Texas Earnest Schramm Jr. (June 2, 1920 – July 15, 2003) was the original president and general manager of the National Football League's Dallas Cowboys franchise. Schramm, usually referred to as "Tex", became the head of the Cowboys when the former expansion team started operations in 1960.
|Position:||General manager, president|
|Born:||June 2, 1920|
San Gabriel, California
|Died:||July 15, 2003 (aged 83)|
|High school:||Alhambra (CA)|
|Career highlights and awards|
|Service/||U.S. Army Air Forces|
|Battles/wars||World War II|
Despite his name, Schramm was not born in Texas, but in San Gabriel, California. Texas was his father's name and where his parents met. Schramm attended Alhambra High School and went to the University of Texas, graduating in 1947 with a bachelor's degree in journalism. At UT he was a member of Phi Kappa Psi Fraternity, as was his father. Schramm interrupted his education to serve as an officer in the United States Army Air Forces during World War II.
Before joining the Cowboys, Schramm was part of the Los Angeles Rams from 1947 to 1956. During his tenure, he hired Pete Rozelle as the Rams' public relations director; Rozelle later became one of the most important commissioners in the history of the NFL. They remained close friends after Rozelle became NFL commissioner and Schramm became general manager of the Cowboys (each holding his position for 29 years).
In late 1959, when it became apparent that the NFL was intent on expanding to Dallas, Schramm told his friends in football that he was interested in running the team. Chicago Bears owner George Halas introduced Schramm to Clint Murchison Jr., who had tried to bring the NFL to Dallas several times in the past. Murchison hired Schramm as the general manager for a potential Dallas team, which became a reality when the league awarded a franchise to the city on January 28, 1960.
In 1960, Schramm hired head coach Tom Landry and chief scout Gil Brandt. By the mid-1960s, the three men had built the Cowboys into an elite team. The Cowboys, despite two consecutive losses to the Green Bay Packers in the NFL Championship Game in 1966 and '67, had 20 consecutive winning seasons, and won the most games of any NFL team of the 1970s. They appeared in five Super Bowls that decade, winning Super Bowls VI and XII, and losing Super Bowls V, X, and XIII by a combined 11 points. The Cowboys became a marquee NFL franchise, their popularity inspiring the nickname "America's Team".
Schramm was known as the most powerful general manager in the NFL. The Cowboys' owners during his tenure, Murchison (1960–84) and H.R. "Bum" Bright (1984–1988), largely left day-to-day operations in his hands. Schramm held the Cowboys' voting right at league meetings, a right normally reserved for team owners.
Schramm was a leading opponent of the 1987 NFLPA Strike. The NFL players union at the time were agitating for a better deal, including free agency rights. Scramm, with other owners, organized the hiring of replacement players while the usual players were on strike, earning a nickname of "the commissioner of replacement football". Schramm cattily said to executive director of the NFLPA Gene Upshaw "Gene, here’s what you have to understand: we're the ranchers and you're the cattle, and we can always get more cattle." Schramm was comparatively effective in convincing regular players of the Cowboys to cross the picket line, albeit at the cost of splitting the team; he aggressively used contract clauses as threats to revoke millions of dollars in annuity payments from players who would not return to work. Running back Tony Dorsett, who had previously criticized other team members for breaking the strike, felt he was financially forced to rejoin as well by Schramm's threats. Eventually 21 Cowboys players would break the strike and play with replacement players, a much higher rate than for other teams in the League; the Cowboys went 2-1 during the three strike-affected games.
Schramm was known for advocating for a number of changes and innovations that helped modernize the NFL. These include instant replay, using computer technology in scouting, multi-color striping of the 20- and 50-yard lines, 30-second clock between plays, extra-wide sideline borders, wind-direction stripes on the goal post uprights, the referee's microphone, headsets in the quarterback's helmet for hearing plays, and the Dallas Cowboys Cheerleaders. While leading the league's Competition Committee, he oversaw rule changes such as using overtime in the regular season, putting the official time on the scoreboard, moving goalposts from the front of the end zone to the back, and protecting quarterbacks through the in-the-grasp rule. Schramm's desire for a more comprehensive scouting combine led to the annual offseason NFL Scouting Combine in Indianapolis. Don Shula said of Schramm, "I truly believe he had as much, or more, to do with the success of professional football as anyone who has ever been connected with the league."
Schramm stayed on only briefly with the Cowboys after Jerry Jones purchased the team and fired Tom Landry. He left to become the president of the World League of American Football. Schramm was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1991. Schramm's entry into the Cowboys Ring of Honor took much longer due to strained relations with Jones. Schramm had created the Ring of Honor, and had been a "one-man committee" on inductions. Jones became that "committee" when he took over. Finally in 2003, Jones announced that Schramm would be inducted into the ring during the next football season. Schramm attended the announcement press conference and spoke, but died a few months later and was inducted posthumously.
Schramm married his high school sweetheart, Martha Anne Snowden, in 1941. Martha Schramm died on December 8, 2002. The couple had three daughters.
| World League of American Football President
The 1966 Dallas Cowboys season was the seventh for the franchise in the National Football League. The Cowboys finished the regular season at 10–3–1, their first winning record as a franchise and first Eastern Conference title. They hosted the NFL Championship Game at the Cotton Bowl, but lost to the defending champion Green Bay Packers, who went on to win the first Super Bowl two weeks later.1987 Dallas Cowboys season
The 1987 Dallas Cowboys season was the franchise's 28th season in the National Football League, they improved the record to 7-8 from 1986, but missing the playoffs for the second consecutive season.1990 Dallas Cowboys season
The 1990 Dallas Cowboys season was the franchise's 31st season in the National Football League and was the second year of the franchise under the ownership of Jerry Jones and head coach Jimmy Johnson. The Cowboys rebounded from a 1–15 season in 1989 to a 7–9 record, however, missed the playoffs for the fifth consecutive season. Despite this, Jimmy Johnson won AP's NFL coach of the year honours.Away colours
Away colours are a choice of coloured clothing used in team sports. They are required to be worn by one team during a game between teams that would otherwise wear the same colours as each other, or similar colours. This change prevents confusion for officials, players, and spectators. In most sports, it is the visiting or road team that must change – second-choice kits are commonly known as away kits or change kits in British English, and road uniforms in American English.
Some sports leagues mandate that away teams must always wear an alternative kit, while others simply state that the two teams' colours should not match. In some sports, conventionally the home team has changed its kit (such as in rugby union and early soccer).
In most cases, a team wears its away kit only when its primary kit would clash with the colours of the home team. However, sometimes teams wear away colours by choice, occasionally even in a home game. At some clubs, the away kit has become more popular than the home version. Replica home and away kits are usually available for fans to buy. Some teams also have produced third-choice kits, or even old-fashioned throwback uniforms.
In North American sports, road teams typically wear a change uniform regardless of a potential colour clash. "Color vs. color" games (e.g., blue jerseys vs. red jerseys) are a rarity, having been discouraged in the era of black-and-white television. Almost all road uniforms are white in gridiron football (including in the Canadian Football League, the National Football League and NCAA football) and the National Hockey League, while in baseball, visitors typically wear grey. In the National Basketball Association and NCAA basketball, home uniforms are white or yellow, and visiting teams wear the darker colour.Bum Bright
Harvey Roberts "Bum" Bright (October 6, 1920 – December 11, 2004) was an American businessman and philanthropist. He was the owner of the National Football League's Dallas Cowboys from 1984 to 1989.Dallas Cowboys
The Dallas Cowboys are a professional American football team based in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. The Cowboys compete in the National Football League (NFL) as a member club of the league's National Football Conference (NFC) East division. The team is headquartered in Frisco, Texas, and plays its home games at AT&T Stadium in Arlington, Texas, which opened for the 2009 season. The stadium took its current name prior to the 2013 season. The Cowboys joined the NFL as an expansion team in 1960. The team's national following might best be represented by its NFL record of consecutive sell-outs. The Cowboys' streak of 190 consecutive sold-out regular and post-season games (home and away) began in 2002. The franchise has made it to the Super Bowl eight times, tied with the Pittsburgh Steelers and the Denver Broncos for second most Super Bowl appearances in history, just behind the New England Patriots record eleven Super Bowl appearances. This has also corresponded to eight NFC championships, most in the NFC. The Cowboys have won five of those Super Bowl appearances, tying them with their NFC rivals, the San Francisco 49ers; both are second to Pittsburgh's and New England’s record six Super Bowl championships. The Cowboys are the only NFL team to record 20 straight winning seasons (1966–85), in which they missed the playoffs only twice (1974 and 1984).
In 2015, the Dallas Cowboys became the first sports team to be valued at $4 billion, making it the most valuable sports team in the world, according to Forbes. The Cowboys also generated $620 million in revenue in 2014, a record for a U.S. sports team. In 2018 they also became the first NFL franchise to be valued at $5 billion and making Forbes' list as the most valued NFL team for the 12th straight year.Dallas Cowboys Ring of Honor
The Dallas Cowboys Ring of Honor (RoH) was a ring around Texas Stadium in Irving, Texas and currently around AT&T Stadium in Arlington, Texas which honors former players, coaches and club officials who made outstanding contributions to the Dallas Cowboys football organization.
The Ring of Honor was created by Tex Schramm and began on November 23, 1975, which was designated in Dallas as Bob Lilly Day. On that day, the team held the first Cowboys reunion and unveiled Lilly's name and jersey number (74) beneath the press box during half time. As the first honoree, Lilly (who had retired from the NFL in July of '75 after 14 years) donned his Cowboy uniform once more and graciously accepted the honor, along with numerous other gifts, which included a car, a gun and a hunting dog. Also present at the event were Cowboys owner Clint Murchison, president/general manager Tex Schramm and Head Coach Tom Landry. As the first inductee, Lilly has the distinction of returning to present each new member into the RoH. Only nine players received the honor during the first three decades of the Cowboys existence, making the RoH a coveted achievement, true to the dream envisioned by Schramm, who became the 12th person selected to the Ring of Honor; the award was given posthumously in October 2003, a few months after he died.
In 2005, three former Cowboys all-stars were simultaneously inducted during half time ceremonies on Monday Night Football. Troy Aikman, Emmitt Smith, and Michael Irvin, known as "The Triplets", were part of the 1990s Three-Time Super Bowl Championship Cowboys team.Ring of Honor inductees have been chosen by the former president-general manager, Tex Schramm and then by owner Jerry Jones. Schramm set a precedent by placing a high value on the character of the inductees. There was controversy over the selection of Michael Irvin due to his drug charges.In 2017, the Ring of Honor was extended when the walkway was built with the former players' numbers in front of Ford Center, Cowboys' indoor practice facility.On November 1, 2015 Darren Woodson became the 21st member of the Dallas Cowboys Ring of Honor. On November 29, 2018, Gil Brandt became the 22nd member of the Dallas Cowboys Ring of Honor.
In total, the Dallas Cowboys Ring of Honor includes 19 players, 2 executives, and 1 head coach.Deaths in July 2003
The following is a list of notable deaths in July 2003.
Entries for each day are listed alphabetically by surname. A typical entry lists information in the following sequence:
Name, age, country of citizenship at birth, subsequent country of citizenship (if applicable), reason for notability, cause of death (if known), and reference.Gil Brandt
Gil Brandt (born March 4, 1933) is a former Vice President of player personnel in the National Football League for the Dallas Cowboys from 1960 to 1988. He is a graduate from the University of Wisconsin.Harvey Martin
Harvey Banks Martin (November 16, 1950 – December 24, 2001) was an American football defensive end in the National Football League for the Dallas Cowboys from 1973 until 1983. He starred at South Oak Cliff High School and East Texas State University, before becoming an All-Pro with the Dallas Cowboys.Jerry Jones
Jerral Wayne Jones (born October 13, 1942) is an American billionaire businessman, best known for being owner of the National Football League (NFL)'s Dallas Cowboys since 1989.Mike Lynn
Michael Lynn, III (May 18, 1936 – July 21, 2012) was an American football general manager and executive. He served as the general manager of the National Football League's Minnesota Vikings from 1975 to 1990.NFL Scouting Combine
The NFL Scouting Combine is a week-long showcase occurring every February at Lucas Oil Stadium (and formerly at the RCA Dome until 2008) in Indianapolis, where college football players perform physical and mental tests in front of National Football League coaches, general managers, and scouts. With increasing interest in the NFL Draft, the scouting combine has grown in scope and significance, allowing personnel directors to evaluate upcoming prospects in a standardized setting. Its origins have evolved from the National, BLESTO, and Quadra Scouting organizations in 1977 to the media event it has become today.
Athletes attend by invitation only. Implications of an athlete's performance during the combine can affect their draft status and salary, and ultimately their career. The draft has popularized the term "workout warrior", whereby an athlete's "draft stock" is increased based on superior measurable qualities such as size, speed, and strength, despite having an average or sub-par college career. The 2019 NFL scouting combine is scheduled for February 26 to March 4.Obert Logan
Obert Clark "Butch" Logan (December 6, 1941 – January 21, 2003) was an American football safety in the National Football League for the Dallas Cowboys and New Orleans Saints. He played college football at Trinity University. Logan, whose nickname was "The Little O", was the last person in the NFL to wear the single digit 0 before its use was discontinued by the league.Sam "Boom Boom" Wheeler
Sam Wheeler was part of the Harlem Globetrotters. Wheeler was also a member of the Magicians. He joined the team in 1950 and spent several years with them. He was born in November 25, 1924 and died on April 17, 1989. He died in St. Louis. Wheeler was also a veteran of the Negro National League.Schramm (surname)
Schramm is a German surname. Notable people with the surname include:
ActingDavid Schramm (actor) (born 1946), played Roy Biggins in the TV series Wings
Günther Schramm (born 1929), German actor
Karla Schramm (1891–1980), American actress
Marie-Luise Schramm (born 1984), German actress
Paula Schramm (born 1989), German actressArt and musicDave Schramm (musician), former lead guitarist for Yo La Tengo
Felix Schramm (born 1970), German artist
Georg Schramm (born 1949), German psychologist and Kabarett artist
Werner Schramm (1898–1970), German painterBusinessBuford John "B.J." Schramm (1938–2004), American businessman and developer of light personal helicopters
Carl Schramm, American businessmanMathematics and scienceDavid Schramm (astrophysicist) (1945–1997), American expert on the big bang theory and dark matter
Jacob R. Schramm (1885–1976), American botanist
Oded Schramm (1961–2008), Israeli-American mathematician
Vern L. Schramm (born 1941), American biochemist and professor at Albert Einstein College of MedicinePoliticsFrederick Schramm (1886–1962), New Zealand politician
Hilde Schramm (born 1936), former leader of the German Green PartySportBeate Schramm (born 1966), German rower
Claudia Schramm (born 1975), German bobsledder
Dave Schramm (American football) (born 1963), American college football player and assistant coach
Norbert Schramm (born 1960), German figure skater
Ricky Schramm (born 1985), American soccer player
Tex Schramm (1920–2003), American president and manager of the Dallas Cowboys football teamOtherAugustin Schramm (1907–1948), German-Czech intelligence agent
Gert Schramm (1928–2016), German African-American concentration camp survivor
Jean-Paul, comte de Schramm (1789–1884), French general
Percy Ernst Schramm (1894–1970), German historian of the Holy Roman Empire
Peter W. Schramm (born 1946), American academic at Ashland University
Wilbur Schramm (1907–1987), American communications researcher
Bente Schramm (born 1994), Swedish feminine youtuberTex (name)
Tex is a nickname, usually for someone from the U.S. state of Texas. Notable people with the nickname include:
Robert Allen (actor) (1906–1998), American film actor
Tex Austin (1886–1938), American rodeo promoter
Tex Avery (1908–1980), American animator, cartoonist, and director, famous for producing animated cartoons
Tex Banwell (1917–1999), British Second World War soldier and decoy for General Bernard Montgomery
Tex Beneke (1914–2000), American saxophonist, singer, and bandleader
Tex Brashear (born 1955), American voice actor, previously in radio
Tex Carleton (1906–1977), American Major League Baseball pitcher
Tex Clevenger (born 1932), American retired Major League Baseball pitcher
Randall "Tex" Cobb (born 1950), American boxer and actor
Tex Coulter (1924–2007), American National Football League lineman
Tex Erwin (1885–1963), American Major League Baseball catcher
David Lee "Tex" Hill (1915–2007), American World War II flying ace and brigadier general
Tex Hughson (1916–1993), American Major League Baseball pitcher
Tex Irvin (1906–1978), American football player
Tex Jeanes (1900–1973), American Major League Baseball player
Alvin "Tex" Johnston (1914–1998), American test pilot
Tex Maule (1915–1981), longtime lead American football writer for Sports Illustrated magazine
Tex McDonald (1891–1943), America Major League Baseball player
Tex Morton (1916–1983), New Zealand singer
Tex Perkins (born 1964), Australian rock musician
Tex Rickard (1870–1929), American boxing promoter, founder of the New York Rangers hockey team and builder of the third incarnation of Madison Square Garden
Tex Ritter (1905–1974), American country singer and actor
Tex Schramm (1920–2003), original president and general manager of the U.S. National Football League's Dallas Cowboys franchise
Tex Shirley (1918–1993), American Major League Baseball pitcher
Mark Teixeira (born 1980), Major League Baseball player
Tex Walker (born 1990), professional Australian rules footballer playing for Adelaide Crows
Tex Watson (born 1945), American murderer and former member of the Manson Family
Tex Williams (1917–1985), American country musician
Tex Winter (1922–2018), American basketball coach
Tex Wisterzil (1888–1964), American Major League Baseball playerTex Maule
Hamilton Prieleaux Bee Maule, commonly known as Tex Maule (May 19, 1915 in Ojus, Florida — May 16, 1981) was the lead American football writer for Sports Illustrated in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s.The Hidden Game of Football
The Hidden Game of Football is an influential book on American football statistics published in 1988 and written by Bob Carroll, John Thorn, and Pete Palmer. It was the first systematic statistical approach to analyzing American football in a book and is still considered the seminal work on the topic.
|Division championships (23)|
|Conference championships (10)|
|League Championships (5)|
|Current league affiliations|
Championship seasons in bold
|Wide receivers /|
Italics denotes players who have been voted in but not yet inducted.