 24 February 2005, and was to begin airing episodes from March 2005. In July 2013 the show started to be broadcast by UKTV channel Drama, starting with episodes from 1998. On 14 August 2017, Drama started showing The Bill from the beginning. As of 6 November, Drama jumped approximately a decade. On the 5th, it concluded its broadcast of 80s episodes, with 'The Assassins', preferring the 45-minute episodes with PC Santini and WPC Fox.
Broadcast outside the UK
The Bill has been broadcast in over 55 different countries.
In Australia The Bill was shown on the ABC. The final episode was shown on 16 October 2010, with Farewell The Bill shown the following week on 23 October. On Wednesday 3 February 2016, ABC commenced repeated the series from the pilot episode until midway through series 7 in an afternoon weekday timeslot, with early-morning repeats. The ABC does not have the rights to show Series 8 to the last episode of Season 26.
On pay television services in Australia and New Zealand, older episodes are broadcast on UKTV. The Bill will be again shown on ABC TV from series 1 from the 4 July 2017 in the 5.00 AM time slot.
In Denmark the series was retitled "Lov og Uorden" (Law and Disorder). Two episodes of the series were broadcast every afternoon on TV2 Charlie.
In Ireland the series was broadcast on RTÉ television, first starting in the early 1990s on RTÉ Two, and in the early 2000s RTÉ began broadcasting it on RTÉ One at 5:30 pm each weekday, splitting hour long episodes into two-part half-hour episodes. RTÉ discontinued this in 2009, moving the show to Monday Nights on RTÉ Two. RTÉ showed episodes from 2005. AIn 2010 RTÉ moved the show from its prime time slot on RTÉ Two to a midnight slot on RTÉ One on Thursday nights, but the show remained on the RTÉ Player.
In Sweden the series was retitled "Sunhills polisstation" (Sun Hill Police Station) by broadcaster TV4. In 2011 it was broadcast daily on Kanal 9 in the early afternoon with a repeat early the following morning.
Themes and title sequences
The pilot episode of the series, Woodentop, featured a short theme composed by Mike Westergaard. The theme was used specifically for the episode and was never used at any time during the main series. The title sequence for the episode consisted simply of the word Woodentop being spelt out letter by letter, as if someone was writing it on a typewriter.
The first ever opening sequence of The Bill was first seen in the episode "Funny Ol' Business – Cops & Robbers". The sequence consisted of two police officers, one male and one female, walking down a street, whilst images of Sun Hill were interspersed between them. This sequence was used for the first series only. It featured the first version of the iconic theme tune, "Overkill", composed by Charlie Morgan and Andy Pask. The theme is notable for its use of septuple meter. The end titles of the series simply showed the feet of the two police constables pounding the beat.
In the second series of the show, the opening sequence consisted of a police car, a Rover SD1, racing down a street with its siren wailing and its blue flashing light on. The car would screech to a stop, and the camera zoomed in on the blue light. Various clips were then shown from the series of the characters in action, often chasing suspects. This sequence kept the first version of "Overkill", and also used the same ending credits from series one. This sequence was also used in the third series.
From the fourth series onwards, the opening sequence was kept generally the same; however, clips from the series used were regularly updated to remove departed characters and keep to date with the show's events. Minor changes to the sequence included the Rover SD1 changing into a Ford Sierra in 1993, which was replaced by a Vauxhall Vectra in 1997. In the 1997 sequence, the Vectra was seen overtaking a Leyland Titan bus, before screeching to a halt, and the main sequence starting. The end credits for the series remained the same, but a new version of "Overkill" was used, also composed by Andy Pask and Charlie Morgan.
On 6 January 1998, starting with "Hard Cash", the third episode of the show's 14th series, the title sequence and theme used for nearly 10 years were scrapped. This time, the title sequence consisted of various police procedural images, including a suspect being shown into a police cell, another suspect being interviewed, and a third posing for mug shot photographs. Clips of any of the actors featured were removed, as was the initial sequence involving the police car racing down the street. Pask and Morgan revamped "Overkill", giving it a jazz feel, with the majority of the theme played by a saxophone. The end credits of the series were also completely revamped. This time, the credits featured various images of the Metropolitan Police uniform, combined with images of a feet tapping on a kerb. A longer version of "Overkill" was also used in the final credits, this time composed by Mark Russell. These opening and closing sequences were used for nearly three years, although both saw minor updates on 11 February 1999. The text sequence at the very start of the opening sequence was changed into a different font, and the images of the police uniform and feet tapping on a curb were removed from the closing sequence to make way for a preview of the next episode. The closing sequence remained this way until 16 February 2001, but the opening titles were once again updated in September 2000 to remove certain images from the sequence to make it shorter. It is also noted that during this period, a 'previously on The Bill' segment was aired before the title sequence, to inform views what had occurred in the last episode.
On 20 February 2001, starting with "Going Under", the 14th episode of the show's 17th series, the opening and closing sequences were once again scrapped to make way for a completely new sequence and theme. This time, the opening sequence consisted of a montage image of the entire cast, backed by a darker, slower version of "Overkill". The closing credits featured a montage of various police-related images, also backed by the new version of "Overkill". The opening sequence was designed by the visuals company "Blue", and the new arrangement of "Overkill" was produced by Miles Bould and Mike Westergaard. These titles remained essentially the same for two years, with two small updates. The font used on the closing credits was changed towards the end of 2001, and the characters featured in the opening sequence were updated in May 2002, to remove characters who had departed, and include new characters. These titles were broadcast from Episode No. 017, and are notable as several of the characters in these titles had not yet appeared in the show. DS Samantha Nixon appeared in the titles from Episode No. 017, but did not first appear until Episode No. 038, some four months later.
On 26 February 2003, starting with Episode No. 091, the opening and closing sequences were once again updated. This time, the opening sequence consisted of several generic police images, such as a police car and uniform. A new arrangement of "Overkill", made by Lawrence Oakley, was also used for both the opening and closing sequences. The background of the closing sequence, designed by company "Roisin at Blue", was simply a police shade of blue, with all generic images being removed. Throughout its four-year use, these titles were never updated or changed, with the exception of the police shade of blue, which was changed to a dark shade of black in 2006.
On 3 January 2007, starting with Episode No. 471, the opening and closing sequences were once again changed. This time, the opening sequence, for the first time, features an image of the Sun Hill sign, and returns to featuring images of officers in action. This sequence also featured a further new arrangement of "Overkill", once again arranged by Lawrence Oakley. This time, the closing sequence follows a police car on patrol, watching it as it drives through the streets of Sun Hill. These titles were used for nearly two and a half years.
On 23 July 2009, after the programme underwent a major overhaul, the opening sequence and theme were heavily changed. This time, the classic "Overkill" theme was completely removed, and a new theme created by Simba Studios was used. However, producer Jonathan Young stated that echoes of "Overkill" can still be heard in the theme. The opening sequence featured a patrol car driving through the streets of Sun Hill. The closing sequence follows the same patrol car, however, this time, from an overhead view. These titles remained the same until the show's final episode, where the theme tune was replaced by a final version of "Overkill", in homage to the show.
When The Bill was first commissioned as a series by ITV, it started with 12 episodes per year, each an hour long with a separate storyline. In 1988 the format changed to year-round broadcast with two 30-minute episodes per week. In 1993 this expanded to three 30-minute episodes per week. In 1998 the broadcast format changed to two one hour episodes each week. Episodes were now recorded in 16:9 widescreenDigibeta. In 2009 The Bill began broadcasting in HD and as part of a major revamp, was reduced to broadcasting once a week.The Bill finished in 2010, with 2425 episodes broadcast.
The Bill has broadcast two live episodes. The first was in 2003 to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the pilot, Woodentop. The second was in 2005 to celebrate the 50th birthday of ITV.
The live episode in 2003 was episode No. 162, originally broadcast on 30 October 2003 at 8pm, and produced with a crew of 200 staff including seven camera crews. It was reported to be the first live television broadcast of a programme where filming was not largely confined to a studio.Detective ConstableJuliet Becker and Constable Cathy Bradford are being held hostage by a man called Mark in a van in the station yard. Bradford raises the custody suite alarm. When the rest of the station arrive outside, Mark makes it known that he intends to kill Becker. The police get permission to break into the carrier, only to find that Juliet has been stabbed. She is rushed to hospital, but attempts to resuscitate her fail. The episode was watched by around 11 million viewers. This special was later released onto DVD in United Kingdom 31 October 2011, as part of Network DVD's "Soap Box: Volume 1".
The live episode in 2005 was episode No. 349, broadcast on 22 September 2005 at 8pm. In this episode, it was revealed that PC Gabriel Kent had assumed a false identity. It is revealed that he has been operating under his brother's name and is, in fact, David Kent. In this episode the "real" Gabriel Kent arrived in Sun Hill to meet his mother, Sergeant June Ackland. In this episode, Sun Hill police station is hosting a reception party and, as the police arrive, they are taken hostage by a distraught father whose son was killed by a stolen car. A struggle ensues in which a shot is fired, alerting others in the building the incident. After an evacuation of the station, Superintendent Amanda Prosser encourages PC Dan Casper to attempt to overpower the man. As he does so, both Casper and the real Gabriel Kent are shot. The real Gabriel Kent is rushed to hospital where the false Gabriel Kent threatens him to keep the identity switch a secret.
A series of special episodes titled The Bill Uncovered were produced to reflect the stories of select characters and events. The first was The Bill Uncovered : Des and Reg (2004) – The story of the unusual friendship between PC Des Taviner and PC Reg Hollis, traversing their history from Des's first day at Sun Hill to his death in a Sun Hill cell.
The second was The Bill Uncovered : Kerry's Story (2004), the story of PC Kerry Young, who met her death outside Sun Hill. The third special was The Bill Uncovered : Jim's Story (2005), the story of DC Jim Carver – from his first day at Sun Hill (in the pilot "Woodentop"). The last was The Bill Uncovered: On The Front Line (2006), in which Superintendent Adam Okaro recounts the extraordinary events that have surrounded Sun Hill over his time in charge. A review of the second of these specials criticised the "increasingly degenerative plotlines" of the series, and characterised the special as a "cheerless outing" covering The Bill's "travesties of plot". All four editions of The Bill Uncovered were released on DVD in Australia as part of The Bill Series 26 DVD boxset, 30 April 2014.
In 2008, a special programme called "The Bill Made Me Famous" in light of the show's 25th anniversary was broadcast, which saw former actors and special guest stars telling their accounts of working on the show and how it changed their lives. It included old favourites such as Billy Murray (DSDon Beech), Chris Ellison (DIFrank Burnside) and popular TV personalities such as Paul O'Grady and Les Dennis.
Following The Bill's final episode on 31 August 2010, a one-hour special titled Farewell The Bill was broadcast. The special explored the history of the series and gave viewers a behind the scenes look at the filming of the last episode. This special was later released onto DVD in Australia 5 October 2011, along with the last two-part episode "Respect".
The Bill had a large regular cast to support the number of episodes that were produced each year. Working on The Bill had become something of a comical joke in British acting, with 174 actors having formed part of the series' main cast since the series began. A number of cast members have played multiple roles in the series, and in other British soap operas and dramas.
Notable cast members
There are numerous actors who have either appeared on The Bill for some considerable length of time, or on whose careers The Bill has made a significant impact. The following is a concise list of the most notable, an expanded version is available at List of characters of The Bill.
Mark Wingett played PC, then DC, later promoted to DS, Jim Carver from 1983 to 2007. After his marriage to June Ackland collapsed and he built up gambling debts, the character left Sun Hill. Since leaving, Wingett has also appeared in EastEnders.
Eric Richard played Sergeant Bob Cryer from 1984 to 2001, the character leaving after being injured when he was accidentally shot by then PC Dale Smith. The character later made brief re-appearances in the series, including in one storyline involving his niece Roberta who later joined the station. Prior to appearing in The Bill, Richard appeared in a number of TV programmes including Open All Hours, Made in Britain and Shoestring.
Kevin Lloyd played DC Tosh Lines from 1988 to 1998. The character was written out as having accepted a position in the Coroner's Office after Lloyd was sacked for turning up for work drunk. Lloyd died a week after his dismissal.
Jeff Stewart played PC Reg Hollis from 1984 to 2008. The character was written out after resigning under the grounds of being traumatised by the death of colleagues in a bomb blast. After learning of his axing from the show, Stewart attempted suicide on set by slashing his wrists.
Graham Cole played PC Tony Stamp from 1987 to 2009. The character was written out of the series, taking up a driving instructor's post at Hendon, as part of the show's revamp, after producers felt that he didn't fit the style of the new show. Cole's last episode was shown on 5 November 2009 and his departure meant the end of a 22-year association with the programme.
Trudie Goodwin played PC, later promoted to Sergeant, June Ackland from 1983 to 2007, appearing first in Woodentop. The character retired in 2007 after her on-screen relationship with DC Jim Carver came to an abrupt end. When Goodwin left The Bill in 2007 she was not only the longest serving cast member in the history of The Bill, but also held the world record for the longest time an actor has portrayed a police character.
Chris Simmons played DC Mickey Webb from 2000 to 2010. He appeared twice on the show playing different roles, most notably as a criminals in 1998-99, before joining the cast as a regular in the following year. He left the series temporarily in 2003, as the culmination of a storyline where his character was raped. He made several guest appearances before returning as a regular in 2005.
Notable guest stars
The constant need for minor characters, normally appeared in only a single episode, inevitably led to numerous high-profile actors and actresses having guest roles in The Bill. The following actors appeared in the show at least once.
The Bill was a popular drama in the United Kingdom and in many other countries, most notably in Australia.
The series attracted audiences of up to six million viewers in 2008 and 2009. Ratings during 2002 peaked after the overhaul of the show which brought about the 2002 fire episode, in which six officers were killed, and the 2003 live episode attracted 10 million viewers — 40% of the UK audience share. Immediately following The Bill's revamping and time slot change, it was reported that the programme had attracted 4.5 million viewers, 19% of the audience share, but it lost out in the ratings to the BBC's New Tricks, with the Daily Mirror later reporting that ITV's schedule change was behind a two million viewer drop in ratings.
In 2001, prior to Paul Marquess's appointment as executive producer, ratings had dropped to approximately six million viewers, and advertising revenues had fallen, in part due to the ageing demographic of its viewers, leading ITV to order a "rejuvenation", which saw the series adopt a serial format.
In 2002, The Independent reported that The Bill's Thursday episode was viewed by approximately 7 million people, a fall of approximately 3 million viewers in the space of six months. After the cast clearout resulting from the Sun Hill fire in April 2002, BBC News reported that the show attracted 8.6 million viewers, the highest figure for the year to that point, and by October 2003, the program had around 8 million viewers each week.
In 2005, The Bill was averaging around 11 million viewers, in comparison to Coronation Street, which was attracting around 10 million viewers.
In 2009, The Daily Mirror reported that The Bill was to be moved to a post-watershed slot to allow it to cover grittier storylines. It was reported that it was the first time in British Television that ITV had broadcast a drama all year in the 9pm slot. The changeover happened at the end of July 2009. Before the move, the program was averaging 5 million viewers between the two episodes each week. BARB reported that the week of 12–18 October 2009 saw 3.78 million viewers watch the show.
In 2010, The Bill was nominated for a Royal Television Society award for Best Soap/Continuing Drama, beating both Coronation Street and Emmerdale on to the nominations list. The only soap to be nominated was EastEnders and the results were announced on 16 March 2010. In 2009 an episode of The Bill won the Knights of Illumination Award for Lighting Design- Drama.
Impact and history
It has been compared to Hill Street Blues due to the similar, serial, format that both series take. However, The Bill has seen little direct competition on British television in the police proceduralgenre over its 25-year history, though the BBC has twice launched rival series. The first was Merseybeat, which ran from 2001 but was cancelled in 2004 due to poor ratings and problems with the cast. The second, HolbyBlue, launched in 2007, was a spin-off of successful medical drama Holby City (itself a spin-off of the long-running Casualty). It was scheduled to go "head to head" with The Bill, prompting a brief "ratings war" but, in 2008, HolbyBlue was also cancelled by the BBC, again, largely due to poor ratings.
When The Bill started, the majority of the Police Federation were opposed to the programme, claiming that it portrayed the police as a racist organisation, but feelings towards the programme later mellowed, to the extent that, in 2006, executive producer, Johnathan Young, met Sir Ian Blair, then Commissioner of the Met, and it was decided that the editorial relationship between the police and the programme was sufficient. However, Young stressed that The Bill is not "editorially bound" to the police.
Despite better relations with the police, The Bill was still not without controversy. It was sometimes criticised for the high levels of violence, especially prior to 2009, when it occupied a pre-watershed timeslot. Specific story lines also came under fire in the media, such as that involving a gay kiss in 2002, as well as an episode broadcast in March 2008 which featured a fictional treatment for multiple sclerosis, leading the MS Society to brand the plot "grossly irresponsible".
The series was also criticised by the tabloid press for replacing the iconic theme tune as part of a revamping effort.
Spin-offs and related series
During its 27-year-run, The Bill spawned several spin-off productions and related series in German and Dutch languages, as well as a series of documentaries. The following is a list of the most notable of these.
Bureau Kruislaan: Dutch interpretation of the series. Produced by Joop van den Ende for VARA Television, the programme lasted for four series running from 1992 to 1995. In 1995, the show was nominated for the Gouden Televizier Ring, an award for the best television programme in the Netherlands. All four series of the show have been released on DVD there.
Die Wache: German interpretation of the series. As decent script-writers were hard to find at the time, the German producers were given the licence to utilise (re-use) scripts from the British series. The series was produced by RTL Television, running for nearly 250 episodes from 1994 to 2006.
Burnside: Spin-off from the main British series, following ex-DI Frank Burnside in his transfer and promotion to the National Crime Squad. The programme lasted for just a single series of six episodes, debuting in the UK on 6 July 2000. The series was created and produced by Richard Handford. On 8 October 2008, the series was released on DVD in Australia in a three-disc-set.
MIT: Murder Investigation Team: Spin-off from the main British series. Lasting for two series, the drama began with a group of MIT officers investigating the drive-by shooting of Sgt. Matthew Boyden, who had been at Sun Hill for eleven years. The first series consisted of eight one-hour episodes. The second series consisted of four ninety-minute episodes. The series was created by Paul Marquess, produced by Johnathan Young and starred ex-Bill DS Eva Sharpe (Diane Parish).
Collage of images of DI Frank Burnside, PC June Ackland, DC Jim Carver and DC Mike Dashwood against a blue subframe
The Bill: The Inside Story Of British Television's Most Successful Police Series (Retitled The Bill: The Inside Story Of The Most Successful Police Series Ever Seen On ABC TV for Australian publication)
31 October 1991 (Hardback) 25 June 1992 (Paperback)
Full-size image of PCs June Ackland and Claire Brind, surrounded by a collage of images of Insp. Andrew Monroe, DI Frank Burnside, Sgt. Bob Cryer and DS Ted Roach, set against a black background
31 October 1994 (Hardback) 31 July 1995 (Paperback)
Collage of images of PCs Tony Stamp, Reg Hollis, Norika Datta, Steve Loxton and Dave Quinnan, DCs Jim Carver and Tosh Lines, and DIs Frank Burnside and Sally Johnson, set against a blue background (Hardback) A photo of the entire cast from the 1994–1995 series (Paperback)
An act of parliament, also called primary legislation, are statutes passed by a parliament (legislature). Act of the Oireachtas is an equivalent term used in the Republic of Ireland where the legislature is commonly known by its Irish name, Oireachtas. It is also comparable to an Act of Congress in the United States.
The Bill of Rights, also known as the English Bill of Rights, is an Act of the Parliament of England that sets out certain basic civil rights and clarifies who would be next to inherit the Crown. It received the Royal Assent on 16 December 1689 and is a restatement in statutory form of the Declaration of Right presented by the Convention Parliament to William III and Mary II in February 1689, inviting them to become joint sovereigns of England. The Bill of Rights lays down limits on the powers of the monarch and sets out the rights of Parliament, including the requirement for regular parliaments, free elections, and freedom of speech in Parliament. It sets out certain rights of individuals including the prohibition of cruel and unusual punishment and reestablished the right of Protestants to have arms for their defence within the rule of law. Furthermore, the Bill of Rights described and condemned several misdeeds of James II of England.These ideas reflected those of the political thinker John Locke and they quickly became popular in England. It also sets out – or, in the view of its drafters, restates – certain constitutional requirements of the Crown to seek the consent of the people, as represented in Parliament.In the United Kingdom, the Bill of Rights is further accompanied by Magna Carta, the Petition of Right, the Habeas Corpus Act 1679 and the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949 as some of the basic documents of the uncodified British constitution. A separate but similar document, the Claim of Right Act 1689, applies in Scotland. The Bill of Rights 1689 was one of the inspirations for the United States Bill of Rights.
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The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Pub.L. 88–352, 78 Stat. 241, enacted July 2, 1964) is a landmark civil rights and U.S. labor law in the United States that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. It prohibits unequal application of voter registration requirements, and racial segregation in schools, employment, and public accommodations.
Powers given to enforce the act were initially weak, but were supplemented during later years. Congress asserted its authority to legislate under several different parts of the United States Constitution, principally its power to regulate interstate commerce under Article One (section 8), its duty to guarantee all citizens equal protection of the laws under the Fourteenth Amendment, and its duty to protect voting rights under the Fifteenth Amendment.
The legislation had been proposed by U.S. President John F. Kennedy in June 1963, but opposed by filibuster in the Senate. After Kennedy was assassinated in November 1963, U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson pushed the bill forward, which in its final form was passed in the U.S. Congress by a Senate vote of 73–27 and House vote of 289–126. The Act was signed into law by President Johnson on July 2, 1964, at the White House.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known internationally as the UK Parliament, British Parliament, or Westminster Parliament, and domestically simply as Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and the British Overseas Territories. It alone possesses legislative supremacy and thereby ultimate power over all other political bodies in the UK and the overseas territories. Parliament is bicameral but has three parts, consisting of the Sovereign (the Queen-in-Parliament), the House of Lords, and the House of Commons (the primary chamber). The two houses meet in the Palace of Westminster in the City of Westminster, one of the inner boroughs of the capital city, London.
The House of Lords includes two different types of members: the Lords Spiritual, consisting of the most senior bishops of the Church of England, and the Lords Temporal, consisting mainly of life peers, appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the Prime Minister, and of 92 hereditary peers, sitting either by virtue of holding a royal office, or by being elected by their fellow hereditary peers. Prior to the opening of the Supreme Court in October 2009, the House of Lords also performed a judicial role through the Law Lords.
The House of Commons is an elected chamber with elections to 650 single member constituencies held at least every five years under the first-past-the-post system. The two Houses meet in separate chambers in the Palace of Westminster (commonly known as the Houses of Parliament) in London. By constitutional convention, all government ministers, including the Prime Minister, are members of the House of Commons or, less commonly, the House of Lords and are thereby accountable to the respective branches of the legislature. Most cabinet ministers are from the Commons, whilst junior ministers can be from either House. However, the Leader of the House of Lords must be a peer.
The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Treaty of Union by Acts of Union passed by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland, both Acts of Union stating, "That the United Kingdom of Great Britain be represented by one and the same Parliament to be styled The Parliament of Great Britain". At the start of the 19th century, Parliament was further enlarged by Acts of Union ratified by the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland that abolished the latter and added 100 Irish MPs and 32 Lords to the former to create the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927 formally amended the name to the "Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland", five years after the secession of the Irish Free State in 1922.
With the global expansion of the British Empire, the UK Parliament has shaped the political systems of many countries as ex-colonies and so it has been called the "Mother of Parliaments". However, John Bright – who coined the epithet – used it in reference to the political culture of "England" rather than just the parliamentary system.In theory, the UK's supreme legislative power is officially vested in the Crown-in-Parliament. However, the Crown normally acts on the advice of the Prime Minister and the powers of the House of Lords are limited to only delaying legislation; thus power is de facto vested in the House of Commons.
The United States Bill of Rights comprises the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. Proposed following the often bitter 1787–88 debate over ratification of Constitution, and written to address the objections raised by Anti-Federalists, the Bill of Rights amendments add to the Constitution specific guarantees of personal freedoms and rights, clear limitations on the government's power in judicial and other proceedings, and explicit declarations that all powers not specifically granted to the U.S. Congress by the Constitution are reserved for the states or the people. The concepts codified in these amendments are built upon those found in earlier documents, especially the Virginia Declaration of Rights (1776), as well as the English Bill of Rights (1689) and the Magna Carta (1215).Due largely to the efforts of Representative James Madison, who studied the deficiencies of the constitution pointed out by anti-federalists and then crafted a series of corrective proposals, Congress approved twelve articles of amendment on September 25, 1789, and submitted them to the states for ratification. Contrary to Madison's proposal that the proposed amendments be incorporated into the main body of the Constitution (at the relevant articles and sections of the document), they were proposed as supplemental additions (codicils) to it. Articles Three through Twelve were ratified as additions to the Constitution on December 15, 1791, and became Amendments One through Ten of the Constitution. Article Two became part of the Constitution on May 5, 1992, as the Twenty-seventh Amendment. Article One is still pending before the states.
Although Madison's proposed amendments included a provision to extend the protection of some of the Bill of Rights to the states, the amendments that were finally submitted for ratification applied only to the federal government. The door for their application upon state governments was opened in the 1860s, following ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment. Since the early 20th century both federal and state courts have used the Fourteenth Amendment to apply portions of the Bill of Rights to state and local governments. The process is known as incorporation.There are several original engrossed copies of the Bill of Rights still in existence. One of these is on permanent public display at the National Archives in Washington, D.C.
A veto (Latin for "I forbid") is the power (used by an officer of the state, for example) to unilaterally stop an official action, especially the enactment of legislation. A veto can be absolute, as for instance in the United Nations Security Council, whose permanent members (China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, and the United States of America) can block any resolution, or it can be limited, as in the legislative process of the United States, where a two-thirds vote in both the House and Senate will override a Presidential veto of legislation. A veto may give power only to stop changes (thus allowing its holder to protect the status quo), like the US legislative veto, or to also adopt them (an "amendatory veto"), like the legislative veto of the Indian President, which allows him to propose amendments to bills returned to the Parliament for reconsideration.
The concept of a veto body originated with the Roman consuls and tribunes. Either of the two consuls holding office in a given year could block a military or civil decision by the other; any tribune had the power to unilaterally block legislation passed by the Roman Senate.
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