Thừa Thiên-Huế (listen) is a province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam, approximately in the centre of the country. It borders Quảng Trị Province to the north and Đà Nẵng to the south, Laos to the west and the East Sea to the east. The province has 128 km of coastline, 22,000 ha of lagoons and over 200,000 ha of forest. There is an extensive complex of imperial tombs and temples in Huế.
Thừa Thiên-Huế Province
Tỉnh Thừa Thiên-Huế
Lăng Cô in Thừa Thiên-Huế
Location of Thừa Thiên-Huế within Vietnam
|Region||North Central Coast|
|• People's Council Chair||Nguyễn Ngọc Thiện|
|• People's Committee Chair||Nguyễn Văn Cao|
|• Total||5,033.2 km2 (1,943.3 sq mi)|
|• Density||223/km2 (580/sq mi)|
|• Ethnicities||Vietnamese and Champa ancestry|
|Time zone||UTC+7 (ICT)|
|ISO 3166 code||VN-26|
The region's history dates back some 2,800 years according to archaeological findings from the Sa Huynh Culture as well as from relics in the region. Đại Việt became an independent nation around 938 BC of which territorial conflict lasts for about four centuries between the Đại Việt and the Champa. The two provinces then changed their names to Thanh and Hóa. In 1307, Đoàn Nhữ Hài was appointed by the emperor, Trần Anh Tông, to administer the area. The people from the north (Thanh Hóa) migrated south and integrated with the people of the Kingdom of Champa. During this time, had the settlement of Hoa Chau Province began, which included the area of present-day Thừa Thiên.
Between the settlement of Thuận Hóa (1306) to the founding of Phú Xuân (1687), there were conflicts and uncertainties for the local people, which including the fall of the Trần Dynasty to the renaissance of the Hồ dynasty. Thuận Hóa and Phú Xuân became the location of the Đại Việt kingdom once Nguyễn Hoàng was appointed head of Thuận Hóa (1511–1558). Lord Nguyễn Hoàng (1558–1613) established bases at Ai Tu, Tra Bat and Dinh Cat, while his lords moved palaces to Kim Long (1636), where they would eventually base their operations in Phú Xuân (1687). The Nguyễn lords ruled the area until it taken over the Trinh clan in 1775. The farmers movement led by the Tây Sơn brothers gained momentum in 1771. The Tây Sơn insurgent army won the battle in Phú Xuân to take over the Nguyễn capital in 1786, where they continued north and overthrew the Trinh Dynasty. In Phú Xuân, Nguyễn Huệ appointed himself king, and with internal differences with the Tây Sơn Movement and the death of Nguyễn Huệ (1792), Nguyễn Ánh took advantage of the situation and took over Gia Định with the support of foreign forces. Nguyễn Ánh attached to the Tây Sơn movement and took over Phú Xuân and the throne, thereby choosing the dynasty title of Gia Long (1802). Phú Xuân was again chosen as the capital of Vietnam until 1945's August Revolution. Prior to 1975, the province was known simply as Thừa Thiên.
The province is known as an area of heavy fighting during the Vietnam War, as it was the second-most northerly province of the South Vietnam, close to the North Vietnamese border (DMZ) at the 17th parallel. More U.S. soldiers died in this province than in any other province in Vietnam (2,893). The Massacre at Huế occurred here; an estimated 2,800 to 6,000 civilians and Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) prisoners of war (POWs) were slaughtered by the Việt Cộng. Thừa Thiên-Huế province saw a large influx of North Vietnamese settlers soon after the Vietnam War ended, as with the rest of the former South. This province and neighbouring Quảng Nam Province suffered greatly from flooding in November 1999.
Thừa Thiên-Huế Province borders Quảng Trị Province to the north, the city of Đà Nẵng to the east, Quảng Nam Province to the south, and the Savannakhet, Salavan and Sekong provinces of Laos to the west. The Perfume River (called Sông Hương or Hương Giang in Vietnamese) passes through the province. The province also accommodates the Tam Giang Cầu Hai Lagoon, the largest lagoon in Southeast Asia, which is 68 kilometres (42 mi) long with a surface area of 220 square kilometres (85 sq mi). The province comprises four different zones: a mountainous area, hills, plains and lagoons separated from the sea by sandbanks. It has 128 kilometres (80 mi) of beaches. The mountains, covering more than half the total surface of the province, are along the west and southwest border of the province, their height varying from 500 metres (1,600 ft) to 1,480 metres (4,860 ft). The hills are lower, between 20 metres (66 ft) and 200 metres (660 ft), with some points at 400 metres (1,300 ft), and occupy about a third of the province's area, between the mountains and the plains. The plains account for about a tenth of the surface area, with a height of only up to 20 metres (66 ft) above sea level. Between the hills are the lagoons which occupy the remaining five per cent of the province's surface area.
Bạch Mã National Park is a protected area near the city of Hué. It covers 220 square kilometres (85 sq mi) and comprises three zones: a strictly protected core area, an administrative area and a buffer zone. The climate is similar to central Vietnam in general: a tropical monsoon climate. In the plains and in the hills, the average annual temperature is 25 °C (77 °F), but in the mountains only 21 °C (70 °F) (statistical yearbook 2004). The cool season is from November to March with cold northeasterly winds. The lowest average monthly temperature is in January: 20 °C (68 °F). In the cool season temperatures can fall to 12 °C (54 °F) in the plains and the relative humidity is high, between 85 and 95 per cent. Then follows a warmer period from April to September with average monthly temperatures up to 29 °C (84 °F) in July, reaching up to 41 °C (106 °F) at times. It is very humid in July but relative humidity is lower, sometimes down to 50 per cent.
The annual precipitation in the province is 3,200 millimetres (130 in) but there are important variations. Depending on the year the annual average may be 2,500 millimetres (98 in) to 3,500 millimetres (140 in) in the plains and 3,000 millimetres (120 in) to 4,500 millimetres (180 in) in the mountains. In some years the rainfall may be much higher and reach more than 5,000 millimetres (200 in) in the mountains. The rainy season is from September to December—about 70 per cent of the precipitation occurring in those months. Rainfall often occurs in short heavy bursts which can cause flooding and erosion, with serious social, economic and environmental consequences. The floods of November 1999 led to 600 deaths and affected 600,000 homes. (Comité des inondations, 1999).
A remote region known as the "Green Corridor" is home to many species. New species of snake, butterfly, and orchid have been found there in 2005 and 2006, as stated by Chris Dickinson of the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) on 26 September 2007. The scientists discovered 11 new species of plants and animals, including a snake, two butterflies and five leafless orchid varieties. The new snake species is a white-lipped keelback (Hebius leucomystax). The new butterfly species are the "skipper" from the genus Zela and the other from Satyrinae. The new plant species also include one in the Aspidistra family, and a poisonous Arum perennial.
Schoolchildren are required to wear uniforms and "khăn quàng đỏ" (red neck tie) to school. The "khăn quàng đỏ" is mandatory for all elementary students in Vietnam, symbolizing their allegiance and adherence to the Communist Party and its ideologies. High school girls are required to wear white áo dài to school, while boys wear uniforms consisting of a white shirt and dark blue pants.
Thừa Thiên-Huế is subdivided into 9 district-level sub-divisions:
They are further subdivided into 8 commune-level towns (or townlets), 105 communes, and 39 wards.
The average population of the province is 1.143.572, which consist of approximately 567.253 males and 576.319 females. The rural population is approximately 587.516 while the urban population is 556.056 (2015).
|Largest cities or towns in Thừa Thiên-Huế Province (2015)|
|2||Hương Trà||District-level town||116,147|
|3||Hương Thủy||District-level town||101,353|
|4||Thuận An||Town||Phú Vang District||21,220|
|5||Phú Đa||Town||Phú Vang District||12,381|
|6||Lăng Cô||Town||Phú Lộc District||12,177|
|7||Phú Lộc||Town||Phú Lộc District||10,613|
|8||Sịa||Town||Quảng Điền District||10,583|
|9||A Lưới||Town||A Lưới District||7,393|
|10||Phong Điền||Town||Phong Điền District||6,743|
|11||Khe Tre||Town||Nam Đông District||3,818|
The retail sales of goods and services (trade, hotel, restaurant, tourism) in the province is 10960.6 billion đồng or 0.9 percent of the country. This is compared with 12.7 percent for Hanoi and 23.5 percent for Ho Chi Minh City (2009). The province has more than 120 km of coastline, which provides for a seafood industry that produces over 40,000 tonnes/year consisting of over 500 species of fish.
There are more than 100 mines for minerals and non-mineral resources with the majority consisting of limestone, granite and kaolin. Arts (e.g. wood works, fabrics, furnitures, paper arts, pottery), literature (text books), and spicy cuisines (included dry goods, vegetarian food) are the main exports of this region. Exquisite custom-made áo dài (Vietnamese long dress), and nón lá (conical hat) are souvenir items for foreign visitors and overseas Vietnamese. The ability to make toys, design lanterns, form special papers, and figurine-making are native skills. Such fruits as rambutan, jackfruit, lychee, durian, dao, dragon fruit, star fruit, mangosteen, coconut, and kumquat are grown in this area due to sufficient amount of rain received each year.
Many historical buildings are located in Huế, largely a legacy from its time as a capital of the Nguyễn dynasty (1802–1945), including the Royal Citadel, the Flag Tower, the Royal Palace, and the Royal Tombs. Huế's Forbidden Purple City was once reserved for the royal family, but was severely damaged during the Vietnam War. Outside the city is the religious site known as Nam Giao Hill ("Heaven's Altar"). Hue Brewery Ltd is located on Hương Giang in Huế with a recognizable brand in central Vietnam. The Brewery is jointed owned by the state and private sector and was founded in 1990 with an initial investment of 2.4 million USD with a capacity of 3 million liters/year, which has grown to a capacity of 100 million liters/year in 2007.
Vietnam's National Route 1A, which runs the entire length of the nation from north to south, passes through Huế. Huế and Đà Nẵng are the main intermediate stops on the railway line from Hanoi to Ho Chi Minh City. This province is served by two sea ports: Thuan An Port and Chân Mây Port. Phu Bai International Airport, the largest domestic airport in terms of passengers per year is situated 15 km south of Huế. This airport ranks fourth among Vietnam's airports. The government has approved the upgrade of this airport to an international airport with some air links inside Asia.
This city is home to Huế University (e.g.: Huế Economic University, Huế Medicine University, Huế Pedagogical University, Huế Forestry and Agriculture University, Huế University of Sciences, Huế University of Arts, Huế Conservatory of Music and Huế College of Foreign Languages). As of 2009 the province had 190 schools, 1302 classrooms, 2184 teachers and 36,200 pupils.
The most famous high school in Thua Thien Hue province is Quốc Học – Huế High School for the Gifted. It is well-known for its high quality of education. Besides, its reputation comes from its ancient structure of France.
The 2005 Phú Lộc derailment was an accident to an express passenger train that derailed in central Vietnam on 12 March 2005 when it was running on the North–South Railway, killing 11 people and injuring hundreds, many of which were in a serious condition after the crash. The accident occurred in Phú Lộc District, Thừa Thiên–Huế Province as the train was traveling from Hanoi to Ho Chi Minh City. The accident was described as "the most tragic rail accident in Vietnam in the past 30 years", and "the country's worst-ever rail accident".A Sầu Valley
The A Shau Valley (Vietnamese: thung lũng A Sầu) is a valley in Vietnam's Thừa Thiên-Huế Province, west of the coastal city of Huế, along the border of Laos. The valley runs north and south for 40 kilometers and is a 1.5- kilometer-wide flat bottomland covered with tall elephant grass, flanked by two densely forested mountain ridges whose summits vary in elevation from 900 to 1,800 meters. A Shau Valley was one of the key entry points into South Vietnam for men and material brought along the Ho Chi Minh trail by the North Vietnamese Army and was the scene of heavy fighting during the Vietnam War. The A Shau Valley is bisected lengthwise by Route 548. The Ho Chi Minh Highway now runs along the valley floor.Chân Mây Port
Chan May Port is located in the south-east corner of Thừa Thiên–Huế Province, Vietnam. It is operated by the Management Board of Chan May-Lang Co Economics Zone. Ownership of the Chan May Port may be assumed by the Vinashin Group in early 2008.The port was used in 2006 as an assembly yard for Rio Tinto Alcan's G3 Project, where mining modules were assembled and loaded out on the newly constructed wharf to the mine in Australia's Northern Territory state. The port is mainly used for the wood chip industry. As of September 2012 there are no passenger facilities at Chan May Port.Dong Ap Bia
Dong Ap Bia (Vietnamese: Đồi A Bia, Ap Bia Mountain) is a mountain on the Laotian border of South Vietnam in Thừa Thiên–Huế Province.
Rising from the floor of the western A Shau Valley, it is a looming, solitary massif, unconnected to the ridges of the surrounding Annamite range. It dominates the northern valley, towering some 937 metres above sea level. Snaking down from its highest peak are a series of ridges and fingers, one of the largest extending southeast to a height of 900 metres, another reaching south to a 916-metre peak. The entire mountain is a rugged, uninviting wilderness blanketed in double- and triple-canopy jungle, dense thickets of bamboo, and waist-high elephant grass. Local Montagnard tribesmen call Ap Bia "the mountain of the crouching beast."Firebase Birmingham
Firebase Birmingham (also known as FSB Birmingham, LZ Birmingham and Huế Southwest Airfield) is a former U.S. Army and Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) base southwest of Huế in Thừa Thiên–Huế Province, Vietnam.Huda Beer
Huda Beer is a lager beer produced and bottled in Huế, Vietnam, by Hue Brewery Ltd. The lager won a silver medal at the World Beer Championships in 2013.Huda is available as canned, bottled and draught beer.
Hue Brewery Ltd.'s headquarters are located at Nguyen Sinh Cung Street in the city of Huế, Thừa Thiên–Huế Province, on the Perfume River.
The company the owned the brand is acquired by Carlsberg Group.Huế railway station
Huế railway station is a railway station in the city of Huế, Vietnam on the main North–South Railway. The street address is 2 Bui Thi Xuan Street, Huế, Thừa Thiên–Huế Province, Vietnam.The station was built by the French colonial authorities during the French Indochina period. The station is influenced by French architecture and is today considered one of the most beautiful railway stations in Vietnam. Built by the French Public Works Department, it was considered a "rectangular horror" according to a source from 1913. During the Vietnam War in the Battle of Hue the station housed snipers but U.S. troops drove them out.Hương Thủy
Hương Thủy is a County-level town (thị xã) of Thừa Thiên–Huế Province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam. As of 2010 the town had a population of 93,680. The town covers an area of 458.1749 km².
This district has five urban wards, Phú Bài, Thủy Châu, Thủy Dương, Thủy Lương and Thủy Phương and seven communes, Thủy Vân, Thủy Phù, Phú Sơn, Dương Hòa, Thủy Bằng, Thủy Tân and Thủy Thanh.
The town borders Phú Lộc District to the east, Hương Trà District and A Lưới District to the west, Nam Đông District to the south, and the city of Huế and Phú Vang District to the north.Independence Stadium (Vietnam)
The Tự Do Stadium (Freedom Stadium) or Sân vận động Tự Do is located in the center of Huế City, Thừa Thiên–Huế Province, Vietnam. It has a capacity of 25,000 seats. The stadium was constructed by the French colonialists in the early 1930s, at which time it was given the name "Stade Olympique de Hué". Then, the Nguyễn court renamed it Stadium Long Bao (commemorating King Bảo Đại and Queen Nam Phương's son Bảo Long).
Tự Do stadium is the home field of the football club Huda Hue F.C. (the first football club in Thừa Thiên–Huế).Katu language
Katu, or Low Katu, is a Katuic language of eastern Laos and central Vietnam.
In Vietnam, it is spoken in Thừa Thiên–Huế Province, including in A Lưới commune. By Census 2009 of Vietnam there are 61588 Katu peoples.Kong River
Cong River (sông Công) is a river in Central Vietnam
The Kong River, also known as the Xe Kong or the Se Kong (Lao: ເຊກອງ Se Kong, (Khmer:សេកុង(official) or ស្រែគង្គ(Khmerization)), Vietnamese: sông Sê Kông) is a river in Southeast Asia. The river originates in Thừa Thiên–Huế Province in Central Vietnam and flows 480 kilometres (300 mi) through southern Laos and eastern Cambodia. It joins the Mekong River near Stung Treng town of Cambodia. Part of its course forms the international boundary between Laos and Cambodia.Lăng Cô
Lăng Cô is a township (thị trấn) in Phú Lộc District, Thừa Thiên–Huế Province, Bắc Trung Bộ, Việt Nam. It has a well known beach and resort.Lộc An
Lộc An may refer to:
Commune Lộc An, Bà Rịa–Vũng Tàu in Đất Đỏ District, Bà Rịa–Vũng Tàu Province
Commune Lộc An, Lâm Đồng in Bảo Lâm District, Lâm Đồng Province
Commune Lộc An, Thừa Thiên-Huế in Phú Lộc District, Thừa Thiên–Huế Province
Commune Lộc An, Đồng Nai in Long Thành District, Đồng Nai Province
Commune Lộc An, Bình Phước in Lộc Ninh, Bình Phước Province
Commune Lộc An, Nam Định in Nam Định city, Nam Định ProvincePerfume River
The Perfume River (Sông Hương or Hương Giang; 香江) is a river that crosses the city of Huế, in the central Vietnamese province of Thừa Thiên-Huế Province. In the autumn, flowers from orchards upriver from Huế fall into the water, giving the river a perfume-like aroma, hence the sobriquet.Phong Điền District
Phong Điền is a rural district of Thừa Thiên–Huế Province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam. As of 2003, the district had a population of 105,017. The district covers an area of 954 km². The district capital lies at Phong Điền.It borders Quảng Trị Province and Hương Trà District. It has 15 communes, Điền Hương, Điền Môn, Phong Bình, Phong Chương, Điền Lộc, Phong Hoà, Điền Hoà, Phong Hải, Điền Hải, Phong Mỹ, Phong Thu, Phong Hiền, Phong An, Phong Xuân, Phong Sơn, and one township Phong Điền.
It has a varied geography with mountains, plains and coastline on the South China Sea.
The district was the homeland of Nguyễn Tri Phương, the general who commanded the Nguyễn Dynasty's army in the 1850s and 1860s when the French began their colonisation of Indochina, and Nguyễn Đình Chiểu, the anti-colonial poet.
The district was created by Emperor Minh Mạng in 1834 as part of the then province of Thuận Hóa.
On March 11, 1977, the district was merged with those of Hương Trà and Quảng Điền to become the district of Hương Điền in the province of Bình Trị Thiên (1976–89). On September 29, 1990, Hương Điền was redivided into the three original districts and put in Thừa Thiên–Huế Province.Phú Lộc District
Phú Lộc is a rural district of Thừa Thiên–Huế Province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam. As of 2003 the district had a population of 149,418. The district covers an area of 728 km². The district capital lies at Phú Lộc.The area abuts the South China Sea to the east and the Hải Vân Pass to the south. The city of Phú Lộc is the main economic focal point of the district, mainly due to tourism.
The district comprises the townships of Lăng Cô and Phú Lộc, and the communes of Lộc Trì, Lộc Bổn, Vinh Hải, Lộc Hòa, Lộc An, Lộc Bình, Lộc Thủy, Vinh Giang, Lộc Vĩnh, Vinh Mỹ, Lộc Sơn, Lộc Tiến, Vinh Hiền, Vinh Hưng, Xuân Lộc and Lộc Điền.
The district is divided into three sectors, from Huế and moving southwards towards Phú Lộc is Sector 1, opposite is Sector 2, and the region between Lăng Cô and Phú Lộc is Sector 3.Quảng Điền District
Quảng Điền is a rural district of Thừa Thiên – Huế Province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam. It is located in the province's north. As of 2003 the district had a population of 91,514. The district covers an area of 163 km². The district capital lies at Sịa.Aside from the township of Sịa, it has seven communes located on the shores of the Bo river, these are Quảng An, Quảng Thành, Quảng Phước, Quảng Thọ and Quảng Vinh. The other communes are Quảng Thái, Quảng Lợi, Quảng Ngạn, Quảng Công and Quảng Phú. The Bo River runs southwest through the district.Ta Oi people
The Tà Ôi is an ethnic group of Vietnam (34,960 in 1999) and Laos.
They speak the Ta’Oi language, a Mon–Khmer language. They are concentrated in A Lưới district of Thừa Thiên–Huế Province and Hướng Hóa District of Quảng Trị Province in Vietnam, and in muang Ta Oy of Saravane Province in southern Laos.Thuận An estuary
The Thuận An estuary (Vietnamese: Cửa Thuận An, demotic names: cửa Eo, cửa Nộn), is an important estuarine port on the Perfume River in central Vietnam's Thừa Thiên–Huế Province.
Places adjacent to Thừa Thiên-Huế Province