Thai people

Thai people or Thais (Thai: ชาวไทย), also known as Siamese (Thai: ชาวสยาม), are a nation and Tai ethnic group native to Central Thailand (Siamese proper).[24][25][26][27][28][2][29] Part of the larger Tai ethno-linguistic group native to Southeast Asia as well as southern China and Northeast India, Thais speak the Central Thai language,[30] which is classified as part of the Tai–Kadai family of languages. The majority of Thais are followers of Theravada Buddhism.

As a result of government policy during the 1930s and 1940s encouraging the assimilation of all the various ethno-linguistic groups in the country into the dominant Thai language and culture, the term Thai people has come to refer to the population of Thailand in general. This includes other subgroups of the Tai ethno-linguistic group, such as the northern Thai people (Lanna) and the Isan-Lao people, as well as non-Tai groups, the largest of which is that of the ethnic Chinese.

Thai
ไทย
Khon
Thai people at a cremation ceremony Wat Chedi Luang in Chiang Mai
Total population
c. 52–59 million[a]
Regions with significant populations
 Thailand c. 51–57.8 million[nb 1][1][2][3]
Thai diaspora
c. 1.1 million
 United States247,205[4] (2015)
 South Korea101,992[5] (2017)
 Australia72,250[6] (2016)
 Taiwan64,360[7] (2016)
 Germany58,765[8] (2016)
 Malaysia51,000–70,000[9][10] (2012)
 United Kingdom50,000[11] (Jun. 2017)
 Singapore47,700[9] (2012)
 Japan47,647[12] (2016)
 Sweden41,240[13] (2017)
 France30,000[9] (2012)
 Israel28,000[9] (2011)
 Libya24,600[9] (2011)
 Netherlands20,106[14] (2017)
 Canada19,010[15] (2016)
 Norway18,324[16] (2016)
 Laos15,497[17] (2015)
 UAE14,232[9] (2012)
 Denmark12,524[18] (2018)
 Finland11,553[19]
 Hong Kong11,493[20] (2016)
 Saudi Arabia11,240[9] (2012)
  Switzerland9,058[21] (2015)
 China8,618[9] (2012)
 New Zealand8,500[9] (2012)
 Italy5,766[22] (2016)
 Brunei5,466[9] (2012)
 Belgium3,811[9] (2012)
 Austria3,773[9] (2012)
 India3,715[9] (2012)
 South Africa3,500[9] (2012)
 Qatar2,500[9] (2012)
 Bahrain2,424[9] (2012)
 Kuwait2,378[9] (2012)
 Egypt2,331[9] (2012)
Rest of the worldc. 47,000[23]
Languages
Thai language
Religion
Predominantly Theravada Buddhism
Related ethnic groups
Other Tai peoples
(e.g. Lao people, Shan people, Dai people, Ahom people)
Thai Chinese, Malaysian Siamese

Etymology

According to Michel Ferlus, the ethnonyms Thai/Tai (or Thay/Tay) would have evolved from the etymon *k(ə)ri: 'human being' through the following chain: *kəri: > *kəli: > *kədi:/*kədaj > *di:/*daj > *dajA (Proto-Southwestern Tai) > tʰajA2 (in Siamese and Lao) or > tajA2 (in the other Southwestern and Central Tai languages classified by Li Fangkuei).[31] Michel Ferlus' work is based on some simple rules of phonetic change observable in the Sinosphere and studied for the most part by William H. Baxter (1992).[32]

Michel Ferlus notes that a deeply rooted belief in Thailand has it that the term ‘Thai’ derives from the last syllables -daya in Sukhodaya/ Sukhothay (สุโขทัย), the name of the first Thai Kingdom.[31] The spelling emphasizes this prestigious etymology by writing ไทย (transliterated ai-d-y) to designate the Thai/ Siamese people, while the form ไท (transliterated ai-d) is occasionally used to refer to Tai speaking ethnic groups.[31] Lao writes ໄທ (transliterated ai-d) in both cases.[31]

History

Mapz1
Kra-Dai migration route proposed by Matthias Gerner (2014) in a linguistic computational project.

There have been many theories proposing the origin of the Tai peoples — of which the Thai are a subgroup — including an association of the Tai people with the Kingdom of Nanzhao that has been proven to be invalid. Linguistic studies suggested[33] that the origin of the Tai people lies around the Chinese Province of Guangxi, where the Zhuang people are still a majority. The ancient Tai people are theorized to have founded the kingdom of Nanyue, referred to by Han leaders as a "foreign servant" (Chinese: ), synecdoche for a vassal state. The Qin dynasty founded Guangdong in 214 BC, initiating the successive waves of Chinese migrations from the north for hundreds of years to come.

With the political and cultural pressures from the north, some Tai peoples migrated south[34] where they met the classical Indianized civilizations of Southeast Asia. According to linguistic and other historical evidence, the southwestward migration of Tai-speaking tribes from Guangxi took place sometime between the 8th-10th centuries.[35]

The Tais from the north gradually settled in the Chao Phraya valley from the tenth century onwards, in lands of the Dvaravati culture, assimilating the earlier Austroasiatic Mon and Khmer people, as well as coming into contact with the Khmer Empire. The Tais who came to the area of present-day Thailand were engulfed into the Theravada Buddhism of the Mon and the Hindu-Khmer culture and statecraft. Therefore, the Thai culture is a mixture of Tai traditions with Indic, Mon, and Khmer influences.[36]

Early Thai chiefdoms included the Sukhothai Kingdom and Suphan Buri Province. The Lavo Kingdom, which was the center of Khmer culture in Chao Phraya valley, was also the rallying point for the Thais. The Thai were called "Siam" by the Angkorians and they appeared on the bas relief at Angkor Wat as a part of the army of Lavo Kingdom. Sometimes the Thai chiefdoms in the Chao Phraya valley were put under the Angkorian control under strong monarchs (including Suryavarman II and Jayavarman VII) but they were mostly independent.

A new city-state known as Ayutthaya, named after the Indian city of Ayodhya,[37] was founded by Ramathibodi and emerged as the center of the growing Thai empire starting in 1350. Inspired by the then Hindu-based Khmer Empire (Cambodia), the Ayutthayan empire's continued conquests led to more Thai settlements as the Khmer empire weakened after their defeat at Angkor in 1431. During this period, the Ayutthayans developed a feudal system as various vassal states paid homage to the Ayutthayans kings. Even as Thai power expanded at the expense of the Mon and Khmer, the Thai Ayutthayans faced setbacks at the hands of the Malays at Malacca and were checked by the Toungoo of Burma.

Other peoples living under Thai rule, mainly Mon, Khmer, and Lao, as well as Chinese, Indian or Muslim immigrants continued to be assimilated by Thais, but at the same time they influenced Thai culture, philosophy, economy and politics. In his paper Jek pon Lao (1987) (เจ้กปนลาว—Chinese mixed with Lao), Sujit Wongthet, who describes himself in the paper as a Chinese mixed with Lao (Jek pon Lao), claims that the present-day Thai are really Chinese mixed with Lao.[38][39] He insinuates that the Thai are no longer a well-defined race but an ethnicity composed of many races and cultures.[38][40] The biggest and most influential group are Thais of Chinese origin[41][42]. In her paper the positions of non-Thai languages in Thailand (2007), Theraphan Luangthongkum, who is a Thai linguist of Chinese extraction, states that 40% of the Thai population are descendants of former Chinese immigrants.[43]

Though sporadic wars continued with the Burmese and other neighbors, Chinese wars with Burma and European intervention elsewhere in Southeast Asia allowed the Thai to develop an independent course by trading with the Europeans as well as playing the major powers against each other in order to remain independent. The Chakkri dynasty under Rama I held the Burmese at bay, while Rama II and Rama III helped to shape much of Thai society, but also led to Thai setbacks as the Europeans moved into areas surrounding modern Thailand and curtailed any claims the Thai had over Cambodia, in dispute with Burma and Vietnam. The Thai learned from European traders and diplomats, while maintaining an independent course. Chinese, Malay, and British influences helped to further shape the Thai people who often assimilated foreign ideas, but managed to preserve much of their culture and resisted the European colonization that engulfed their neighbors. Thailand is also the only country in Southeast Asia that was not colonized by European powers in modern history.

The concept of a Thai nation was not developed until the beginning 20th century under King Rama VI (Vajiravudh). Before this era, Thai did not even have a word for 'nation'. He also imposed the idea of "Thai-ness" (khwam-pen-thai) on his subjects and strictly defined what was "Thai" and "un-Thai". Authors of this period re-wrote Thai history from an ethno-nationalist viewpoint, disregarding the fact that the concept of ethnicity had not played an important role in Southeast Asia until the 19th century.[44][45] This newly developed nationalism was the base of the policy of "Thaification" of Thailand which was intensified after the end of absolute monarchy in 1932 and especially under the rule of Field Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram (1938–1944). Minorities were forced to assimilate and regional peculiarities of northern, northeastern and southern Thailand were repressed in favour of one homogenous "Thai" culture.[46] As a result, many citizens of Thailand cannot differentiate between their nationality (san-chat) and ethnic origin (chuea-chat).[40] It is very easy for Jek เจ๊ก (Chinese) and Khaek แขก (Indian, Arab, Muslim), after several generations in Thailand, to declare themselves "chuea-chat Thai" (ethnic Thai) and to ignore or conveniently set aside the race of their forefathers.[40]

Geography and demographics

Thai Map
Thai People Abroad.

The vast majority of the Thai people live in Thailand, although some Thais can also be found in other parts of Southeast Asia. About 51–57 million live in Thailand alone,[47] while large communities can also be found in the United States, China, Laos, Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore, Cambodia, Burma, South Korea, Germany, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Sweden, Norway, Libya, and the United Arab Emirates.

Culture and society

The Thais can be broken down into various regional groups with their own regional varieties of Thai. These groups include central Thai (also the standard variety of the language and Culture), Southern Thai, the Isan (more closely related to the standard Lao of Laos than to standard Thai), Lanna Thai, and Yawi/Malay-speaking Thai. Modern central Thai has become more dominant due to official government policy, which was designed to assimilate and unify the disparate Thai in spite of ethnolinguistic and cultural ties between the non-Standard-Thai-speaking people and their communities.

Indigenous arts include muay Thai (kick boxing), Thai dance, makruk (Thai Chess), and nang yai (shadow play).

Religion

The modern Thai are predominantly Theravada Buddhist and strongly identify their ethnic identity with their religious practices that include aspects of ancestor worship, among other beliefs of the ancient folklore of Thailand. Thais predominantly (more than 90%) avow themselves Buddhists. Since the rule of King Ramkhamhaeng of Sukhothai and again since the "orthodox reformation" of King Mongkut in the 19th century, it is modeled on the "original" Sri Lankan Theravada Buddhism. The Thais' folk belief however is a syncretic blend of the official Buddhist teachings, animistic elements that trace back to the original beliefs of Tai peoples, and Brahmin-Hindu elements[48] from India, partly inherited from the Hindu Khmer Empire of Angkor.[49]

Buddhist child 05
Buddhist monks receiving food from villagers

The belief in local, nature and household spirits, that influence secular issues like health or prosperity, as well as ghosts (Thai: phi, ผี) is widespread. It is visible, for example, in so-called spirit houses (san phra phum) that may be found near many homes. Phi play an important role in local folklore, but also in modern popular culture, like television series and films. "Ghost films" (nang phi) are a distinct, important genre of Thai cinema.[50]

Hinduism has left substantial and present marks on Thai culture. Some Thais worship Hindu gods like Ganesha, Shiva, Vishnu, or Brahma (e.g., at Bangkok's well-known Erawan Shrine). They do not see a contradiction between this practice and their primary Buddhist faith.[51] The Thai national epic Ramakien is an adaption of the Hindu Ramayana. Hindu mythological figures like Devas, Yakshas, Nagas, gods and their mounts (vahana) characterise the mythology of Thais and are often depicted in Thai art, even as decoration of Buddhist temples.[52] Thailand's national symbol Garuda is taken from Hindu mythology as well.[53]

A characteristic feature of Thai Buddhism is the practice of tham bun (ทำบุญ) ("merit-making"). This can be done mainly by food and in-kind donations to monks, contributions to the renovation and adornment of temples, releasing captive creatures (fish, birds), etc. Moreover, many Thais idolise famous and charismatic monks,[54] who may be credited with thaumaturgy or with the status of a perfected Buddhist saint (Arahant). Other significant features of Thai popular belief are astrology, numerology, talismans and amulets[55] (often images of the revered monks)[56]

Besides Thailand's two million Muslim Malays, there are an additional two million ethnic Thais who profess Islam, especially in the south, but also in greater Bangkok. As a result of missionary work, there is also a minority of approximately 500,000 Christian Thais: Catholics and various Protestant denominations.

Anthropometry

Stephen Pheasant (1986), who taught anatomy, biomechanics and ergonomics at the Royal Free Hospital and the University College, London, said that Far Eastern people have proportionately shorter lower limbs than European and black African people. Pheasant said that the proportionately short lower limbs of Far Eastern people is a difference that is most characterized in Japanese people, less characterized in Korean and Chinese people, and least characterized in Vietnamese and Thai people.[57][58]

Craniometry

Supakit Rooppakhun et al. (2010) said that there was a statistically significant difference in the craniometric data between Thai skulls from the northeast region of Thailand when compared to Thai skulls from the central region of Thailand. The study said that the skull dimensions of Thai male craniometric data are larger than those of Thai female craniometric data, and the study said that there was a statistically significant difference in the craniometric data between the skulls of Thai males when compared to the skulls of Thai females.[59]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The total figure is merely an estimation; sum of all the referenced populations below.
  1. ^ Thai people make up approximately 75–85% population of the country (68 million). Includes Northern Thai and Southern Thai.

References

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  28. ^ Gehan Wijeyewardene (1990). Ethnic Groups across National Boundaries in Mainland Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 48. ISBN 978-981-3035-57-7. The word 'Thai' is today generally used for citizens of the Kingdom of Thailand, and more specifically for the 'Siamese'.
  29. ^ Barbara A. West (2009), Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania, Facts on File, p. 794, ISBN 978-1-4381-1913-7
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  32. ^ Pain, Frédéric (2008). An Introduction to Thai Ethnonymy: Examples from Shan and Northern Thai. Journal of the American Oriental Society Vol. 128, No. 4 (Oct. - Dec., 2008), p.646.
  33. ^ Luo, Wei; Hartmann, John; Li, Jinfang; Sysamouth, Vinya (December 2000). "GIS Mapping and Analysis of Tai Linguistic and Settlement Patterns in Southern China" (PDF). Geographic Information Sciences. 6 (2): 129–136. Retrieved May 28, 2013. Abstract. By integrating linguistic information and physical geographic features in a GIS environment, this paper maps the spatial variation of terms connected with wet-rice farming of Tai minority groups in southern China and shows that the primary candidate of origin for proto-Tai is in the region of Guangxi-Guizhou, not Yunnan or the middle Yangtze River region as others have proposed....
  34. ^ Du Yuting; Chen Lufan (1989). "Did Kublai Khan's Conquest of the Dali Kingdom Give Rise to the Mass Migration of the Thai People to the South?" (PDF). Journal of the Siam Society. JSS Vol. 77.1c (digital). image 7 of p. 39. Retrieved March 17, 2013. The Thai people in the north as well as in the south did not in any sense "migrate en masse to the south" after Kublai Khan's conquest of the Dali Kingdom.
  35. ^ Pittayaporn, Pittayawat (2014). Layers of Chinese Loanwords in Proto-Southwestern Tai as Evidence for the Dating of the Spread of Southwestern Tai. MANUSYA: Journal of Humanities, Special Issue No 20: 47-64.
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  37. ^ "Ayodhya-Ayutthaya – SEAArch – The Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog". Southeastasianarchaeology.com. 2008-05-05. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
  38. ^ a b Thak Chaloemtiarana. Are We Them? Textual and Literary Representations of the Chinese in Twentieth-Century Thailand. CHINESE SOUTHERN DIASPORA STUDIES, VOLUME SEVEN, 2014–15, p. 186.
  39. ^ Baker, Chris; Phongpaichit, Pasuk. A History of Thailand. Cambridge University Press (2009), p. 206. ISBN 978-1-107-39373-8.
  40. ^ a b c Thak Chaloemtiarana (2007), Thailand: The Politics of Despotic Paternalism, Ithaca, NY: Cornell Southeast Asia Program, pp. 245–246, ISBN 978-0-87727-742-2
  41. ^ Richter, Frank-Jürgen (1999). Business Networks in Asia: Promises, Doubts, and Perspectives. Praeger. p. 193. ISBN 978-1-56720-302-8.
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  43. ^ Theraphan Luangthongkum (2007), "The Position of Non-Thai Languages in Thailand", Language, Nation and Development in Southeast Asia, ISEAS Publishing, p. 191, ISBN 9789812304827
  44. ^ Tejapira, Kasian (2003), "De-Othering Jek Communists: Rewriting Thai History from the Viewpoint of the Ethno-Ideological Order", Southeast Asia Over Three Generations: Essays Presented to Benedict R. O'G. Anderson, Ithaca, NY: Cornell Southeast Asia Program, p. 247
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  53. ^ Desai (1980), Hinduism in Thai Life, p. 26
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  55. ^ Timothy D. Hoare (2004), Thailand: A Global Studies Handbook, Santa Barbara CA: ABC-CLIO, p. 144
  56. ^ Justin Thomas McDaniel (2011), The Lovelorn Ghost and the Magical Monk: Practicing Buddhism in Modern Thailand, New York: Columbia University Press
  57. ^ Pheasant, Stephen. (2003). Bodyspace: Anthropometry, ergonomics and the design of work (2nd. ed.). Taylor & Francis. Page 159. Retrieved March 14, 2018, from Google Books.
  58. ^ Buckle, Peter. (1996). Obituary. Work & Stress, 10(3). Page 282. Retrieved March 14, 2018, from link to the PDF document.
  59. ^ Rooppakhun, Supakit et al. (2010). Craniometric Study of Thai Skull Based on Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography (CT) Data. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, 93(1). Pages 91 & 96. Retrieved January 25, 2018, from link.

Bibliography

  • Girsling, John L.S., Thailand: Society and Politics (Cornell University Press, 1981).
  • Terwiel, B.J., A History of Modern Thailand (Univ. of Queensland Press, 1984).
  • Wyatt, D.K., Thailand: A Short History (Yale University Press, 1986).

External links

Ananda Mahidol

Ananda Mahidol (Thai: พระบาทสมเด็จพระปรเมนทรมหาอานันทมหิดล; RTGS: Ananthamahidon; 20 September 1925 – 9 June 1946) was the eighth monarch of Siam from the Chakri dynasty as Rama VIII. At the time he was recognised as king by the National Assembly in March 1935, he was a nine-year-old boy living in Switzerland. He returned to Thailand in December 1945, but six months later in June 1946, he was found shot dead in his bed. Although at first thought to have been an accident, his death was ruled a murder by medical examiners, and three royal pages were later executed following very irregular trials. The mysterious circumstances surrounding his death have been the subject of much controversy.

Chalerm Yoovidhya

Chalerm Yoovidhya (born 1950) is a Thai billionaire businessman and heir to the Red Bull fortune. As of 2018, Forbes estimates his family’s combined net worth at US$21 billion.

Dai people

The Dai people (Kam Mueang: ᩱᨴᩭ; Thai: ไท; Shan: တႆး [tai˥˩]; Tai Nüa: ᥖᥭᥰ, [tai˥], Chinese: 傣族; pinyin: Dǎizú) are one of several ethnic groups living in the Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture and the Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture (both in southern Yunnan, China), but by extension, the term can apply to groups in Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, and Myanmar when Dai is used to mean specifically Tai Yai, Lue, Chinese Shan, Tai Dam, Tai Khao or even Tai in general. For other names, please see the table below.

Indians in Thailand

About 65,000 Indian Thais have full Thai citizenship, mainly in the cities.

Johnny Anfone

Johny Anfone (Thai: จอนนี่ แอนโฟเน่; October 28, 1969) is a Thai actor, host and singer.

Jon Ungpakorn

Jon Ungpakorn (Thai จอน อึ๊งภากรณ์; born September 19, 1947) is a London-born Thai non-governmental organization (NGO) executive and member of the Senate of Thailand. He is an older brother of Peter Ungpakorn and Ji Ungpakorn and is of British and Chinese Thai parentage. His mother was the former Margaret Smith of London; his father was the revered Dr Puey Ungpakorn.

In 2000 Jon Ungpakorn was elected to the Senate with the support of the NGO and HIV/AIDS communities.

In 2005 he was awarded the Magsaysay Award for Governmental Services, exactly 40 years after his father won the award.

He is a founder of Prachatai online newspaper and once served on its board.

Kralan

Kralan (Khmer: ក្រឡាន) or khao lam (Thai: ข้าวหลาม, pronounced [kʰâw lǎːm]; Lao: ເຂົ້າຫລາມ) is a Southeast Asian rice dish made of sticky rice with red beans, sugar, grated coconut and coconut milk roasted in specially-prepared bamboo sections of different diameters and lengths. It can be prepared with white or dark purple (khao niao dam) varieties of glutinous rice. Sometimes described as a "cake", thick khao lam containers may have a filling of coconut custard in the center which is made from coconut cream, egg and sugar.In Thai, “kao” means glutinous rice and “lam” means the cooking process which involves roasting the contents in prepared bamboo sections. Kaolam has many advantages. For example, it can be consumed as food or as a dessert It is a cultural food and is an OTOP product . Moreover, Thai people present Kaolam to monks to make merit. Furthermore, it is gradually becoming a Thai tradition.

In the past, Thailand had an uncountable number of bamboo trees. Thai people thought about the utility of using bamboo for cooking purposes. The ingredients of Kaolam are glutinous rice, black beans, coconut milk, sugar and salt. Moreover, taro or young coconut may be added for a more appetizing taste. To make Kaolam, the first step is to cut a piece of bamboo with one knot intact at one end and the other end exposed. Then, clean the outside surface of the bamboo and dry it. The second step is to clean the rice with water until the water turns clear. Then, dry and mix the rice with the black beans.The third step is to mix coconut milk, sugar and salt. The fourth step is pouring the rice prepared in the second step into about two-thired of the bamboo sections, then pour the coconut mixture on top of the rice. The fifth step is to arrange the sections into rows and put a layer of a trunk of a banana tree to cover the side of the section rows. The final step is to roast it the bamboo sections for about 30 - 45 minutes until the sections turn yellow. Then, serve it.

Nowadays, Kaolam is not only food or to give to the monks but also has become the product that produce so many benefits and careers for Thai people. Kaolam has also because as a traditional knowledge that we can conserve for the next generation.In Cambodia, kralan cake is often made and eaten at Chinese New Year and Khmer New Year. Thma Krae village in Kratie Province has become well known for making the tastiest kralan.

Kue cucur

Kue cucur (Indonesian) or kuih cucur (Malay), known in Thai as khanom fak bua (ขนมฝักบัว, pronounced [kʰā.nǒm fàk būa̯]) or khanom chuchun (ขนมจู้จุน or จูจุ่น), is a traditional snack in parts of Southeast Asia, includes Indonesia, Malaysia, southern Thailand and Vietnam. In Indonesia, kue cucur can be found throughout traditional marketplaces in the country; the popular version, however, is the Betawi version from Jakarta. In Brunei and Malaysia, the term cucur is generally used to refer to any type of fritters. A popular type of cucur in Brunei and Malaysia is Jemput-jemput (also known as Cokodok) and Pinjaram (also known as Kuih cucur gula merah/melaka). In Southern Thailand, it is often featured in wedding ceremonies and festivals.

The dessert, made of fried rice flour mixed with palm sugar, is thick in the middle and thin at the edges. Thai people believe that it is similar to the lotus which can grow in poor conditions. Thus, it is like the love of a newly married couple that will smoothly grow up and succeed in married life. Thai people like to use it at a wedding or propitious ceremony, or at any festival. Sometimes it is given as a gift. Normally, Thai people like to eat it immediately after it is fried because it is still soft and colorful, and smells good. If it is left for an hour, it will be sticky, stiff and full of oil.

List of flag bearers for Thailand at the Olympics

This is a list of flag bearers who have represented Thailand at the Olympics.Flag bearers carry the national flag of their country at the opening ceremony of the Olympic Games.

Mangpor Chonthicha

Mangpor Cholthicha (Thai: แมงปอ ชลธิชา) is a famous Thai Luk thung singer and actress.

Northern Khmer people

The Northern Khmer people, also known in Thai as Thai-Khmer people (Thai: ไทยเชื้อสายเขมร lit. "Thais of Khmer descent"), is the designation used to refer to ethnic Khmers native to the Isan region of Northeast Thailand.

Northern Thai people

The Northern Thai people or Tai Yuan (ไทยวน, [taj˧ ɲuːən˧]), self-designation khon mu(e)ang (ฅนเมือง, [xon˧ mɯːəŋ˧], meaning "people of the (cultivated) land" or "people of our community") are a Tai ethnic group of eight provinces in northern Thailand, principally in the area of the former kingdom of Lan Na. As a Tai group, they are closely related to Tai Lü and Tai Khün with regards to common culture, language and history as well as to Thailand's dominant Thai ethnic group (in contrast referred to as Siamese or Central Thai). There are approximately 6 million Tai Yuan. Most of them live in Northern Thailand, with a small minority 29,442 (2005 census) living across the border in Bokeo Province and Sainyabuli Province of Laos. Their language is called Northern Thai, Lanna, or Kham Mueang.

Prajadhipok

Prajadhipok (Thai: ประชาธิปก; 8 November 1893 – 30 May 1941), also Rama VII, was the seventh monarch of Siam of the Chakri dynasty. He was the last absolute monarch and the first constitutional monarch of the country. His reign was a turbulent time for Siam due to political and social changes during the Revolution of 1932. He is to date the only Siamese monarch of the Chakri Dynasty to abdicate.

Rama I

Phra Phutthayotfa Chulalok (Thai: พระพุทธยอดฟ้าจุฬาโลก), born Thongduang (Thai: ทองด้วง) and also known as Rama I (20 March 1737 – 7 September 1809), was the founder of Rattanakosin Kingdom and the first monarch of the reigning Chakri dynasty of Siam (now Thailand). His full title in Thai is Phra Bat Somdet Phra Paramoruracha Mahachakkriborommanat Phra Phutthayotfa Chulalok (Thai: พระบาทสมเด็จพระปรโมรุราชามหาจักรีบรมนารถ พระพุทธยอดฟ้าจุฬาโลก). He ascended the throne in 1782, after defeating a rebellion which had deposed King Taksin of Thonburi. He was also celebrated as the founder of Rattanakosin (now Bangkok) as the new capital of the reunited kingdom.

Rama I was born from a Mon male line descent family, great grandson of Kosa Pan. His father served in the royal court in the Kingdom of Ayutthaya, and had served King Taksin in wars against the Burmese Konbaung dynasty and helped him in the reunification of Siam. During this time he emerged as Siam's most powerful military leader. Thongduang was the first Somdet Chao Phraya, the highest rank the nobility could attain, equaled to that of royalty. In 1782, he took control of Siam and crowned himself as the monarch. The most famous event in his reign was the Burmese-Siamese War of 1785, which was the last major Burmese assault on Siam.

Surojana Sethabutra

Surojana Sethabutra (born 1956, in Bangkok) is a Thai ceramic artist. An MFA from Kansas State University, Surojana's work tries to break the traditional mold of Thai ceramics into new forms. She specializes in hand building. She is a prominent member of Womanifesto, an international woman's art exchange.

Surojana is married to a Thai architect, and has one daughter, Som-O, who is currently studying medicine at Siriraj Hospital.

Tai peoples

Tai peoples refers to the population of descendants of speakers of a common Tai language, including sub-populations that no longer speak a Tai language. There is a total of about 93 million people of Tai ancestry worldwide, with largest ethnic groups being Thais, Isan, Shan, Lao, Ahom and Northern Thai peoples.

The Tai are scattered throughout South Asia and Southeast Asia. Tai peoples are both culturally and genetically very similar and therefore primarily identified through their language.

Vajiravudh

Vajiravudh, also known as King Rama VI, reigning title Phra Mongkut Klao Chao Yu Hua (1 January 1880 – 26 November 1925), was the sixth monarch of Siam under the Chakri dynasty, ruling from 1910 until his death. King Vajiravudh is known for his efforts to create and promote Siamese nationalism. His reign was characterized by Siam's movement further towards democracy and minimal participation in World War I.

Women in Thailand

Women in Thailand were among the first women in Asia who were granted the right to vote in 1932. They are underrepresented in Thai politics. Yingluck Shinawatra, a woman, was prime minister from 2011 to 2014. The roles of women in Thailand's national development has not yet been fully established. Factors that affect women's participation in the socio-economic field include "inadequate gender awareness in the policy and planning process" and social stereotyping.

Yingluck Shinawatra

Yingluck Shinawatra (Thai: ยิ่งลักษณ์ ชินวัตร, RTGS: Yinglak Chinnawat, pronounced [jîŋ.lák t͡ɕʰīn.nā.wát]; born 21 June 1967), nicknamed Pou (Thai: ปู, RTGS: Pu, pronounced [pūː], meaning "crab"), is a Thai businesswoman, politician and a member of the Pheu Thai Party who became the 28th Prime Minister of Thailand following the 2011 election. Yingluck was Thailand's first female Prime Minister and its youngest in over 60 years. She was removed from office on 7 May 2014 by a Constitutional Court decision.Born in Chiang Mai Province into a wealthy family of Hakka Chinese descent, Yingluck Shinawatra earned a bachelor's degree from Chiang Mai University and a master's degree from Kentucky State University, both in public administration. She then became an executive in the businesses founded by her elder brother, Thaksin Shinawatra and later became the president of property developer SC Asset and managing director of Advanced Info Service. Thaksin served as Prime Minister from 2001 until 2006 when he was overthrown by a military coup. He fled abroad shortly before he was convicted in absentia of using his position to increase his own wealth. He has since lived in self-imposed exile to avoid his sentence in prison.

In May 2011, the Pheu Thai Party, which maintains close ties to Thaksin, nominated Yingluck as their candidate for Prime Minister in the 2011 election. She campaigned on a platform of national reconciliation, poverty eradication, and corporate income tax reduction and won a landslide victory.

After mass protests against her government in late 2013, she asked for a dissolution of parliament on 9 December 2013, triggering a snap election, but continued to act as caretaker prime minister. On 7 May 2014, the Constitutional Court of Thailand removed Yingluck Shinawatra from the office of caretaker prime minister and defence minister following months of political crisis. The court found her guilty of charges of abuse of power over the removal of national security chief Thawil Pliensri in 2011. In the wake of the May 2014 military coup, Yingluck was arrested along with former cabinet ministers and political leaders of all parties and held at an army camp for a few days while the coup was consolidated.

She was tried in 2016 but did not appear in court in August 2017 for the verdict. An arrest warrant was issued. She reportedly fled the country. In September 2017, she was found guilty in absentia and sentenced to five years in prison. She is rumoured to now be in London, England. Yingluck has become the chairwoman and legal representative of Shantou International Container Terminals Ltd since 12 December 2018, a Chinese port operator, operating in the Shantou Port area in eastern Guangdong.

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