The Art of War

The Art of War is an ancient Chinese military treatise dating from the Late Spring and Autumn Period (roughly 5th century BC). The work, which is attributed to the ancient Chinese military strategist Sun Tzu ("Master Sun", also spelled Sunzi), is composed of 13 chapters. Each one is devoted to an aspect of warfare and how it applies to military strategy and tactics. For almost 1,500 years it was the lead text in an anthology that would be formalised as the Seven Military Classics by Emperor Shenzong of Song in 1080. The Art of War remains the most influential strategy text in East Asian warfare[1] and has influenced both Eastern and Western military thinking, business tactics, legal strategy, lifestyles and beyond.

The book contained a detailed explanation and analysis of the Chinese military, from weapons and strategy to rank and discipline. Sun Tzu also stressed the importance of intelligence operatives and espionage to the war effort. Because Sun Tzu has long been considered to be one of history's finest military tacticians and analysts, his teachings and strategies formed the basis of advanced military training for centuries to come.

The book was translated into French and published in 1772 (re-published in 1782) by the French Jesuit Jean Joseph Marie Amiot. A partial translation into English was attempted by British officer Everard Ferguson Calthrop in 1905 under the title The Book of War. The first annotated English translation was completed and published by Lionel Giles in 1910.[2] Military and political leaders such as the Chinese communist revolutionary Mao Zedong, Japanese daimyō Takeda Shingen, Vietnamese general Vo Nguyen Giap, and American military general Norman Schwarzkopf Jr. have drawn inspiration from the book.

The Art of War
Bamboo book - closed - UCR
Author(trad.) Sun Tzu
SubjectMilitary strategy and tactics
Publication date
5th century BC
TextThe Art of War at Wikisource
The Art of War
Traditional Chinese孫子兵法
Simplified Chinese孙子兵法
Literal meaning"Master Sun's Military Methods"


Text and commentaries

The Art of War is traditionally attributed to a military general from the late 6th century BC known as "Master Sun" (Mandarin: "Sunzi", earlier "Sun Tzu"), though its earliest parts probably date to at least 100 years later.[3] Sima Qian's 1st century BC work Records of the Grand Historian (Shiji), the first of China's 24 dynastic histories, records an early Chinese tradition stating that a text on military matters was written by one "Sun Wu" (孫武) from the State of Qi, and that this text had been read and studied by King Helü of Wu (r. 514–495 BC).[4] This text was traditionally identified with the received Master Sun's Art of War. The conventional view—which is still widely held in China—was that Sun Wu was a military theorist from the end of the Spring and Autumn period (776–471 BC) who fled his home state of Qi to the southeastern kingdom of Wu, where he is said to have impressed the king with his ability to train even dainty palace ladies in warfare and to have made Wu's armies powerful enough to challenge their western rivals in the state of Chu.[5]

The prominent strategist, poet, and warlord Cao Cao in the early 3rd century AD authored the earliest known commentary to the Art of War.[4] Cao's preface makes clear that he edited the text and removed certain passages, but the extent of his changes were unclear historically.[4] The Art of War appears throughout the bibliographical catalogs of the Chinese dynastic histories, but listings of its divisions and size varied widely.[4] In the early 20th century, the Chinese writer and reformer Liang Qichao theorized that the text was actually written in the 4th century BC by Sunzi's purported descendant Sun Bin, as a number of historical sources mention a military treatise he wrote.[4]


Around the 12th century, some scholars began to doubt the historical existence of Sunzi, primarily on the grounds that he is not mentioned in the historical classic The Commentary of Zuo (Zuo zhuan 左傳), which mentions most of the notable figures from the Spring and Autumn period.[4] The name "Sun Wu" (孫武) does not appear in any text prior to the Records of the Grand Historian,[6] and has been suspected to be a made-up descriptive cognomen meaning "the fugitive warrior": the surname "Sun" is glossed as the related term "fugitive" (xùn ), while "Wu" is the ancient Chinese virtue of "martial, valiant" ( ), which corresponds to Sunzi's role as the hero's doppelgänger in the story of Wu Zixu.[7] Unlike Sun Wu, Sun Bin appears to have been an actual person who was a genuine authority on military matters, and may have been the inspiration for the creation of the historical figure "Sunzi" through a form of euhemerism.[7]

Yinqueshan tomb discovery

In 1972, the Yinqueshan Han slips were discovered in two Han dynasty (206 BC – AD 220) tombs near the city of Linyi in Shandong Province.[8] Among the many bamboo slip writings contained in the tombs, which had been sealed between 134 and 118 BC, respectively were two separate texts, one attributed to "Sunzi", corresponding to the received text, and another attributed to Sun Bin, which explains and expands upon the earlier The Art of War by Sunzi.[9] The Sun Bin text's material overlaps with much of the "Sunzi" text, and the two may be "a single, continuously developing intellectual tradition united under the Sun name".[10] This discovery showed that much of the historical confusion was due to the fact that there were two texts that could have been referred to as "Master Sun's Art of War", not one.[9] The content of the earlier text is about one-third of the chapters of the modern The Art of War, and their text matches very closely.[8] It is now generally accepted that the earlier The Art of War was completed sometime between 500 and 430 BC.[9]

The 13 chapters

The Art of War is divided into 13 chapters (or piān); the collection is referred to as being one zhuàn ("whole" or alternatively "chronicle").

The Art of War chapter names in translations by Giles, Wing, Sawyer, and Chow-Hou
Chapter Lionel Giles (1910) R.L. Wing (1988) Ralph D. Sawyer (1996) Chow-Hou Wee (2003)
I Laying Plans The Calculations Initial Estimations Detail Assessment and Planning
(Chinese: 始計)
II Waging War The Challenge Waging War Waging War
(Chinese: 作戰)
III Attack by Stratagem The Plan of Attack Planning Offensives Strategic Attack
(Chinese: 謀攻)
IV Tactical Dispositions Positioning Military Disposition Disposition of the Army
(Chinese: 軍形)
V Use of Energy Directing Strategic Military Power Forces
(Chinese: 兵勢)
VI Weak Points and Strong Illusion and Reality Vacuity and Substance Weaknesses and Strengths
(Chinese: 虛實)
VII Maneuvering an Army Engaging The Force Military Combat Military Maneuvers
(Chinese: 軍爭)
VIII Variation of Tactics The Nine Variations Nine Changes Variations and Adaptability
(Chinese: 九變)
IX The Army on the March Moving The Force Maneuvering the Army Movement and Development of Troops
(Chinese: 行軍)
X Classification of Terrain Situational Positioning Configurations of Terrain Terrain
(Chinese: 地形)
XI The Nine Situations The Nine Situations Nine Terrains The Nine Battlegrounds
(Chinese: 九地)
XII Attack by Fire The Fiery Attack Incendiary Attacks Attacking with Fire
(Chinese: 火攻)
XIII Use of Spies The Use of Intelligence Employing Spies Intelligence and Espionage
(Chinese: 用間)

Chapter summary

Bamboo book - binding - UCR
The beginning of The Art of War in a classical bamboo book from the reign of the Qianlong Emperor
  1. Detail assessment and planning (Chinese: 始計) explores the five fundamental factors (the Way, seasons, terrain, leadership, and management) and seven elements that determine the outcomes of military engagements. By thinking, assessing and comparing these points, a commander can calculate his chances of victory. Habitual deviation from these calculations will ensure failure via improper action. The text stresses that war is a very grave matter for the state and must not be commenced without due consideration.
  2. Waging war (Chinese: 作戰) explains how to understand the economy of warfare and how success requires winning decisive engagements quickly. This section advises that successful military campaigns require limiting the cost of competition and conflict.
  3. Strategic attack (Chinese: 謀攻) defines the source of strength as unity, not size, and discusses the five factors that are needed to succeed in any war. In order of importance, these critical factors are: Attack, Strategy, Alliances, Army and Cities.
  4. Disposition of the army (Chinese: 軍形) explains the importance of defending existing positions until a commander is capable of advancing from those positions in safety. It teaches commanders the importance of recognizing strategic opportunities, and teaches not to create opportunities for the enemy.
  5. Forces (Chinese: 兵勢) explains the use of creativity and timing in building an army's momentum.
  6. Weaknesses and strengths (Chinese: 虛實) explains how an army's opportunities come from the openings in the environment caused by the relative weakness of the enemy and how to respond to changes in the fluid battlefield over a given area.
  7. Military maneuvers (Chinese: 軍爭) explains the dangers of direct conflict and how to win those confrontations when they are forced upon the commander.
  8. Variations and adaptability (Chinese: 九變) focuses on the need for flexibility in an army's responses. It explains how to respond to shifting circumstances successfully.
  9. Movement and development of troops (Chinese: 行軍) describes the different situations in which an army finds itself as it moves through new enemy territories, and how to respond to these situations. Much of this section focuses on evaluating the intentions of others.
  10. Terrain (Chinese: 地形) looks at the three general areas of resistance (distance, dangers and barriers) and the six types of ground positions that arise from them. Each of these six field positions offers certain advantages and disadvantages.
  11. The nine battlegrounds (Chinese: 九地) describes the nine common situations (or stages) in a campaign, from scattering to deadly, and the specific focus that a commander will need in order to successfully navigate them.
  12. Attacking with fire (Chinese: 火攻) explains the general use of weapons and the specific use of the environment as a weapon. This section examines the five targets for attack, the five types of environmental attack and the appropriate responses to such attacks.
  13. Intelligence and espionage (Chinese: 用間) focuses on the importance of developing good information sources, and specifies the five types of intelligence sources and how to best manage each of them.



Verses from the book occur in modern daily Chinese idioms and phrases, such as the last verse of Chapter 3:


Hence the saying: If you know the enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the result of a hundred battles. If you know yourself but not the enemy, for every victory gained you will also suffer a defeat. If you know neither the enemy nor yourself, you will succumb in every battle.

This has been more tersely interpreted and condensed into the Chinese modern proverb:

知己知彼,百戰不殆。 (Zhī jǐ zhī bǐ, bǎi zhàn bù dài.)

If you know both yourself and your enemy, you can win numerous (literally, "a hundred") battles without jeopardy.


Common examples can also be found in English use, such as verse 18 in Chapter 1:


All warfare is based on deception. Hence, when we are able to attack, we must seem unable; when using our forces, we must appear inactive; when we are near, we must make the enemy believe we are far away; when far away, we must make him believe we are near.

This has been abbreviated to its most basic form and condensed into the English modern proverb:

All warfare is based on deception.

Cultural influence

Military and intelligence applications

Across East Asia, The Art of War was part of the syllabus for potential candidates of military service examinations.

During the Sengoku period (c. 1467–1568), the Japanese daimyō named Takeda Shingen (1521–1573) is said to have become almost invincible in all battles without relying on guns, because he studied The Art of War.[11] The book even gave him the inspiration for his famous battle standard "Fūrinkazan" (Wind, Forest, Fire and Mountain), meaning fast as the wind, silent as a forest, ferocious as fire and immovable as a mountain.

The translator Samuel B. Griffith offers a chapter on "Sun Tzu and Mao Tse-Tung" where The Art of War is cited as influencing Mao's On Guerrilla Warfare, On the Protracted War and Strategic Problems of China's Revolutionary War, and includes Mao's quote: "We must not belittle the saying in the book of Sun Wu Tzu, the great military expert of ancient China, 'Know your enemy and know yourself and you can fight a thousand battles without disaster."[11]

During the Vietnam War, some Vietcong officers extensively studied The Art of War and reportedly could recite entire passages from memory.

General Võ Nguyên Giáp successfully implemented tactics described in The Art of War during the Battle of Dien Bien Phu ending major French involvement in Indochina and leading to the accords which partitioned Vietnam into North and South. General Võ, later the main PVA military commander in the Vietnam War, was an avid student and practitioner of Sun Tzu's ideas.[12] America's defeat there, more than any other event, brought Sun Tzu to the attention of leaders of American military theory.[12][13][14]

Finnish Field Marshal Mannerheim and general Aksel Airo were avid readers of Art of War. They both read it in French; Airo kept the French translation of the book on his bedside table in his quarters.

The Department of the Army in the United States, through its Command and General Staff College, lists The Art of War as one example of a book that may be kept at a military unit's library.[15]

The Art of War is listed on the Marine Corps Professional Reading Program (formerly known as the Commandant's Reading List). It is recommended reading for all United States Military Intelligence personnel.[16]

According to some authors, the strategy of deception from The Art of War was studied and widely used by the KGB: "I will force the enemy to take our strength for weakness, and our weakness for strength, and thus will turn his strength into weakness".[17] The book is widely cited by KGB officers in charge of disinformation operations in Vladimir Volkoff's novel Le Montage.

Application outside the military

The Art of War has been applied to many fields well outside of the military. Much of the text is about how to fight wars without actually having to do battle: It gives tips on how to outsmart one's opponent so that physical battle is not necessary. As such, it has found application as a training guide for many competitive endeavors that do not involve actual combat.

The Art of War is mentioned as an influence in the earliest known Chinese collection of stories about fraud (mostly in the realm of commerce), Zhang Yingyu's The Book of Swindles (Du pian xin shu 杜騙新書, ca. 1617), which dates to the late Ming dynasty.[18]

Many business books have applied the lessons taken from the book to office politics and corporate business strategy.[19][20][21] Many Japanese companies make the book required reading for their key executives.[22] The book is also popular among Western business circles citing its utilitarian value regarding management practices. Many entrepreneurs and corporate executives have turned to it for inspiration and advice on how to succeed in competitive business situations. The book has also been applied to the field of education.[23]

The Art of War has been the subject of legal books[24] and legal articles on the trial process, including negotiation tactics and trial strategy.[25][26][27][28]

The Art of War has also been applied in the world of sports. National Football League coach Bill Belichick is known to have read the book and used its lessons to gain insights in preparing for games.[29] Australian cricket as well as Brazilian association football coaches Luiz Felipe Scolari and Carlos Alberto Parreira are known to have embraced the text. Scolari made the Brazilian World Cup squad of 2002 study the ancient work during their successful campaign.[30].

Art of War books
The Art of War applied to management business, love, dating, & sports

In 2018 English youth soccer coach Liam Shannon launched Sun Tzu Soccer[31], a project based on his 2012 book "Sun Tzu Soccer: The Art of War in Soccer Language & Scenarios". The book is a direct translation of the 2003 Lionel Giles "Barnes & Noble Classics"[32] edition of The Art of War in to soccer terminology. In January 2015, Shannon presented his work at the United Soccer Coaches (previously "NSCAA") National Convention - the world's largest soccer convention - to a full audience[33]. Sun Tzu Soccer has been endorsed by fellow Sun Tzu author Mark McNeilly, who stated: "Sun Tzu Soccer gives coaches and players a time-tested formula for victory on the soccer field."[34]

The Art of War is often quoted while developing tactics and/or strategy in Electronic Sports. Particularly, one of the fundamental books about e-sports, "Play To Win" by Massachusetts Institute of Technology graduate David Sirlin, is actually just an analysis about possible applications of the ideas from The Art of War in modern Electronic Sports.

The Art of War was released in 2014 as an e-book companion alongside the Art of War DLC for Europa Universalis IV, a PC strategy game by Paradox Development Studios, with a foreword by Thomas Johansson.

Notable translations

The Art of War Running Press
Running Press miniature edition of the 1994 Ralph D. Sawyer translation, printed in 2003
  • Sun Tzu on the Art of War. Translated by Lionel Giles. London: Luzac and Company. 1910.
  • The Art of War. Translated by Samuel B. Griffith. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1963. ISBN 978-0-19-501476-1. Part of the UNESCO Collection of Representative Works.
  • Sun Tzu, The Art of War. Translated by Thomas Cleary. Boston: Shambhala Dragon Editions. 1988. ISBN 978-0877734529.
  • The Art of Warfare. Translated by Roger Ames. Random House. 1993. ISBN 978-0-345-36239-1..
  • The Art of War. Translated by John Minford. New York: Viking. 2002. ISBN 978-0-670-03156-6.
  • The Art of War: Sunzi's Military Methods. Translated by Victor H. Mair. New York: Columbia University Press. 2007. ISBN 978-0-231-13382-1.
  • The Art of War: Spirituality for Conflict. Translated by Thomas Huynh. Skylight Paths Publishing. 2008. ISBN 978-1594732447.

The book has been translated into Assamese by Utpal Datta and published by Asom Sahitya Sabha.

The book was translated into Manchu as ᠴᠣᠣᡥᠠᡳ
Wylie: Tchauhai paita be gisurengge,[35][36] Möllendorff: Coohai baita de gisurengge, Discourse on the art of War.[37]

The first Manchu translations of Chinese works were the Liu-t'ao 六韜, Su-shu 素書, and San-lueh 三略 – all Chinese military texts dedicated to the arts of war due to the Manchu interests in the topic, like Sun-Tzu's work The Art of War.[38][39] The military related texts which were translated into Manchu from Chinese were translated by Dahai.[40] Manchu translations of Chinese texts included the Ming penal code and military texts were performed by Dahai.[41] These translations were requested of Dahai by Nurhaci.[42] The military text Wu-tzu was translated into Manchu along with Sun-Tzu's work The Art of War.[43] Chinese history, Chinese law, and Chinese military theory classical texts were translated into Manchu during the rule of Hong Taiji in Mukden with Manchus placing significance upon military and governance related Chinese texts.[44] A Manchu translation was made of the military themed Chinese novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms.[45][46] Chinese literature, military theory and legal texts were translated into Manchu by Dahai and Erdeni.[47] The translations were ordered in 1629.[48][49] The translation of the military texts San-lüeh, Su-shu, and the Ta Ming hui-tien (the Ming law) done by Dahai was ordered by Nurhaci.[50] While it was mainly administrative and ethical guidance which made up most of San-lüeh and Su Shu, military science was indeed found in the Liu-t'ao and Chinese military manuals were eagerly translated by the Manchus and the Manchus were also attracted to the military content in Romance of the Three Kingdoms which is why it was translated.[51]

Another Manchu translation was made by Aisin Gioro Qiying.[52]

See also





  1. ^ Smith (1999), p. 216.
  2. ^ Giles, Lionel The Art of War by Sun Tzu – Special Edition. Special Edition Books. 2007. p. 62.
  3. ^ Lewis (1999), p. 604.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Gawlikowski & Loewe (1993), p. 447.
  5. ^ Mair (2007), pp. 12–13.
  6. ^ Mair (2007), p. 9.
  7. ^ a b Mair (2007), p. 10.
  8. ^ a b Gawlikowski & Loewe (1993), p. 448.
  9. ^ a b c Gawlikowski & Loewe (1993), p. 449.
  10. ^ Mark Edward Lewis (2005), quoted in Mair (2007), p. 18.
  11. ^ a b Griffith, Samuel B. The Illustrated Art of War. 2005. Oxford University Press. pp. 17, 141–43.
  12. ^ a b McCready, Douglas. Learning from Sun Tzu, Military Review, May–June 2003."Learning from Sun Tzu". Archived from the original on 2011-10-11. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
  13. ^ Interview with Dr. William Duiker, Conversation with Sonshi
  14. ^ Forbes, Andrew ; Henley, David (2012). The Illustrated Art of War: Sun Tzu. Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books. ASIN B00B91XX8U
  15. ^ Army, U. S. (1985). Military History and Professional Development. U. S. Army Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: Combat Studies Institute. 85-CSI-21 85.
  16. ^ Marine Corps Professional Reading Program
  17. ^ Yevgenia Albats and Catherine A. Fitzpatrick. The State Within a State: The KGB and Its Hold on Russia – Past, Present, and Future. 1994. ISBN 0-374-52738-5, chapter Who was behind perestroika?
  18. ^
  19. ^ Michaelson, Gerald. "Sun Tzu: The Art of War for Managers; 50 Strategic Rules." Avon, MA: Adams Media, 2001
  20. ^ McNeilly, Mark. "Sun Tzu and the Art of Business : Six Strategic Principles for Managers. New York:Oxford University Press, 1996.
  21. ^ Krause, Donald G. "The Art of War for Executives: Ancient Knowledge for Today's Business Professional." New York: Berkley Publishing Group, 1995.
  22. ^ Kammerer, Peter. "The Art of Negotiation." South China Morning Post (April 21, 2006) p. 15
  23. ^ Jeffrey, D (2010). "A Teacher Diary Study to Apply Ancient Art of War Strategies to Professional Development". The International Journal of Learning. 7 (3): 21–36.
  24. ^ Barnhizer, David. The Warrior Lawyer: Powerful Strategies for Winning Legal Battles Irvington-on-Hudson, NY: Bridge Street Books, 1997.
  25. ^ Balch, Christopher D., "The Art of War and the Art of Trial Advocacy: Is There Common Ground?" (1991), 42 Mercer L. Rev. 861–73
  26. ^ Beirne, Martin D. and Scott D. Marrs, The Art of War and Public Relations: Strategies for Successful Litigation
  27. ^ Pribetic, Antonin I., "The Trial Warrior: Applying Sun Tzu's The Art of War to Trial Advocacy" April 21, 2007,
  28. ^ Solomon, Samuel H., "The Art of War: Pursuing Electronic Evidence as Your Corporate Opportunity"
  29. ^ "Put crafty Belichick's patriot games down to the fine art of war". The Sydney Morning Herald. 2005-02-04.
  30. ^ Winter, Henry (June 29, 2006). "Mind games reach new high as Scolari studies art of war". Irish Independent.
  31. ^
  32. ^
  33. ^
  34. ^[0]=68.ARB8HwFAmpfB9wFBRIYVNQnW0Nn5hJJsDvH9Nd4JQFotLDTQ_HnnolNtmWF-tkSX1hDnecYCAA_w-tgVblT36WMjslDF_dc3uoAKb2jK5e5KCtQORlUFXDAnbiC-OKknTYrcV5QL-y0Ys9LlMV8WxXoQfcYHKP82WnyesokNrtaT22_uOHyrLIAp5J2VH5TBOxvdn3c3Un8_iBF3_raMN7abjqpkAKH1QoqAwXNo0l7gyTX-qarK-m8ic253BtAffbP1-0OHdV7yhbeanwC3SnNkJU-vxiTAwgAtdLRTwl2PuwwR49I-gw8eWArkValLdusK8P2OlomYKGOYPuoNo8k&__tn__=-R
  35. ^ Shou-p'ing Wu Ko (1855). Translation (by A. Wylie) of the Ts'ing wan k'e mung, a Chinese grammar of the Manchu Tartar language (by Woo Kĭh Show-ping, revised and ed. by Ching Ming-yuen Pei-ho) with intr. notes on Manchu literature. p. 39.
  36. ^
  37. ^ Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. North China Branch, Shanghai (1890). Journal of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. Kelly & Walsh. pp. 40–.
  38. ^ Early China. Society for the Study of Early China. 1975. p. 53.
  39. ^ Durrant, Stephen (1977). “Manchu Translations of Chou Dynasty Texts”. Early China 3. [Cambridge University Press, Society for the Study of Early China]: 52–54.
  40. ^ Sin-wai Chan (2009). A Chronology of Translation in China and the West: From the Legendary Period to 2004. Chinese University Press. pp. 60–61. ISBN 978-962-996-355-2.
  41. ^ Peter C Perdue (30 June 2009). China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia. Harvard University Press. pp. 122–. ISBN 978-0-674-04202-5.
  42. ^ Frederic Wakeman Jr. (1985). The Great Enterprise: The Manchu Reconstruction of Imperial Order in Seventeenth-century China. University of California Press. pp. 44–. ISBN 978-0-520-04804-1.
  43. ^ Early China. Society for the Study of Early China. 1977. p. 53.
  44. ^ Claudine Salmon (13 November 2013). Literary Migrations: Traditional Chinese Fiction in Asia (17th-20th Centuries). Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 94–. ISBN 978-981-4414-32-6.
  45. ^ Cultural Hybridity in Manchu Bannermen Tales (zidishu). ProQuest. 2007. pp. 25–. ISBN 978-0-549-44084-0.
  46. ^ West, Andrew. "The Textual History of Sanguo Yanyi: The Manchu Translation". Retrieved 11 October 2016.
  47. ^ Arthur W. Hummel (1991). Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing period: 1644–1912. SMC publ. p. vi. ISBN 978-957-638-066-2.
  48. ^ Shou-p'ing Wu Ko (1855). Translation (by A. Wylie) of the Ts'ing wan k'e mung, a Chinese grammar of the Manchu Tartar language (by Woo Kĭh Show-ping, revised and ed. by Ching Ming-yuen Pei-ho) with intr. notes on Manchu literature. pp. xxxvi–.
  49. ^ Translation of the Ts'ing wan k'e mung, a Chinese Grammar of the Manchu Tartar Language; with introductory notes on Manchu Literature: (translated by A. Wylie.). Mission Press. 1855. pp. xxxvi–.
  50. ^
  51. ^ Durrant, Stephen. 1979. “Sino-manchu Translations at the Mukden Court”. Journal of the American Oriental Society 99 (4). American Oriental Society: 653–61. doi:10.2307/601450. pp. 654–56.
  52. ^ Soldierly Methods: Vade Mecum for an Iconoclastic Translation of Sun Zi bingfa (Art of War). p. 82

Further reading

  • Gawlikowski, Krzysztof; Loewe, Michael (1993). "Sun tzu ping fa 孫子兵法". In Loewe, Michael (ed.). Early Chinese Texts: A Bibliographical Guide. Berkeley: Society for the Study of Early China; Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley. pp. 446–55. ISBN 978-1-55729-043-4.
  • Graff, David A. (2002). Medieval Chinese Warfare, 300-900. Warfare and History. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415239554.
  • Griffith, Samuel (2005). Sun Tzu: The Illustrated Art of War. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195189995.
  • Lewis, Mark Edward (1999). "Warring States Political History". In Loewe, Michael; Shaughnessy, Edward (eds.). The Cambridge History of Ancient China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 587–650. ISBN 978-0-521-47030-8.
  • Mair, Victor H. (2007). The Art of War: Sun Zi's Military Methods. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-13382-1.
  • Smith, Kidder (1999). "The Military Texts: The Sunzi". In de Bary, Wm. Theodore (ed.). Sources of Chinese Tradition: From Earliest Times to 1600, Volume 1 (2nd ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 213–24. ISBN 978-0-231-10938-3.
  • Yuen, Derek M. C. (2014). Deciphering Sun Tzu: How to Read 'The Art of War'. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199373512.
  • Вєдєнєєв, Д. В.; Гавриленко, О. А.; Кубіцький, С. О. (2017). Остроухова, В. В. (ed.). Еволюція воєнного мистецтва: у 2 ч.

External links

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Art of War Fighting Championship

The Art of War Fighting Championship (英雄榜/Art of War/AOW) is a Chinese professional mixed martial arts promotion based in Beijing, China. The Chinese title "英雄榜" literally translated means "Gathering of Heroes." Art of War FC has no relation to the defunct US MMA promotion Art of War Undisputed Arena Fighting Championship. Art of War I was held at the Beijing Sports University on November 6, 2005. The inaugural event made it the first professional mixed martial arts contest in the People's Republic of China. To date, AOW has held 15 events in mainland China. Its largest event was Art of War 12 - Invincible, held at the National Olympic Sports Center Auditorium in Beijing on May 23, 2009 to an audience of around 6,000 fans. The event attracted many international guests, including former UFC Heavyweight Champion Tim Sylvia, renowned ring announcer Michael Buffer, and experienced referee "Big" John McCarthy.

The Art of War Fighting Championship has featured some of China's top mixed martial arts athletes, including IKF World Champion and 2002 King of Sanda champion, Bao Li Gao; 1996 Chinese Olympian and China national judo champion, Ao Te Gen Ba Tar; and 2004 Chinese Olympian and China national Greco-Roman wrestling champion, Sai Yin Ji Ya. In addition, Art of War FC has featured some of the world's top fighters including WKN European Muay Thai champion Filippo Cinti of Italy, DEEP veteran Jeong Ho Lee of Korea, and Japanese Karate and ju-jutsu expert, Setsuma Takeda.

Art of War is the first mixed martial arts organization to be broadcast by CCTV-5, China's largest sports broadcasting platform with over 1 billion audience coverage in China and internationally. Art of War IV, broadcast on December 29, 2006 set a record as the single largest mixed martial arts tournament broadcast in the world.In March 2008, Art of War Fighting Championship signed a China nationwide broadcasting agreement which will bring the tournament into the homes of over 200 million viewers around the country on a weekly basis, including regions of Hong Kong, Macau, Australia, and New Zealand.

Battle of Gergovia

The Battle of Gergovia took place in 52 BC in Gaul at Gergovia, the chief oppidum (fortified town) of the Arverni. The battle was fought between a Roman Republican army, led by proconsul Julius Caesar, and Gallic forces led by Vercingetorix, who was also the Arverni chieftain. The Gauls won the battle.

The site is identified with Merdogne, now called Gergovie, a village located on a hill within the town of La Roche-Blanche, near Clermont-Ferrand, in south central France. Some walls and earthworks still survive from the pre-Roman Iron Age. The battle is well known in France, as exemplified in the popular French comic Asterix, where the battle is referenced, specifically in the book Asterix and the Class Act.

Behind Crimson Eyes

Behind Crimson Eyes is a band based in Australia. The band formed in Melbourne, Australia, in 2004. Their line up currently consists of vocalist Josh Stuart, bassist Garth Buchanan, guitarist/back up vocalist Aaron Schultz and Dan Kerby as drummer.

Bone Thugs-n-Harmony

Bone Thugs-n-Harmony is an American rap group. Consists of rappers Bizzy Bone, Wish Bone, Layzie Bone, Krayzie Bone, and Flesh-n-Bone. American West Coast rapper Eazy-E signed Bone Thugs-N-Harmony to Ruthless Records in late 1993, when Bone Thugs debuted with their EP Creepin on ah Come Up. The EP included their breakout hit single "Thuggish Ruggish Bone".

In 1995, the group released its second album, E. 1999 Eternal, which included hits "1st of tha Month" and "East 1999". A tribute to then-recently deceased Eazy-E, titled "Tha Crossroads", won a Grammy award in 1997. The Art of War, the group's third album, was also released in 1997. Bone Thugs is the only group that has worked with 2Pac, Notorious B.I.G., Eazy-E, and Big Pun while they were still alive. The editors of ranked them #12 on their list of the "25 Best Rap Groups of All Time", and MTV called them "the most melodic hip-hop group of all time."In 2000, BTNHResurrection reached platinum in one month, while 2002's Thug World Order received more moderate sales and promotion, going gold and peaking at #3 on the Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums chart. After that album, the group went on hiatus from their label and released their sixth studio album, Thug Stories, independently in 2006. In 2007 they had another major-label release, Strength & Loyalty, on Swizz Beatz's label Full Surface Records. Bone Thugs-N-Harmony "officially" returned with their 2010 album Uni5: The World's Enemy, released by their own record label, BTNH Worldwide, with distribution by Warner Bros.

Due to conflicts within the group, longtime members Krayzie Bone and Wish Bone officially left the group in April 2011 to work with their independent label, The Life Entertainment. They would later return, officially re-unifying the group. In August 2013, however, Layzie Bone announced that he would be stepping aside to work more on his solo career. In the same month, BTNH signed with eOne Entertainment (formerly known as Koch Records), who they had previously partnered with to release 2006's Thug Stories. Layzie Bone has since re-united with the group. On April 28, 2018, the entire group performed a show in Biloxi, Mississippi along with Juvenile and Nelly. On June 1, 2018, Bone Thugs reunited for a show at the Wonderland Ballroom in Revere, Massachusetts. On June 22, 2018, the group also performed a show in Kansas City, Missouri at the CrossroadsKC with longtime friend Twista. All five members were present. All five members also performed at Shoreline Amphitheater in Mountain View CA on October 13, 2018 with Too Short & Ice Cube on the How the West Was Won tour, and on Friday October 19 at the Stockton Arena in Stockton, CA with JJ Fad, Tag Team, Lighter Shade of Brown, Digital Underground, and DJ Quik. Bone Thugs are still currently on tour and have 12 concerts scheduled 2018-2019.

Military theory

Military theory is the analysis of normative behavior and trends in military affairs and military history, beyond simply describing events in war.

Theories and conceptions of warfare have varied in different places throughout human history. The Chinese Sun Tzu is recognized by scholars to be one of the earliest military theorists. His now-iconic Art of War laid the foundations for operational planning, tactics, strategy and logistics.

Military theories, especially since the influence of Clausewitz in the nineteenth century, attempt to encapsulate the complex cultural, political and economic relationships between societies and the conflicts they create.

Ministry of Information (United Kingdom)

The Ministry of Information (MOI), headed by the Minister of Information, was a United Kingdom government department created briefly at the end of the First World War and again during the Second World War. Located in Senate House at the University of London during the 1940s, it was the central government department responsible for publicity and propaganda.

Niccolò Machiavelli

Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (, Italian: [nikkoˈlɔ mmakjaˈvɛlli]; 3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, humanist, writer, playwright and poet of the Renaissance period. He has often been called the father of modern political philosophy and political science. For many years he served as a senior official in the Florentine Republic with responsibilities in diplomatic and military affairs. He wrote comedies, carnival songs, and poetry. His personal correspondence is renowned by historians and scholars. He worked as secretary to the Second Chancery of the Republic of Florence from 1498 to 1512, when the Medici were out of power. He wrote his best-known work The Prince (Il Principe) in 1513, having been exiled from city affairs.

Machiavellian is widely used as a pejorative to characterize unscrupulous politicians of the sort Machiavelli advised most famously in The Prince. Machiavelli described immoral behavior, such as dishonesty and the killing of innocents, as being normal and effective in politics. He even encouraged it in many situations. The book gained notoriety due to claims that it teaches "evil recommendations to tyrants to help them maintain their power".The term Machiavellian often connotes political deceit, deviousness, and realpolitik. On the other hand, many commentators, such as Baruch Spinoza, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Denis Diderot, have argued that Machiavelli was more of a republican, even when writing The Prince, and his writings gave inspiration to Enlightenment proponents of modern democratic political philosophy. His much less popular work, the Discourses on Livy, is often said to have paved the way of modern republicanism.

Sabaton (band)

Sabaton is a Swedish power metal band from Falun. The band's main lyrical themes are based on war, historical battles, and acts of heroism—the name is a reference to a sabaton, knight's foot armor. The armor and battle theme is heard in the albums Primo Victoria, Attero Dominatus, The Art of War, Coat of Arms, Carolus Rex, Heroes, and The Last Stand in which all of the songs contain these motifs, except final tracks which are tribute songs to influential heavy metal bands. Their latest album, The Great War, was released on 19 July 2019, with the songs all being based on World War I. Lyrical content drawn from World War I, World War II and other historical conflicts is prevalent and lyrics often recite stories of heroic deeds by men, women and armies.

In December 2015, five songs by the band were added to the third external music pack for the strategy game Europa Universalis IV by Paradox Interactive.

On 6 June 2016, the 72nd anniversary of D-Day, they released a music pack for the Paradox game Hearts of Iron IV with songs based on World War II, the theme of the game. They released a second on 26 January 2017.

Sun Tzu

Sun Tzu (; Chinese: 孫子; Pinyin transliteration Sunzi) was a Chinese general, military strategist, writer and philosopher who lived in the Eastern Zhou period of ancient China. Sun Tzu is traditionally credited as the author of The Art of War, an influential work of military strategy that has affected Western and East Asian philosophy and military thinking. His works focus much more on alternatives to battle, such as stratagem, delay, the use of spies and alternatives to war itself, the making and keeping of alliances, the uses of deceit and a willingness to submit, at least temporarily, to more powerful foes. Sun Tzu is revered in Chinese and East Asian culture as a legendary historical and military figure. His birth name was Sun Wu and he was known outside of his family by his courtesy name Changqing. The name Sun Tzu by which he is best known in the Western World is an honorific which means "Master Sun".

Sun Tzu's historicity is uncertain. The Han dynasty historian Sima Qian and other traditional Chinese historians placed him as a minister to King Helü of Wu and dated his lifetime to 544–496 BC. Modern scholars accepting his historicity place the extant text of The Art of War in the later Warring States period based on its style of composition and its descriptions of warfare. Traditional accounts state that the general's descendant Sun Bin wrote a treatise on military tactics, also titled The Art of War. Since Sun Wu and Sun Bin were referred to as Sun Tzu in classical Chinese texts, some historians believed them identical, prior to the rediscovery of Sun Bin's treatise in 1972.

Sun Tzu's work has been praised and employed in East Asian warfare since its composition. During the twentieth century, The Art of War grew in popularity and saw practical use in Western society as well. It continues to influence many competitive endeavors in the world, including culture, politics, business and sports, as well as modern warfare.

The Art of War (Bone Thugs-n-Harmony album)

The Art of War is the third studio album by hip hop group Bone Thugs-N-Harmony which was released on July 29, 1997. The album sold 394,000 units in its first week of release. The album was certified quadruple Platinum by the RIAA in June 1998. It was the first double-album from Bone Thugs-n-Harmony. The album included the platinum-single "Look into My Eyes", and the gold-single "If I Could Teach the World". The whole album is produced by DJ U-Neek.

A sequel to the album The Art of War: World War III was released on December 10, 2013.

The Art of War (EP)

The Art of War is an EP by the Polish death metal band Vader. It was released on November 14, 2006 by Regain Records in Europe, and Mystic Production in Poland. Japanese edition was released on November 23, 2006 by Avalon Marquee, and contains bonus track "Die!!!! (Giń Psie)".

The Art of War was recorded in early 2005 at Hertz Studio in Białystok, Poland produced by Wojtek & Sławek Wiesławscy. Photo session was made by Krzysztof "Sado" Sadowski, and it took place at Błędów Desert in Poland. A music video was shot for the song "This Is the War" which was produced and directed by Arkadiusz Jurcan. Screenshots from video have been used as cover art, and layout. The EP is the first Vader release that features guitarist Maurycy "Mauser" Stefanowicz as composer.

Tracks "Para Bellum" and "Banners on the Wind" are intros created by Krzysztof "Siegmar" Oloś from the symphonic black metal band Vesania. It is dedicated to a former drummer of Vader, Krzysztof "Docent" Raczkowski, who died approximately three months before this EP's release.

The Art of War (Machiavelli)

The Art of War (Italian: Dell'arte della guerra) is a treatise by the Italian Renaissance political philosopher and historian Niccolò Machiavelli.

The format of The Art of War is a socratic dialogue. The purpose, declared by Lord Fabrizio Colonna (perhaps Machiavelli's persona) at the outset, "To honor and reward virtù, not to have contempt for poverty, to esteem the modes and orders of military discipline, to constrain citizens to love one another, to live without factions, to esteem less the private than the public good." To these ends, Machiavelli notes in his preface, the military is like the roof of a palazzo protecting the contents.

Written between 1519 and 1520 and published the following year, it was Machiavelli's only historical or political work printed during his lifetime, though he was appointed official historian of Florence in 1520 and entrusted with minor civil duties.

The Art of War (Sabaton album)

The Art of War is the fourth album by Swedish heavy metal band Sabaton.

The album is based on the ancient Chinese military treatise, The Art of War written by General Sun Tzu in the 6th Century BC. It consists of 13 chapters, each of which describe a different aspect of warfare, and is considered the definitive work on military tactics and strategies of its time. The tracks on the album correspond to each chapter of treatise. The lyrics of the songs are about famous battles or war, mostly based on the battles of the First and Second World Wars where Sun Tzu's tactics were applied.

The Art of War (film)

The Art of War is a 2000 action spy film directed by Christian Duguay and starring Wesley Snipes, Michael Biehn, Anne Archer and Donald Sutherland. The film's title refers to the ancient Chinese text of the same name by war strategist Sun Tzu. The film was followed by two direct-to-video sequels, The Art of War II: Betrayal and The Art of War III: Retribution. The latter did not feature Snipes.

The Night Of

The Night Of is a 2016 American eight-part crime drama television miniseries based on the first season of Criminal Justice, a 2008 British series. The miniseries was written by Richard Price and Steven Zaillian (based on the original Criminal Justice plot by Peter Moffat), and directed by Zaillian and James Marsh. Broadcast on HBO, The Night Of premiered on July 10, 2016 to critical acclaim. The first episode premiered on June 24, 2016, via HBO's on-demand services.

Zhuge Liang

Zhuge Liang (pronunciation in Standard Mandarin: [ʈʂú.kɤ̀ ljâŋ] (listen) Chinese: 諸葛亮; 181–234), courtesy name Kongming, was a Chinese politician, military strategist, writer, engineer and inventor. He served as the chancellor and regent of the state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period. He is recognised as the most accomplished strategist of his era, and has been compared to Sun Tzu, the author of The Art of War. His reputation as an intelligent and learned scholar grew even while he was living in relative seclusion, earning him the nickname "Wolong" or "Fulong", meaning "Crouching Dragon" or "Sleeping Dragon". Zhuge Liang is often depicted wearing a Taoist robe and holding a hand fan made of crane feathers.Zhuge Liang was a Confucian-oriented "Legalist". He liked to compare himself to the sage minister Guan Zhong, developing Shu's agriculture and industry to become a regional power. and attached great importance to the works of Shen Buhai and Han Fei, refusing to indulge local elites and adopting strict, but fair and clear laws. In remembrance of his governance, local people maintained shrines to him for ages.Zhuge is an uncommon two-character Chinese compound family name. His name – even his surname alone – has become synonymous with loyalty, intelligence and strategy in Chinese culture. In 760, when Emperor Suzong of the Tang dynasty built a temple to honour Jiang Ziya, he had sculptures of Zhuge Liang and another nine famous historical military generals/strategists – Bai Qi, Han Xin, Li Jing, Li Shiji, Zhang Liang, Tian Rangju, Sun Tzu, Wu Qi and Yue Yi – placed in the temple flanking Jiang Ziya's statue.

Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinSūnzǐ bīngfǎ
Wade–GilesSun1-tzŭ3 ping1-fa3
IPA[swə́ntsɨ̀ píŋfà]
Yue: Cantonese
Yale RomanizationSyūn-jí bīng-faat
IPA[sýːntsǐː péŋfāːt̚]
JyutpingSyun1-zi2 bing1-faat3
Southern Min
Tâi-lôSun-tzú ping-huat
Old Chinese
Baxter–Sagart (2014)*sˤun tsəʔ praŋ p.kap
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