The Atlanta Journal-Constitution

The Atlanta Journal-Constitution (AJC) is the only major daily newspaper in the metropolitan area of Atlanta, Georgia, United States. It is the flagship publication of Cox Enterprises. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution is the result of the merger between The Atlanta Journal and The Atlanta Constitution.[2] The two staffs were combined in 1982. Separate publication of the morning Constitution and afternoon Journal ended in 2001 in favor of a single morning paper under the Journal-Constitution name.[3]

The AJC has its headquarters in the Atlanta suburb of Dunwoody, Georgia. It is co-owned with television flagship WSB-TV and six radio stations, which are located separately in midtown Atlanta. Past issues of the newspaper are archived in the United States Library of Congress.

The Atlanta Journal-Constitution
Prototype of The Atlanta Journal-Constitution redesign
TypeDaily newspaper
Owner(s)Cox Enterprises
EditorKevin Riley
FoundedConstitution: 1868
Journal: 1883
Journal-Constitution: 2001
HeadquartersDunwoody, Georgia
Circulation231,094 (as of March 13, 2012)[1]

The Atlanta Journal

The Atlanta Journal was established in 1883. Founder E.F. Hoge sold the paper to Atlanta lawyer Hoke Smith in 1887. After the Journal supported Presidential candidate Grover Cleveland in the 1892 election, Smith was named as Secretary of the Interior by the victorious Cleveland. Pulitzer Prize-winning novelist Margaret Mitchell worked for the Journal from 1922 to 1926. Important for the development of her 1936 Gone With the Wind were the series of profiles of prominent Georgia Civil War generals she wrote for The Atlanta Journal's Sunday magazine, the research for which, scholars believe, led her to her work on the novel. In 1922, the Journal founded one of the first radio broadcasting stations in the South, WSB. The radio station and the newspaper were sold in 1939 to James Middleton Cox, founder of what would become Cox Enterprises. The Journal carried the motto "Covers Dixie like the Dew".

The Atlanta Constitution

Constitution building 1890
Atlanta Constitution Building
Atlanta Constitution Building, in abandoned state (1995, Historic American Buildings Survey image.)

The Constitution, as it was originally known, was first published on June 16, 1868. Its name changed to The Atlanta Constitution in October 1869.[4] It was such a force that by 1871 it had overwhelmed the Daily Intelligencer, the only Atlanta paper to survive the American Civil War. In August 1875 its name changed to The Atlanta Daily Constitution for two weeks, then to The Constitution again for about a year.[5] In 1876 Captain Evan Howell (a former Intelligencer city editor) purchased a controlling interest from E.Y. Clarke Sr. and became its editor-in-chief. That same year, Joel Chandler Harris began writing for the paper. He soon created the character of Uncle Remus, a black storyteller, as a way of recounting stories from African-American culture.

Articles by and photo of Charlotte Perkins Gilman in 1916
Charlotte Perkins Gilman (pictured) wrote these articles about feminism for the Atlanta Constitution, published on December 10, 1916.

In October 1876 the newspaper was renamed as The Daily Constitution, before settling on the name The Atlanta Constitution in September 1881.[6] During the 1880s, editor Henry W. Grady was a spokesman for the "New South", encouraging industrial development as well as the founding of Georgia Tech in Atlanta.

The Constitution established one of the first radio broadcasting stations, WGM, which began operating on March 17, 1922, two days after the debut of the Journal's WSB. However, WGM ceased operations after just over a year. Its equipment was donated to what was then known as Georgia School of Technology, which used it to help launch WBBF (later WGST, now WGKA AM 920) in January 1924.[7]

WCON Atlanta advertisement (1948)
1948 advertisement for the Constitution's AM radio station WCON.

In late 1947, the Constitution established radio station WCON (AM 550).[8] Subsequently, it received approval to begin operating an FM station, WCON-FM 98.5 mHz, and a TV station, WCON-TV, on channel 2.

But the 1950 merger with the Journal required major adjustments. Contemporary Federal Communications Commission "duopoly" regulations disallowed owning more than one AM, FM or TV station in a given market, and the Atlanta Journal already owned WSB AM 750 and WSB-FM 104.5, as well as WSB-TV on channel 8. In order to comply with the duopoly restrictions, WCON and the original WSB-FM were shut down.[9] The WCON-TV construction permit was canceled, and WSB-TV was allowed to move from channel 8 to channel 2.[10] In addition, in order to standardize with its sister stations, WCON-FM's call letters were changed to WSB-FM.

Ralph McGill, editor for the Constitution in the 1940s, was one of the few southern newspaper editors to support the American Civil Rights Movement. Other noteworthy editors of The Atlanta Constitution include J. Reginald Murphy. "Reg" Murphy gained notoriety after being kidnapped in 1974. Murphy later moved to the West Coast and served as editor of the San Francisco Examiner.

From the 1970s until his death in 1994, Lewis Grizzard was a popular humor columnist for the Constitution. He portrayed Southern "redneck" culture with a mixture of ridicule and respect.

The Constitution won numerous Pulitzer Prizes. In 1931 it won a Pulitzer Prize for Public Service for exposing corruption at the local level. In 1959, The Constitution won a Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Writing for Ralph McGill's editorial "A Church, A School....". In 1967 it was awarded another Pulitzer Prize for Eugene Patterson's editorials. (Patterson later left his post as editor over a dispute over an op-ed piece.) In 1960, Jack Nelson won the Pulitzer Prize for local reporting, by exposing abuses at Milledgeville State Hospital for the mentally ill.

Even after newsrooms were combined in 1982, the papers were published in independent editions. In 1988 the Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartooning went to the Constitution's Doug Marlette. Editorial cartoonist Mike Luckovich received Pulitzer Prizes in 1995 and 2006. Cynthia Tucker received a 2007 Pulitzer Prize for Commentary.


Cox Enterprises bought the Constitution in June 1950, bringing both newspapers under one ownership and combining sales and administrative offices. Separate newsrooms were kept until 1982. Both newspapers continued to be published for another two decades, with much of the same content except for timely editing. The Journal, an afternoon paper, led the morning Constitution until the 1970s, when afternoon papers began to fall out of favor with subscribers. In November 2001, the two papers, which were once fierce competitors, merged to produce one daily morning paper, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. The two papers had published a combined edition on weekends and holidays for years previously.

Prior to the merger, both papers planned to start TV stations: WSB-TV on channel 8 for the Journal, and WCON-TV on channel 2 for the Constitution. Only WSB got on the air (making it the first TV station in the South), moving from channel 8 to WCON's allotment on channel 2 in 1951 to avoid TV interference from the nearby channel 9. (WROM-TV since moved, leaving WGTV on 8, after it was also used by WLWA-TV, now WXIA-TV 11.) This was also necessary to satisfy Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rules preventing the excessive concentration of media ownership, preventing the combined paper from running two stations.

In 1989, Bill Dedman received the Pulitzer Prize for Investigative Reporting for The Color of Money, his exposé on racial discrimination in mortgage lending, or redlining, by Atlanta banks.[11] The newspapers' editor, Bill Kovach, had resigned in November 1988 after the stories on banks and others had ruffled feathers in Atlanta and among corporate leadership, some of whom complained of a "take-no-prisoners" editorial approach.[12]

In 1993, Mike Toner received the Pulitzer Prize for Explanatory Reporting for When Bugs Fight Back, his series about organisms and their resistance to antibiotics and pesticides.

Julia Wallace was named the first female editor of The Atlanta Journal-Constitution in 2002. She was named Editor of the Year 2004 by Editor & Publisher magazine.[13]

Mike Luckovich won the Pulitzer Prize for Editorial cartooning a second time in 2006. He had first received it in 1995 under The Atlanta Constitution banner.


The paper used to cover all 159 counties in Georgia, and the bordering counties of western North Carolina, where many Atlantans vacation or have second homes. In addition it had some circulation in other bordering communities, such as Tallahassee, Florida, where the Sunday AJC was available. Due to the downturn in the newspaper industry and competing media sources, the AJC contracted distribution dramatically in the late 2000s to serve only the metro area.[14] From Q1 of 2007 to Q1 of 2010, daily circulation plunged over 44%.[15]


The AJC has its headquarters in Perimeter Center, an office district of Dunwoody, Georgia.[16] Previously the AJC headquarters were in Downtown Atlanta near the Five Points district.[17] In August 2009, the AJC occupied less than 30 percent of its downtown building, which had become outdated and costly to maintain. Later that year, the AJC consolidated its printing operations by transferring the downtown production center to the Gwinnett County facility. In 2010 the newspaper relocated its headquarters to leased offices in Dunwoody, a northern suburb of Atlanta.[16] In November 2010, the company donated its former downtown headquarters to the city of Atlanta, which plans to convert the building into a fire and police training academy.[17]


The AJC has four major sections daily. On Sundays, it has additional sections. The main section usually consists of Georgia news, national news, international news, and business news. The Metro section includes major headlines from the Metro-Atlanta area. The Metro section usually reports the weather forecast. The Sports section reports sports-related news. Before social media became popular, the Metro and Sports sections contained "The Vent" features, where readers expressed opinions about current events.[18] The Living section contains articles, recipes, reviews, movie times, and puzzles including Sudoku, crossword puzzle, and word scramble; plus a full page of color comics daily. Comics are printed in a separate section in Sunday editions.

See also


  1. ^ "Top 25 U.S. Newspapers for March 2013". Archived from the original on September 25, 2015. Retrieved October 16, 2015.
  2. ^ "The Atlanta Constitution". Fishwrap. 16 June 2018. Retrieved 16 June 2018.
  3. ^ "Atlanta Journal, Atlanta Constitution to Combine". The Write News. October 17, 2001. Retrieved January 26, 2014.
  4. ^ "About The Constitution. (Atlanta, Ga.) 1868–1869". Chronicling America. Library of Congress. Retrieved January 18, 2011.
  5. ^ "About The Constitution. (Atlanta, Ga.) 1875–1876". Chronicling America. Library of Congress. Retrieved January 18, 2011.
  6. ^ "About The Atlanta Constitution. (Atlanta, Ga.) 1881–2001". Chronicling America. Library of Congress. Retrieved January 18, 2011.
  7. ^ "Tech Sends First Message To Radio Fans of America" by Parks Rusk, Atlanta Constitution, January 15, 1924, page 1.
  8. ^ "WCON, 7th Atlanta AM Outlet, To Encourage Local Talent" The Billboard, October 25, 1947, page 10.
  9. ^ "FCC Roundup: Deletions", Broadcasting, 3 July 1950, page 76.
  10. ^ "Atlanta Merger", Broadcasting, 10 April 1950, p. 50.
  11. ^ Dedman, Bill (ed.). "The Color of Money". Power Reporting. Retrieved January 4, 2014.
  12. ^ Albert Scardino (November 5, 1988). "Atlanta Editor Resigns After Dispute". New York Times.
  13. ^ Fitzgerald, Mark (February 1, 2005). "Editor of the Year 2004: Being Julia, In Atlanta". Editor & Publisher. Retrieved September 23, 2015.
  14. ^ "AJC announces more cuts to jobs and circulation". Atlanta Business Chronicle. December 10, 2008. Retrieved September 23, 2015.
  15. ^ Smith, Giannina (November 5, 2007). "Report: AJC's spring and summer circulation plunges". Atlanta Business Chronicle. Retrieved September 23, 2015.
  16. ^ a b Collier, Joe Guy (August 17, 2009). "AJC moving from downtown to Perimeter Mall area". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved October 23, 2009.
  17. ^ a b Tobin, Rachel (November 9, 2010). "Former AJC headquarters given to city of Atlanta". The Atlanta-Journal Constitution. Retrieved January 26, 2014.
  18. ^ Robin M. Kowalski, Aversive Interpersonal Behaviors, 2013, p. 99 1475793545 Quote: "The Atlanta Constitution, for instance, has a column entitled "The Vent" that contains people's complaints."

Further reading

  • Merrill, John C. and Harold A. Fisher. The world's great dailies: profiles of fifty newspapers (1980) pp 68–72
  • Perry, Chuck. 2004. "Atlanta Journal-Constitution". New Georgia Encyclopedia Georgia Humanities Council.

External links

2016 Atlanta Braves season

The 2016 Atlanta Braves season was the Braves' 20th and last season of home games at Turner Field before moving to SunTrust Park, 51st season in Atlanta and 146th season overall. They finished in last place in the National League East Division.

The Braves played 22 extra-inning games during the season, the most of any MLB team in 2016.

2016 United States Senate election in Georgia

The 2016 United States Senate election in Georgia was held November 8, 2016, to elect a member of the United States Senate to represent the State of Georgia, concurrently with the 2016 U.S. presidential election, as well as other elections to the United States Senate in other states and elections to the United States House of Representatives and various state and local elections. The primary election for the Republican and Democratic parties took place on May 24, 2016.Incumbent Republican Senator Johnny Isakson won re-election to a third term in office.

2017 Atlanta Braves season

The 2017 Atlanta Braves season was the Braves' 52nd season in Atlanta and 147th overall. This was the Braves' first season at SunTrust Park, after playing the previous 20 seasons at Turner Field. The Braves began the season on April 3 at Citi Field against the New York Mets and finished the season on October 1 against the Miami Marlins at Marlins Park. On September 22, 2017, the Braves were eliminated from postseason play. They finished the season 72–90 to finish in third place in the National League East Division, 25 games behind the Washington Nationals. They failed to make the playoffs for the fourth consecutive season.

2018 Georgia elections

A general election was held in the U.S. state of Georgia on November 6, 2018. All of Georgia's executive officers were up for election as well as all of Georgia's fourteen seats in the United States House of Representatives. Neither U.S. Senate seat was up for election in 2018.

Atlanta United FC

Atlanta United FC, commonly known as Atlanta United, is an American professional soccer club based in Atlanta, Georgia that competes in Major League Soccer (MLS) as a member of the league's Eastern Conference and the most recent winner of the MLS Cup.

Founded in 2014, Atlanta United began play as an MLS expansion team in 2017, as the twenty-second team in the league. It is the first MLS franchise to be based in Atlanta, and the club plays home games at the Mercedes-Benz Stadium, which they share with the city's National Football League (NFL) franchise, the Atlanta Falcons. Both are owned by Arthur Blank, co-founder of The Home Depot. The club also owns Atlanta United 2, a reserve team that competes in the USL Championship (USLC).

Gerardo "Tata" Martino was appointed as the club's first head coach, and guided Atlanta to their first playoff appearance in the team's debut season, before securing the team's first trophy in just their second season by winning MLS Cup 2018.

Based on 2018 regular season attendance, Atlanta has one of the largest fanbases in MLS, and they have set several league records for highest single-match and average attendance. In 2018, Forbes estimated the franchise was the most valuable in the league, worth more than $300 million.

Bill Dedman

Bill Dedman (born 1960) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning American journalist, an investigative reporter for Newsday, and co-author of the biography of reclusive heiress Huguette Clark, Empty Mansions: The Mysterious Life of Huguette Clark and the Spending of a Great American Fortune.Often relying on public records as much as insider accounts, Dedman has reported and written influential investigative articles on racial discrimination by mortgage lenders, racial profiling by police, interrogation of detainees at the Guantanamo Bay detention camp, and efforts to understand and prevent school shootings. His work includes one of the early examinations, in 1990, of the cover-up by the Roman Catholic Church of allegations of child sexual abuse by a priest.In 1989, Dedman received the Pulitzer Prize for Investigative Reporting for The Color of Money, his series of articles in 1988 in Bill Kovach's The Atlanta Journal-Constitution on racial discrimination by banks and other mortgage lenders in middle-income black neighborhoods. In addition to raising awareness of redlining of minority areas, and leading Congress to expand disclosure of data allowing analysis of racial patterns in mortgage data, The Color of Money was an influential early example of computer-assisted reporting, data journalism, and data-driven journalism.

Celestine Sibley

Celestine Sibley (May 23, 1917 – August 15, 1999) was an American journalist and author based in Atlanta.

Cynthia Tucker

Cynthia Tucker Haynes (formerly known as Cynthia Tucker; born March 13, 1955), is an American journalist whose weekly column is syndicated by Universal Uclick. She received a Pulitzer Prize for Commentary in 2007 for her work at the Atlanta Journal-Constitution, where she served as editorial page editor. She was also a Pulitzer finalist in 2004 and 2006.

Darrin Hancock

Darrin Hancock (born November 3, 1971) is a retired American professional basketball player. In high school and college he was known for his strong offense, while his quick and agile moves to the basket drew comparisons to the likes of Dominique Wilkins. A Parade Magazine and McDonald's All-American standout at Griffin High School (Griffin, GA), Hancock was ranked among the country's best high school basketball players in the late 1980s. He played his first two college seasons at Garden City Community College, where he was considered one of the top junior college recruits in the nation before transferring to the University of Kansas. There he was the starting small forward on the Kansas Jayhawks' Final Four-bound squad in the 1993 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament. Hancock left college after his junior year to play professional basketball and eventually found success in United States semi-pro basketball leagues after several uneventful stints in the NBA. He is considered to be among the best all-time Georgia high school basketball players in the state's history.

David Ralston

David Ralston is an attorney and a Republican member of the Georgia House of Representatives for the 7th district, encompassing parts of Dawson County, Fannin County, and Gilmer County. Since January 11, 2010, he has served as the 73rd Speaker of the Georgia House.

Jim Yardley

James Barrett Yardley (born June 18, 1964) is an American journalist currently working in Rome.

Yardley is a graduate of Walter Hines Page High School in Greensboro, North Carolina and received a B.A. in history from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, class of '86. He joined the Times in 1997 and first worked as a metropolitan reporter in New York, and then became the bureau chief in Houston in 1999. His topics have included social unrest, minority uprisings, and pollution issues in China. He was the South Asia bureau chief based in New Delhi until 2013, when he moved to Rome and became the bureau chief there.From 1990 to 1997, Yardley was a national desk reporter for The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, based in Atlanta, Birmingham and New Orleans.

He also worked for the Anniston Star and New York Times Company regional newspapers in Fairfax County, Virginia. As well, he has written magazine articles for The New York Times Magazine, Oxford American, Essence and Redbook.

Kevin Sack

Kevin Sack, an American journalist, is a senior reporter for The New York Times.Sack shared a Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting in 2001 for a New York Times series on race.While at The Los Angeles Times, he received the 2003 Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting, with Alan Miller, for their revelatory and moving examination of a military aircraft, nicknamed "The Widow Maker," that was linked to the deaths of 45 pilots.He was a member of The New York Times reporting team that received the 2015 Pulitzer Prize for International Reporting for coverage of the 2014 Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa. Team members named by The Times were Pam Belluck, Helene Cooper, Sheri Fink, Adam Nossiter, Norimitsu Onishi, Sack, and Ben C. Solomon.

M. Hoke Smith

Michael Hoke Smith (September 2, 1855 – November 27, 1931) was an American attorney, politician, and newspaper owner who served as United States Secretary of the Interior (1893–1896), 58th Governor of Georgia (1907–1909, 1911), and a United States Senator (1911–1920) from Georgia.

Mercedes-Benz Stadium

Mercedes-Benz Stadium is a multi-purpose retractable-roof stadium located in Atlanta, Georgia, United States. The home of the Atlanta Falcons of the National Football League (NFL) and Atlanta United FC of Major League Soccer (MLS), it replaced the now-demolished Georgia Dome, the Falcons' home stadium from 1992–2016. Mercedes-Benz Stadium holds the record for the world's largest video board at 62,350 square feet (5,793 m2), and is one of five stadiums in the NFL with a retractable roof.The stadium is owned by the state of Georgia through the Georgia World Congress Center Authority, and operated by AMB Group, the parent organization of the Falcons and Atlanta United. The total cost was estimated at US$1.6 billion, as of June 2016. The stadium officially opened on August 26, 2017 with a Falcons preseason game against the Arizona Cardinals, despite the retractable roof system being incomplete at the time. Work on the retractable roof was completed on July 14, 2018.

Mike Luckovich

Michael Edward "Mike" Luckovich (born January 28, 1960) is an editorial cartoonist who has worked for The Atlanta Journal-Constitution since 1989. He is the 2005 winner of the Reuben, the National Cartoonists Society's top award for cartoonist of the year, and is the recipient of two Pulitzer Prizes.

State Farm Arena

State Farm Arena (formerly Philips Arena) is a multi-purpose indoor arena located in Atlanta, Georgia. The arena serves as the home venue for the National Basketball Association (NBA)'s Atlanta Hawks and the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA)'s Atlanta Dream. It also served as home to the National Hockey League's Atlanta Thrashers from 1999 to 2011, before the team moved to Winnipeg. It opened in 1999 at a cost of $213.5 million, replacing the Omni Coliseum. It is owned by the Atlanta Fulton County Recreation Authority and operated by the Hawks, owned by Tony Ressler along with a group of investors including Grant Hill.

SunTrust Park

SunTrust Park is a baseball park located in the Atlanta metropolitan area 10 miles (16 km) northwest of downtown Atlanta in the unincorporated community of Cumberland, in Cobb County, Georgia. It is the home ballpark of the Atlanta Braves of Major League Baseball (MLB). On November 11, 2013, the Braves announced that the franchise would leave Turner Field for a new park after the 2016 season. The Braves have played their home games at SunTrust Park since April 2017.

The new stadium was constructed in a public–private partnership with a project budget of $622 million. Cobb-Marietta Coliseum & Exhibit Hall Authority issued up to $397 million in bonds for the project. The county raised an additional $14 million from transportation taxes, and $10 million cash from businesses in the Cumberland Community Improvement District. The Braves contributed the remaining money for the park and The Battery Atlanta. In March 2015, a security filing from Braves owners Liberty Media allotted $672 million for SunTrust Park and $452 million for The Battery Atlanta, which adds up to a total cost of above $1.1 billion. The Braves will spend $181 million over 30 years to help pay off the county's bonds on the project.The Braves hosted a soft opening for season ticket holders on March 31, 2017, in a preseason game against the New York Yankees. The first regular season game at the park was held on April 14, 2017, against the San Diego Padres.

Tom Price (American politician)

Thomas Edmunds Price (born October 8, 1954) is an American physician and politician who served as the United States Secretary of Health and Human Services in the administration of Donald Trump from February to September 2017, and who was the U.S. Representative for Georgia's 6th congressional district, encompassing the northern suburbs of Atlanta, from 2005 to 2017.While in Congress, Price chaired the House Committee on the Budget, Republican Study Committee and Republican Policy Committee. On September 29, 2017, he resigned as head of HHS following criticism of his use of private charters and military aircraft for travel. In July 2018, the HHS inspector general urged the HHS to recoup at least $341,000 from Price for wasteful expenditures.

Wendell Rawls Jr.

Wendell Lee Rawls Jr. (born August 18, 1941, in Goodlettsville, Tennessee) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning investigative reporter and editor. His career spans 40 years in journalism and media, beginning in 1967 at The (Nashville) Tennessean.

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