The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition is a monthly peer-reviewed biomedical journal in the field of clinical nutrition.[1]

The journal was established in 1952 as the Journal of Clinical Nutrition, edited by S.O. Waife and published by the Nutrition Press.[2] It was continued in series under the present title from 1954 and was published by the American Society for Clinical Nutrition (ASCN).[3] It is now published by the American Society for Nutrition.[4] As of June 2009, the journal's editor-in-chief is Dennis M. Bier (Baylor College of Medicine).[5]

A poll conducted in 2009 by the Biomedical and Life Sciences Division of the Special Libraries Association identified the journal as among the "100 most influential journals ... over the last 100 years" in the fields of biology and medicine.[4] According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2016 impact factor of 6.926.

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
DisciplineNutrition
LanguageEnglish
Edited byDennis M. Bier
Publication details
Publication history
1952–present
Publisher
FrequencyMonthly
6.926
Standard abbreviations
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
Indexing
CODENAJCNAC
ISSN0002-9165 (print)
1938-3207 (web)
LCCN56032466
OCLC no.01480127
Links

Conflicts of interest

Marion Nestle has voiced concerns about conflict of interest by the AJCN board. Nestle states that of the twelve-member editorial board "the majority — 7 of the 12 — list major corporate affiliations. The list of food companies for which they consult or advise [...] includes Coca-Cola, PepsiCo, The Sugar Association, The National Restaurant Association, ConAgra, McDonald’s, Kellogg, Mars, and many others."[6][7]

In a 2015 report, Michele Simon also voiced concerns regarding corporate involvement with the American Society for Nutrition's journals.[8]

The journal publicly lists the conflicts of interest of its editorial board on its website.[9]

References

  1. ^ "About The American Society for Nutrition and The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition". Retrieved 2011-02-27.
  2. ^ Issue 1, front matter
  3. ^ Catalog entry at the National Library of Medicine.
  4. ^ a b "Top 100 Journals in Biology and Medicine". SLA Biomedical and Life Sciences Division. April 2009. Archived from the original on April 15, 2012. Retrieved June 18, 2009.
  5. ^ "Offices, Editors, and Staff". Retrieved 2011-02-27.
  6. ^ Nestle, Marion (23 June 2015). "Conflicts of interest in nutrition societies: American Society of Nutrition". Marion Nestle. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
  7. ^ Nestle, Marion (23 June 2015). "The food industry's undue influence on the American Society for Nutrition". Marion Nestle. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
  8. ^ Simon, Michele (September 2015). "Nutrition Scientists on the Take from Big Food" (PDF). EatDrink Politics. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
  9. ^ https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/pages/Editorial_Board#CoI
Amin al-Majaj

Amin Saleh Majaj (Arabic: أمين المجاج‎, Āmeen Majjaj; March 21, 1921, Ramallah – January 2, 1999, East Jerusalem) was a titular mayor of Jerusalem, formerly the neighborhoods of East Jerusalem that were occupied and annexed by Jordan during the years 1949–1967, and later occupied and annexed by Israel in the Six-Day War.

Al-Majaj held the position from 1994 to 1998 after Mayor Ruhi al-Khatib died on 5 July 1994. A year later Jordanian businessman Zaki Al-Ghul was selected as successor to this position, which does not entail direct responsibility for municipal services. The position is not recognized by Israel.

Amin Majaj was a physician and a public servant. In the late 1940s and 1950s he made detailed research into malnutrition and its attendant diseases among children in the Palestinian refugee camps, and devised treatments for them.

Born in Ramallah in 1921 to a well known Christian family that belonged to the Anglican Episcopalian Church, Majaj was educated at St George's High School in Jerusalem (part of the Anglican bishopric), going on to the American University of Beirut in 1945 and to the University of London, where he studied medicine, specialising in child health.

Back in Jordan, Majaj was confronted by a new and challenging situation. There were now half a million refugees from Palestine in Jordanian camps, kept alive by UNRWA rations. Many children were dying from gastroenteritis and deficiency diseases.

Majaj realised that malnutrition among mothers was making breastfeeding ineffective and that lack of animal protein in the rations was the cause of iron-deficiency anemia, and protein deficiency resulting in diseases such as kwashiorkor. The remedy, a diet rich in animal proteins and vitamin B12 injections, was easier to recommend than to implement.

His research continued until the children's wards in the Augusta Victoria Hospital in Jerusalem, where Majaj worked as head of the paediatrics department from 1950 to 1991, sustained a direct hit when the Israelis invaded the West Bank during the 1967 war.

Majaj published the results of his research in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 1966, in the Gazette of the Egyptian Paediatric Association of 1960 and in British and German medical journals. He was paediatrician at the Makased Islamic Hospital in Jerusalem from 1967 to 1982 (director from 1977), as well as on the board of hospitals in Gaza and Nablus.

He was on the Jerusalem municipal council from 1950 and at the time of his death was acting mayor of East Jerusalem. He also served as a member of the Jordanian parliament from 1967 to 1988, and as Minister of Health in 1957 and in 1964. Among his many other responsibilities he took over direction of Musa Alami's Arab Development Society in Jericho, which took boys out of Palestinian refugee camps to teach them agricultural and other skills.

In 1947 he married Betty Dagher from Lebanon, who is now director of the Princess Basma Centre for Disabled Children in Jerusalem.

Amin Majaj, physician: born Ramallah, Palestine 21 March 1921; married 1947 Betty Dagher (one son, three daughters); died Jerusalem 2 January 1999.

Beverage Institute for Health and Wellness

The Beverage Institute for Health and Wellness, established in 2004 and based in Atlanta, GA is an organization set up by the Coca-Cola Company, whose purpose is, according to its website, "to use evidence-based science to advance knowledge and understanding of beverages, beverage ingredients, and the important role that active healthy lifestyles play in supporting health and wellbeing." It was announced in 2005, when Coca-Cola executive Donald Short, then the company's vice president, published a paper about his company's commitments to consumers' health in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Their paid advisers include Baylor College of Medicine researcher John Foreyt. The Institute "sponsors continuing professional education for registered dietitians, nurses and other professionals." This has led critics to say that "corporate influence is both tainting the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics’s reputation and affecting its positions." Michele Simon, one such critic, in a report by the Center for Food Safety, wrote, "Coca-Cola is a master at public relations, so it’s no surprise that its institute operates on numerous levels. One is to dispel any notions that its products might be harmful, for example, by distracting the public with words like “hydration” and “energy balance.”"

Bioelectrical impedance analysis

Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a commonly used method for estimating body composition, and in particular body fat. Since the advent of the first commercially available devices in the mid-1980s the method has become popular owing to its ease of use and portability of the equipment. It is familiar in the consumer market as a simple instrument for estimating body fat. BIA actually determines the electrical impedance, or opposition to the flow of an electric current through body tissues which can then be used to estimate total body water (TBW), which can be used to estimate fat-free body mass and, by difference with body weight, body fat.

Clinical nutrition

Clinical nutrition is nutrition of patients in health care. Clinical in this sense refers to the management of patients, including not only outpatients at clinics, but also (and mainly) inpatients in hospitals. It incorporates primarily the scientific fields of nutrition and dietetics. It aims to keep a healthy energy balance in patients, as well as providing sufficient amounts other nutrients such as protein, vitamins, minerals.

Copper in health

Copper is an essential trace element that is vital to the health of all living things (humans, plants, animals, and microorganisms). In humans, copper is essential to the proper functioning of organs and metabolic processes. The human body has complex homeostatic mechanisms which attempt to ensure a constant supply of available copper, while eliminating excess copper whenever this occurs. However, like all essential elements and nutrients, too much or too little nutritional ingestion of copper can result in a corresponding condition of copper excess or deficiency in the body, each of which has its own unique set of adverse health effects.

Daily dietary standards for copper have been set by various health agencies around the world. Standards adopted by some nations recommend different copper intake levels for adults, pregnant women, infants, and children, corresponding to the varying need for copper during different stages of life.

Copper deficiency and toxicity can be either of genetic or non-genetic origin. The study of copper's genetic diseases, which are the focus of intense international research activity, has shed insight into how human bodies use copper, and why it is important as an essential micronutrient. The studies have also resulted in successful treatments for genetic copper excess conditions, enabling patients whose lives were once jeopardized to live long and productive lives.

Researchers specializing in the fields of microbiology, toxicology, nutrition, and health risk assessments are working together to define the precise copper levels that are required for essentiality, while avoiding deficient or excess copper intakes. Results from these studies are expected to be used to fine-tune governmental dietary recommendation programs which are designed to help protect public health.

David J. Jenkins

David J.A. Jenkins is a British-born University Professor in the department of Nutritional Sciences at the University of Toronto, Canada.Jenkins is credited with developing the concept of the glycemic index as a way of explaining the way in which dietary carbohydrate impacts blood sugar. His first paper on the subject appeared in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 1981. Jenkins went on to author at least 15 more clinical studies on the effects of the glycemic index. His present interests are in running clinically based dietary trials to elucidate the potential of diet to prevent and treat chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer and diabetes.

Diet and obesity

Diet plays an important role in the genesis of obesity. Personal choices, food advertising, social customs and cultural influences, as well as food availability and pricing all play a role in determining what and how much an individual eats.

Epidemiology of childhood obesity

Prevalence of childhood obesity has increased dramatically worldwide. In 2010 that the prevalence of childhood obesity during the past two to three decades, much like the United States, has increased in most other industrialized nations, excluding Russia and Poland. Between the early 1970s and late 1990s, prevalence of childhood obesity doubled or tripled in Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Japan, the UK, and the USA.A 2010 article from the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition analyzed global prevalence from 144 countries in preschool children (less than 5 years old). Cross-sectional surveys from 144 countries were used and overweight and obesity were defined as preschool children with values >3SDs from the mean. They found an estimated 42 million obese children under the age of five in the world of which close to 35 million lived in developing countries.11 Additional findings included worldwide prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increasing from 4.2% (95% CI: 3.2%, 5.2%) in 1990 to 6.7% (95% CI: 5.6%, 7.7%) in 2010 and expecting to rise to 9.1% (95% CI: 7.3%, 10.9%), an estimated 60 million overweight and obese children in 2020.

Food pyramid (nutrition)

A food pyramid or diet pyramid is a triangular diagram representing the optimal number of servings to be eaten each day from each of the basic food groups. The first pyramid was published in Sweden in 1974. The 1992 pyramid introduced by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) was called the "Food Guide Pyramid" or "Eating Right Pyramid". It was updated in 2005 to "MyPyramid", and then it was replaced by "MyPlate" in 2011.

History of military nutrition in the United States

Based on advances in food research technology, and methodologies for the improvement of U.S. Military soldiers’ overall health and nutritional status, the History of military nutrition in the United States can be roughly divided into seven historical eras, from the founding of the country to the present day. Through the research and guidance of medical and military professionals, rations and packaging have been consistently and dramatically improved.

Hypervitaminosis D

Hypervitaminosis D is a state of vitamin D toxicity. The normal range for blood concentration is 30.0 to 74.0 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL).

Indian childhood cirrhosis

Indian childhood cirrhosis is a chronic liver disease of childhood characterised by cirrhosis of the liver due to deposition of copper in the liver. It primarily affects children of 1–3 years of age and has a genetic predisposition. It had a very high case fatality in the past but has eventually become preventable, treatable and is now rare.

Lactotripeptides

Lactotripeptides are two naturally occurring milk peptides: Isoleucine-Proline-Proline (IPP) and Valine-Proline-Proline (VPP). These lactotripeptides are derived from casein, which is a milk protein also found in dairy products. Although most normal dairy products contain lactotripeptides, they are inactive within the original milk proteins. Dairy peptides can be effectively released through enzymatic predigestion – a process by which milk protein is enzymatically broken down into smaller pieces. Some clinical studies have suggested that these lactotripeptides help promote healthy blood pressure levels as part of a healthy diet and lifestyle. However, other clinical trials have seen no effects from these compounds.

Pentadecanoic acid

Pentadecanoic acid is a saturated fatty acid. Its molecular formula is CH3(CH2)13COOH. It is rare in nature, being found at the level of 1.2% in the milk fat from cows. The butterfat in cows milk is its major dietary source

and it is used as a marker for butterfat consumption. Pentadecanoic acid also occurs in hydrogenated mutton fat. It also comprises 3.61% of the fats from the fruit of the durian species Durio graveolens.Pentadecanoic acid may increase mother-to-child transmission of HIV through breastfeeding.

Umami

Umami (, from Japanese: うま味) or savory taste is one of the five basic tastes (together with sweetness, sourness, bitterness, and saltiness). It has been described as savory and is characteristic of broths and cooked meats.People taste umami through taste receptors that typically respond to glutamate, which is widely present in meat broths and fermented products and commonly added to some foods in the form of monosodium glutamate (MSG). Since umami has its own receptors rather than arising out of a combination of the traditionally recognized taste receptors, scientists now consider umami to be a distinct taste.

Vegan nutrition

Vegan nutrition refers to the nutritional and human health aspects of vegan diets. A well-planned, balanced vegan diet is suitable to meet all recommendations for nutrients in every stage of human life. Improperly planned vegan diets may be deficient in vitamin B12, vitamin D, calcium, iodine, iron, zinc and riboflavin (vitamin B2). Preliminary evidence from clinical research indicates that a vegan diet may lower the risk of cancer.

Vegetarian nutrition

Vegetarian nutrition is the set of health-related challenges and advantages of vegetarian diets.

If well-planned and fortified to balance possible deficiencies, vegetarian diets can become nutritionally adequate and can be appropriate for all stages of the human life cycle, including during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence. When fortified, a vegetarian diet can provide adequate protein, iron, zinc, vitamin B12, and calcium intake. However, in non-fortified vegetarian diets, or when not enough calories are consumed, these nutrients can be dangerously low and may compromise children's health and development.Evidence suggests that vegetarians generally have lower rates of coronary heart disease, obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and osteoporosis. Vegetarian diets tend to be rich in carbohydrates, omega-6 fatty acids, dietary fibre, carotenoids, folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E, potassium and magnesium. They are possibly low in saturated fat, cholesterol, and animal protein.

Vitamin D deficiency

Vitamin D deficiency, or hypovitaminosis D, most commonly results from inadequate sunlight exposure (in particular sunlight with adequate ultraviolet B rays). Vitamin D deficiency can also be caused by inadequate nutritional intake of vitamin D, disorders limiting vitamin D absorption, and conditions impairing vitamin D conversion into active metabolites—including certain liver, kidney, and hereditary disorders. Deficiency impairs bone mineralization, leading to bone softening diseases such as rickets in children. It can also worsen osteomalacia and osteoporosis in adults, leading to an increased risk of bone fractures. Muscle weakness is also a common symptom of vitamin D deficiency, further increasing the risk of fall and bone fractures in adults.Ultraviolet B rays from sunlight is a large source of vitamin D. Fatty fish such as salmon, herring, and mackerel are also sources of vitamin D. Milk is often fortified with vitamin D and sometimes bread, juices, and other dairy products are fortified with vitamin D as well. Many multivitamins now contain vitamin D in different amounts.

Western pattern diet

The Western pattern diet (WPD) or standard American diet (SAD) is a modern dietary pattern that is generally characterized by high intakes of red meat, processed meat, pre-packaged foods, butter, fried foods, high-fat dairy products, eggs, refined grains, potatoes, corn (and High-fructose corn syrup) and high-sugar drinks. The modern standard American diet was brought about by fundamental lifestyle changes following the Neolithic Revolution, and, later, the Industrial Revolution.By contrast, a healthy diet has higher proportions of unprocessed fruits, nuts, vegetables, whole-grain foods, poultry, and fish.

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