Test cricket

Test cricket is the form of the sport of cricket with the longest match duration, and is considered the game's highest standard.[1][2] Test matches are played between national representative teams that have been granted "Test status", as determined and conferred by the International Cricket Council (ICC). The term Test stems from the fact that the long, gruelling matches are mentally and physically testing.[3] Two teams of 11 players each play a four-innings match, which may last up to five days (or longer in some historical cases). It is generally considered the most complete examination of a team's endurance and ability.[4][5][6]

The first officially recognised Test match took place between 15 and 19 March 1877 and was played between England and Australia at the Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG), where Australia won by 45 runs.[7] A Test match to celebrate 100 years of Test cricket was held in Melbourne between 12 and 17 March 1977, in which Australia beat England by 45 runs—the same margin as that first Test.[8] In October 2012, the ICC recast the playing conditions for Test matches, permitting day/night Test matches.[9] The first day/night game took place between Australia and New Zealand at the Adelaide Oval, Adelaide, on 27 November – 1 December 2015.[10]

Women's Test cricket is played over four days, with slight differences in format from men's Tests.

England vs South Africa
A Test match between South Africa and England in January 2005. The two men wearing black trousers are the umpires. Test cricket is played in traditional white clothes and usually with a red ball – a pink ball in full day/night Tests.

Early history

Sides designated as "England" began to play in the late 18th century, but these teams were not truly representative. Early international cricket was disrupted by the French Revolution and the American Civil War. The earliest international cricket match was between USA and Canada, on 24 and 25 September 1844.[11] This has never been officially considered a "Test match". Tours of national English sides abroad took place, particularly to the US, Australia and New Zealand. The Australian Aborigines team became the first organised overseas cricketers to tour England in 1868.

Two rival English tours of Australia were proposed in the early months of 1877, with James Lillywhite campaigning for a professional tour and Fred Grace for an amateur one. Grace's tour fell through and it was Lillywhite's team that toured New Zealand and Australia in 1876–77. Two matches against a combined Australian XI were later classified as the first official Test matches. The first match was won by Australia, by 45 runs, and the second by England. After reciprocal tours established a pattern of international cricket, The Ashes was established as an ongoing competition during the Australian tour of England in 1882. Surprisingly beaten, a mock obituary of English cricket was published in the Sporting Times the following day: the phrase "The body shall be cremated and the ashes taken to Australia" prompted the subsequent creation of the Ashes urn. The series of 1884–85 was the first to be held over five matches: Shaw, writing in 1901, considered the side to be "the best ever to have left England".

South Africa became the third team to play Test cricket in 1888–89, when they hosted a tour by an under-strength England side.

Test status

Test matches are the highest level of cricket, although, statistically, their data form part of first-class cricket. Matches are played between national representative teams with "Test status", as determined by the International Cricket Council. As of June 2017, twelve national teams have Test status, the most recently promoted being Afghanistan and Ireland on 22 June 2017.[12] Zimbabwe's Test status was voluntarily suspended, because of poor performances between 2006 and 2011; it returned to competition in August 2011.[13]

In January 2014, during an ICC meeting in Dubai, the pathway for new potential Test nations was laid out with the winners of the next round of the ICC Intercontinental Cup playing a 5-day match against the bottom ranked Test nation. If the Associate team defeats the Test nation, then they could be added as the new Test country and granted full membership.[14]

A list of matches, defined as "Tests", was first drawn up by Australian Clarence Moody in the mid-1890s. Representative matches played by simultaneous England touring sides of 1891–92 (in Australia and South Africa) and 1929–30 (in the West Indies and New Zealand) are deemed to have "Test status".

In 1970, a series of five "Test matches" was played in England between England and a Rest of the World XI. These matches, originally scheduled between England and South Africa, were amended after South Africa was suspended from international cricket because of their government's policy of apartheid. Although initially given Test status (and included as Test matches in some record books, including Wisden Cricketers' Almanack), this was later withdrawn and a principle was established that official Test matches can only be between nations (although the geographically and demographically small countries of the West Indies have since 1928 been permitted to field a coalition side). Despite this, in 2005, the ICC ruled that the six-day Super Series match that took place in October 2005, between Australia and a World XI, was an official Test match. Some cricket writers and statisticians, including Bill Frindall, ignored the ICC's ruling and excluded the 2005 match from their records. The series of "Test matches" played in Australia between Australia and a World XI in 1971–72 do not have Test status. The commercial "Supertests" organised by Kerry Packer as part of his World Series Cricket enterprise and played between "WSC Australia", "WSC World XI" and "WSC West Indies" from 1977 to 1979 have never been regarded as official Test matches.

Teams with Test status

There are currently twelve Test-playing men's teams. The teams all represent individual, independent nations, except for England, the West Indies and Ireland. Test status is conferred upon a country or group of countries by the ICC. Teams that do not have Test status can play in the ICC Intercontinental Cup, specifically designed to allow non-Test teams to play under conditions similar to Tests. The teams are listed below with the date of each team's Test debut:

  1.  England (15 March 1877)
  2.  Australia (15 March 1877)
  3.  South Africa (12 March 1889)
  4.  West Indies (23 June 1928)
  5.  New Zealand (10 January 1930)
  6.  India (25 June 1932)
  7.  Pakistan (16 October 1952)
  8.  Sri Lanka (17 February 1982)
  9.  Zimbabwe (18 October 1992)
  10.  Bangladesh (10 November 2000)
  11.  Ireland (11 May 2018)
  12.  Afghanistan (14 June 2018)

In the mid 2010s, the ICC evaluated proposals for dividing Test cricket into two tiers, with promotion and relegation between Tier-1 and Tier-2. These proposals were supported by some national cricket governing bodies,[15][16] but opposed by others.[17][18] These proposals were ultimately not implemented.[19][20][21]

Conduct of the game

Playing time

A standard day of Test cricket consists of three sessions of two hours each, the breaks between sessions being 40 minutes for lunch and 20 minutes for tea. However, the times of sessions and intervals may be altered in certain circumstances: if bad weather or a change of innings occurs close to a scheduled break, the break may be taken immediately; if there has been a loss of playing time, for example because of bad weather, the session times may be adjusted to make up the lost time; if the batting side is nine wickets down at the scheduled tea break, then the interval may be delayed until either 30 minutes has elapsed or the team is all out;[22] the final session may be extended by up to 30 minutes if 90 or more overs have not been bowled in that day's play (subject to any reduction for adverse weather);[23] the final session may be extended by 30 minutes (except on the 5th day) if the umpires believe the result can be decided within that time.[24]

Today, Test matches are scheduled to be played across five consecutive days. However, in the early days of Test cricket, matches were played for three or four days. Four-day Test matches were last played in 1973, between New Zealand and Pakistan.[25] Until the 1980s, it was usual to include a 'rest day,' often a Sunday. There have also been 'Timeless Tests', which did not end after a predetermined maximum time. In 2005, Australia played a match scheduled for six days against a World XI, which the ICC sanctioned as an official Test match, though the match reached a conclusion on the fourth day. In October 2017, the ICC approved a request for a four-day Test match, between South Africa and Zimbabwe, which started on 26 December 2017 and ended on the second day, 27 December.[26] The ICC will trial the four-day Test format until the 2019 Cricket World Cup.[27]

There have been attempts by the ICC, the sport's governing body, to introduce day-night Test matches.[28] In 2012, The International Cricket Council passed playing conditions that allowed for the staging of day-night Test matches.[9] The first day-night Test took place during New Zealand's tour to Australia in November 2015.[10]

Play

Test cricket is played in innings (the word denotes both the singular and the plural). In each innings, one team bats and the other bowls (or fields). Ordinarily four innings are played in a Test match, and each team bats twice and bowls twice. Before the start of play on the first day, the two team captains and the match referee toss a coin; the captain who wins the toss decides whether his team will bat or bowl first.

In the following scenarios, the team that bats first is referred to as Team A and their opponents as Team B.

Usually the teams will alternate at the completion of each innings. Thus, Team A will bat (and Team B will bowl) until its innings ends, and then Team B will bat and Team A will bowl. When Team B's innings ends, Team A begin their second innings, and this is followed by Team B's second innings. The winning team is the one that scores more runs in their two innings.

A team's innings ends in one of the following ways:[29]

  • The team is "all out". This typically occurs when a team has lost ten wickets (ten of the eleven batsmen having been dismissed) and are "bowled out". It may occasionally occur with the loss of fewer wickets if one or more batsmen are unavailable to bat (through injury, for example).
  • The team's captain declares the innings closed, usually because they believe they have enough runs. A declaration before the innings starts is called an innings forfeiture.
  • The team batting fourth score the required number of runs to win.
  • The prescribed time for the match expires.

If, at the completion of its first innings, Team B's first innings total is 200 or more fewer than Team A's, the captain of Team A may (but is not required to) order Team B to have their second innings next. This is called enforcing the follow on.[30] In this case, the usual order of the third and fourth innings is reversed: Team A will bat in the fourth innings. It is rare for a team forced to follow on to win the match. In Test cricket it has only happened three times, although over 285 follow-ons have been enforced: Australia was the losing team on each occasion, twice to England, in 1894 and in 1981, and once to India in 2001.[31]

If the whole of the first day's play of a Test match has been lost because of bad weather or other reasons like bad light, then Team A may enforce the follow on if Team B's first innings total is 150 or more fewer than Team A's. During the 2nd Test between England and New Zealand at Headingley in 2013, England batted first after the first day was lost because of rain.[32] New Zealand, batting second, scored 180 runs fewer than England, meaning England could have enforced the follow on, though chose not to. This is similar to four-day first-class cricket, where the follow on can be enforced if the difference is 150 runs or fewer. If the Test is 2 days or fewer then the "follow-on" value is 100 runs.

After 80 overs, the captain of the bowling side may take a new ball, although this is not required.[33] The captain will usually take the new ball: being harder and smoother than an old ball, a new ball generally favours faster bowlers who can make it bounce more variably. The roughened, softer surface of an old ball can be more conducive to spin bowlers, or those using reverse swing. The captain may delay the decision to take the new ball if he wishes to continue with his spinners (because the pitch favours spin). After a new ball has been taken, should an innings last a further 80 overs, then the captain will have the option to take another new ball.

A Test match may end in one of six results:

  • All four innings are complete. The team batting fourth are all out before overtaking the other team, usually before matching the other team's score. The team that batted third are the winners by a margin equal to the difference in the aggregate runs scored by the two teams (for example, "Team A won by 95 runs"). Very rarely (in over 2,000 Test matches played, it has only happened twice) the scores can end level, resulting in a tie.
  • The team batting in the fourth innings overtakes the opposing team's run total. The match ends, and the team batting fourth is the winner by a margin equal to the number of wickets still to fall in the innings (for example, "Team B won by five wickets").
  • The third innings concludes with the team that batted twice still trailing the team that batted once. The match ends without playing a fourth innings. The team that batted only once is the winner by a margin equal to "an innings" plus the difference in aggregate run totals of the teams (for example, "Team B won by an innings and 26 runs").
  • Time for the match expires without a result being reached. This usually occurs at the end of the last day of the match. The result is a draw: there is no winner, no matter how superior the position of one of the sides. Rain causing a loss of playing time is a common factor in drawn matches, although matches may be drawn even without interference from the weather: usually as a result of poor time management or an intentional effort on the part of one team to avoid losing.
  • The match is abandoned because the ground is declared unfit for play. This has occurred three times, resulting each time in a draw being declared: England v Australia at Headingley, Leeds, 1975 (vandalism);[34] West Indies v England at Sabina Park, Kingston, Jamaica, 1998 (dangerous ground);[35] West Indies v England at Sir Vivian Richards Stadium, Antigua, 2009 (dangerous ground).[36]
  • The match is awarded through a forfeiture. If a team refuses to take the field of play, the umpires may award the match to the opposing team.[37] This has only happened once in Test cricket, in the 2006 fourth Test between England and Pakistan.[38][39]

Competitions

Tours

Test cricket is almost always played as a series of matches between two countries, with all matches in the series taking place in the same country (the host). Often there is a perpetual trophy that is awarded to the winner, the most famous of which is the Ashes contested between England and Australia. There have been two exceptions to the bilateral nature of Test cricket: the 1912 Triangular Tournament, a three-way competition between England, Australia and South Africa (hosted by England), and the Asian Test Championship, an event held in 1998–99 and 2001–02.

The number of matches in Test series has varied from one to seven.[40] Up until the early 1990s,[41] Test series between international teams were organised between the two national cricket organisations with umpires provided by the home team. With the entry of more countries into Test cricket, and a wish by the ICC to maintain public interest in Tests in the face of the popularity of one-day cricket, a rotation system was introduced that sees all ten Test teams playing each other over a six-year cycle, and an official ranking system (with a trophy held by the highest-ranked team). In this system, umpires are provided by the ICC. An elite panel of eleven umpires has been established, and the panel is supplemented by an additional International Panel that includes three umpires named by each Test-playing country. The elite umpires officiate almost all Test matches, usually not Tests involving their home country.

Perpetual trophies

Several pairs of Test teams have established perpetual trophies which are competed for whenever teams play each other in Test series.

Name of trophy Team 1 Team 2 First contested Latest contested
The Ashes  England  Australia 1882–83 2017-18
Anthony De Mello Trophy[A]  India  England 1951[42] 2016
Frank Worrell Trophy  West Indies  Australia 1960–61 2015
Wisden Trophy  West Indies  England 1963 2018-19
Trans-Tasman Trophy  New Zealand  Australia 1985–86 2015-16
Border–Gavaskar Trophy  India  Australia 1996–97 2018-19
Southern Cross Trophy  Australia  Zimbabwe 1999–2000[43] 2003
Sir Vivian Richards Trophy  West Indies  South Africa 2000–01[44] 2016
Clive Lloyd Trophy  West Indies  Zimbabwe 2001[45] 2017
Basil D'Oliveira Trophy  South Africa  England 2004–05 2017
Pataudi Trophy[A]  India  England 2007 2018
Warne–Muralitharan Trophy  Sri Lanka  Australia 2007–08 2016
Freedom Trophy  India  South Africa 2015–16 2017-18
Sobers–Tissera Trophy  West Indies  Sri Lanka 2015–16 2018
Ganguly–Durjoy Trophy  India  Bangladesh 2017[46] 2017, same
A The Anthony De Mello Trophy is awarded for India–England test series played in India, whilst the Pataudi Trophy is for series played in England.

International Test rankings

The twelve Test-playing nations are currently ranked as follows:

ICC Test Championship
Rank Team Matches Points Rating
1  India 32 3,631 113
2  New Zealand 23 2,547 111
3  South Africa 27 2,917 108
4  England 35 3,663 105
5  Australia 27 2,640 98
6  Sri Lanka 37 3,462 94
7  Pakistan 27 2,263 84
8  West Indies 29 2,381 82
9  Bangladesh 25 1,898 65
10  Zimbabwe 9 140 16
 Afghanistan* 2 50 25
 Ireland* 2
*Countries that have not played enough matches to gain an official ranking
Reference: Cricinfo rankings page, ICC Rankings, 3 May 2019
"Matches" is no. matches + no. series played in the 12–24 months since the May before last, plus half the number in the 24 months before that.

World Test Championship

There has been no World Cup for Test cricket conducted thus far. However, a league competition for Test cricket will begin in 2019–21. The schedule for this Championship is a set of typical bilateral series in various countries, where one team is the host and other team is the visitor. The length of each series will vary between 2 matches and 5 matches.

See also

Notes and references

References

  1. ^ Bond, David (29 July 2013). "Test cricket: Does the oldest form of the game have a future?". BBC. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
  2. ^ "Adam Gilchrist's Cowdrey Lecture, 2009". ESPN CricInfo. 24 June 2009. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
  3. ^ Rundell, Michael (2006). Dictionary of Cricket. London: A&C Black Publishers Ltd. p. 336. ISBN 978-0-7136-7915-1. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  4. ^ Lifeless pitches should not be accepted, The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 1 August 2009.
  5. ^ "Knight's return to proving ground", Retrieved 1 August 2009.
  6. ^ "Adam Gilchrist's Cowdrey Lecture", 2009, ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 1 August 2009.
  7. ^ Australia v England 1st Test 1876/1877ESPNcricinfo.
  8. ^ Australia v England Centenary TestESPNcricinfo.
  9. ^ a b "ICC paves way for Day-Night Tests". Wisden India. 29 October 2012.
  10. ^ a b "First day-night Test for Adelaide Oval". ESPNCricinfo. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  11. ^ United States of America v Canada 1844ESPNcricinfo.
  12. ^ "Ireland & Afghanistan awarded Test status by International Cricket Council". BBC News. 22 June 2017. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
  13. ^ Zimbabwe Cricket Side Resume International Test Play After Six-Year BreakVoice of America.
  14. ^ "Ireland and Scotland to get Test chance as ICC approves play-off". BBC Sport. BBC. 10 April 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  15. ^ "NZC 'big supporter' of two-tier Test system". ESPNcricinfo. 18 July 2016. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
  16. ^ "Afghanistan ready to play Tests - ACB chief executive". ESPNcricinfo. 4 September 2016. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
  17. ^ "BCB vice-president against two-tier Test system". ESPNcricinfo. 27 June 2016. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
  18. ^ "BCCI against four-day Tests, two-tier system". ESPNcricinfo. 31 August 2016. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
  19. ^ "ICC planning two Test divisions amid major overhaul". ESPNcricinfo. 1 June 2016. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
  20. ^ "Two-tier proposal shelved at ICC meeting". ESPNcricinfo. 7 September 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
  21. ^ "Baseball-style conference structure proposed for Tests". ESPN Cricinfo. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
  22. ^ "The Laws of Cricket – Law 15.8". Lords.org. Archived from the original on 24 November 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  23. ^ "ICC Standard Test Match Playing Conditions ("Playing Conditions") cl 16.1.1" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  24. ^ "Playing Conditions cl 16.2" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  25. ^ "Cremer senses opportunity in shorter contest". ESPN Cricinfo. Retrieved 19 December 2017.
  26. ^ "Test, ODI leagues approved by ICC Board". ESPN Cricinfo. Retrieved 13 October 2017.
  27. ^ "South Africa to play Zimbabwe in inaugural four-day Test". ESPN Cricinfo. Retrieved 13 October 2017.
  28. ^ "Lord's could host first day night Test in May 2010". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  29. ^ "LAW 13 - INNINGS". Lords.org. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  30. ^ "Law 14 – The follow-on". MCC. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
  31. ^ "HowSTAT! Winning after Following-On". Howstat.com. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  32. ^ "2nd Test: England v New Zealand at Leeds, May 24–28, 2013 | Cricket Scorecard". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  33. ^ "Law 4 – The ball". MCC. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
  34. ^ "On This Day: 19 August". BBC News. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
  35. ^ "1st Test: West Indies v England at Kingston, Jan 29 – Feb 2, 1998 | Cricket Scorecard". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  36. ^ "2nd Test: West Indies v England at North Sound, Feb 13–17, 2009 | Cricket Scorecard". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  37. ^ "Law 16 – The result". MCC. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
  38. ^ "England awarded abandoned Oval Test 'win'". The Guardian. London. 1 February 2009. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
  39. ^ "Test abandoned after ball dispute". BBC News. 20 August 2006. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
  40. ^ "Australia v England, Seventh Test, 1970–71". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  41. ^ Rajesh, S. (16 April 2011). "Neutral umpires". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 30 March 2012.
  42. ^ "India-England series played for Anthony De Mello trophy: BCCI". 6 November 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  43. ^ "Southern Cross Trophy, 1999/00". Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  44. ^ "Statistics / Statsguru / Test matches / Team records". Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  45. ^ "Test trophy to be named after Clive Lloyd". 28 July 2001. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  46. ^ "India vs Bangladesh 2016 Test series to be named Ganguly-Durjoy Trophy". 26 May 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2017.

Bibliography

  • Ground Rules – A Celebration of Test Cricket, Barney Spender & David Gower, Dakini Books Ltd (Nov 2003), ISBN 0-9537032-6-6
  • The Wisden Book of Test Cricket, Sir Donald Bradman (Foreword), Bill Frindall (Editor), Headline Book Publishing (1995), ISBN 0-7472-1118-3
  • Marylebone Cricket Club (2003), The Laws of Cricket. Retrieved 2009-03-30.
  • International Cricket Council (2008), Standard Test Match Playing Conditions. Retrieved 2009-09-11.

External links

Bowling average

In cricket, a player's bowling average is the number of runs they have conceded per wicket taken. The lower the bowling average is, the better the bowler is performing. It is one of a number of statistics used to compare bowlers, commonly used alongside the economy rate and the strike rate to judge the overall performance of a bowler.

When a bowler has taken only a small number of wickets, their bowling average can be artificially high or low, and unstable, with further wickets taken or runs conceded resulting in large changes to their bowling average. Due to this, qualification restrictions are generally applied when determining which players have the best bowling averages. After applying these criteria, George Lohmann holds the record for the lowest average in Test cricket, having claimed 112 wickets at an average of 10.75 runs per wicket.

Brian Lara

Brian Charles Lara, (born 2 May 1969) is a Trinidadian former international cricketer, widely acknowledged as one of the greatest batsmen of all time. He topped the Test batting rankings on several occasions and holds several cricketing records, including the record for the highest individual score in first-class cricket, with 501 not out for Warwickshire against Durham at Edgbaston in 1994, which is the only quintuple hundred in first-class cricket history.

Lara also holds the record for the highest individual score in a Test innings after scoring 400 not out against England at Antigua in 2004. Lara also shares the test record of scoring the highest number of runs in a single over in a Test match, when he scored 28 runs off an over by Robin Peterson of South Africa in 2003 (matched in 2013 by Australia's George Bailey).Lara's match-winning performance of 153 not out against Australia in Bridgetown, Barbados in 1999 has been rated by Wisden as the second best batting performance in the history of Test cricket, next only to the 270 runs scored by Sir Donald Bradman in The Ashes Test match of 1937. Muttiah Muralitharan, rated as the greatest Test match bowler ever by Wisden Cricketers' Almanack, and the highest wicket-taker in both Test cricket and in One Day Internationals (ODIs), has hailed Lara as his toughest opponent among all batsmen in the world. Lara was awarded the Wisden Leading Cricketer in the World awards in 1994 and 1995 and is also one of only three cricketers to receive the prestigious BBC Overseas Sports Personality of the Year, the other two being Sir Garfield Sobers and Shane Warne.Brian Lara was appointed honorary member of the Order of Australia on 27 November 2009. On 14 September 2012 he was inducted to the ICC's Hall of Fame at the awards ceremony held in Colombo, Sri Lanka as a 2012–13 season inductee along with Australians Glenn McGrath and former England women all-rounder Enid Bakewell. In 2013, Lara received Honorary Life Membership of the MCC becoming the 31st West Indian to receive the honor.Brian Lara is popularly nicknamed as "The Prince of Port of Spain" or simply "The Prince". He has the dubious distinction of playing in the second highest number of test matches (63) in which his team was on the losing side, just behind Shivnarine Chanderpaul (68).

Courtney Walsh

Courtney Andrew Walsh OJ (born 30 October 1962) is a former Jamaican cricketer who represented the West Indies from 1984 to 2001, captaining the West Indies in 22 Test matches. He is a fast bowler, and best known for a remarkable opening bowling partnership along with fellow West Indian Curtly Ambrose for several years. Walsh played 132 Tests and 205 ODIs for the West Indies and took 519 and 227 wickets respectively. He shared 421 Test wickets with Ambrose in 49 matches. He held the record of most Test wickets from 2000, after he broke the record of Kapil Dev. This record was later broken in 2004 by Shane Warne. He was the first bowler to reach 500 wickets in Test cricket. His autobiography is entitled "Heart of the Lion". Walsh was named one of the Wisden Cricketers of the Year in 1987, and one of the Indian Cricket Cricketer of the Year a year later. In October 2010, he was inducted into the ICC Cricket Hall of Fame. He was appointed as the Specialist Bowling Coach of Bangladesh Cricket Team in August 2016.

Day/night cricket

Day/night cricket, also known as floodlit cricket, is a cricket match that is played either totally, or more usually partially, under floodlights in the evening. The first regular cricket to be played under floodlights occurred during World Series Cricket, unsanctioned by the International Cricket Council, attracting large crowds to see some of the world's best players compete in Australia and the West Indies. In 1979, when the ICC and World Series Cricket came to an understanding, the first floodlit One Day International was played, also in Australia. Floodlit cricket has since been played around the world, although England was slow to take it up due to their climate.

Floodlit first-class cricket was first played in 1994, when the concept was tried during the Sheffield Shield. Day/night cricket is now commonplace in one-day cricket and Twenty20 cricket. For instance, all 27 matches in the 2014 ICC World Twenty20 were day/night matches, as were most matches in the 2011 Cricket World Cup.In October 2012, the International Cricket Council recast the playing conditions for Test matches, permitting day/night Test matches. The first day/night game took place between Australia and New Zealand at the Adelaide Oval, Adelaide on 27 November 2015, 36 years to the day from the first ICC sanctioned day night match.

ICC World Test Championship

The ICC World Test Championship will be a league competition for Test cricket run by the International Cricket Council (ICC), starting in 2019. It is intended to become the premier championship for Test cricket. ICC World Test Championship is keeping in line with ICC's goal of having one pinnacle tournament for each of the three formats of international cricket.The original plans to hold the competition in 2013, replacing the 2013 ICC Champions Trophy, were abandoned. It was re-scheduled for June 2017, with a second Test championship to take place in India in Feb-March 2021. The top four ranked teams on 31 December 2016 – the cut-off date set by the ICC – would play the three-match Test championship. There would have been two semi-finals and the winners play the final. However, in January 2014 the ICC World Test Championship was cancelled and the 2017 ICC Champions Trophy was reinstated.In October 2017, the ICC announced that a Test league had been agreed by its members, which would involve the top nine teams playing series over two years with the top two teams qualifying for a World Test League Championship Final. The first ICC World Test Championship is due to start after the 2019 Cricket World Cup. The second ICC World Test Championship will run from July 2021 to June 2023.

List of India national cricket captains

India became a full member of the Imperial Cricket Conference (now the International Cricket Council) on 31 May 1926. On 25 June 1932 it became the sixth Test nation after England, Australia, South Africa, the West Indies and New Zealand.The Indian was first led by Colonel C.K. Nayudu against England at the Lord's.They played only seven tests, which were all against England, before the Second World War, losing five matches & drawing twice. Their first game against other opposition came in 1947–48 when Indians led by Lala Amarnath played against Sir Donald Bradman's Australia.

Ajit Wadekar became India's inaugural One Day International captain in 1974 against England at Headingley.Virendar Sehwag led India in its first T20I against South Africa in 2006 at Wanderers.He captained only for a single match. In 2007 he was replaced by Mahendra Singh Dhoni. In present day (2019) the Indian team is being led by Virat Kohli and Vice Captain Rohit Sharma.

Santha Rangaswamy led the women's team in their first WTest match in 1976 against West Indies at M.Chinnaswamy Stadium. Diana Edulji was the first Women's One Day International captain in 1978 against England at Eden Gardens. Mithai Raj became the first WT20I captain in 2006 against England at Derby.

K. Srikkant became the first Test captain for the U-19 team in 1978-79 against Pakistan, while Ravi Shastri first One Day International captain for the U-19 team in 1981.

List of Test cricket grounds

One hundred and ninteen grounds have hosted Test cricket since the first officially recognised Test match between Australia and England in Melbourne in March 1877. The grounds are listed in the order in which they were first used as a venue for Test cricket. The list excludes World Series Cricket and South African rebel tours venues.

On 8 July 2009, Sophia Gardens in Cardiff became the 100th Test venue. The Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium in India became the 119th and most recent Test venue when it staged a match between Afghanistan and Ireland in March 2019.

List of Test cricket hat-tricks

In the sport of cricket, a hat-trick is an occasion where a bowler takes three wickets in consecutive deliveries. As of 31 July 2017, this feat has only been achieved 43 times in more than two thousand Test matches, the form of the sport in which national representative teams compete in matches of up to five days' duration. The first Test hat-trick was recorded on 2 January 1879, in only the third Test match to take place, by the Australian pace bowler Fred Spofforth, nicknamed "The Demon Bowler", who dismissed three English batsmen with consecutive deliveries at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. The most recent bowler to achieve the feat was English spin bowler Moeen Ali against South Africa on 31 July 2017.

A player has taken two hat-tricks in the same Test match only once. Playing for Australia against South Africa in the first match of the 1912 Triangular Tournament at Old Trafford, Manchester, England, leg spinner Jimmy Matthews took a hat-trick in South Africa's first and second innings, both taken on 28 May 1912. He completed both hat-tricks by dismissing South Africa's Tommy Ward. Only three other cricketers have taken more than one Test hat-trick: Australian off spinner Hugh Trumble (two years apart, between the same teams at the same ground), Pakistani fast bowler Wasim Akram (just over a week apart, in consecutive matches between the same teams) and English fast bowler Stuart Broad. Three players have taken a hat-trick on their Test debut: English medium pace bowler Maurice Allom in 1930, New Zealand off-spinner Peter Petherick in 1976, and Australian pace bowler Damien Fleming in 1994. Geoff Griffin took the fewest total Test wickets of any player who recorded a hat-trick, taking only eight wickets in his entire Test career. During the match in which he took his hat-trick, Griffin was repeatedly called for throwing by the umpires and never bowled again in a Test match. Australian Peter Siddle is the only bowler to take a hat-trick on his birthday, and Bangladeshi off spinner Sohag Gazi is the only player to score a century and take a hat-trick in the same Test match.Australian Merv Hughes is the only bowler to take a hat-trick where the wickets fell over three overs. He took a wicket (Curtly Ambrose) with the final ball of an over. With the first ball of his next over he took the final wicket of the West Indies innings (Patrick Patterson). He then removed the opener Gordon Greenidge with the first ball of the West Indies second innings. Even more unusually, Hughes's two first-innings wickets were not consecutive, since Tim May had bowled an over himself in between Hughes's two deliveries, and took the wicket of Gus Logie.

Two other hat-tricks have taken place over two innings rather than one, both taken by West Indians against Australia - Courtney Walsh and Jermaine Lawson. Walsh's was unusual since, like Hughes's (which was in the very next Test in the series), other wickets fell between the beginning and end of the hat-trick. After dismissing Dodemaide to finish off Australia's first innings, Walsh did not open the bowling in the Australian second innings, and in fact did not bowl until Australia had already lost two wickets and were 65 for 2: then with his first two deliveries he dismissed Wood and Veletta. Lawson, meanwhile, removed tail-enders Lee and MacGill in successive deliveries to end Australia's first innings, then took the wicket of Langer with the first delivery of Australia's second innings.

In the five-match series between a Rest of the World XI and England in 1970, a hat-trick was taken by South African Eddie Barlow in the fourth match, at Headingley (the last three of four wickets in five balls). These matches were considered to be Tests at the time, but that status was later removed.

List of Test cricket records

Test cricket is played between international cricket teams who are Full Members of the International Cricket Council (ICC). Unlike One Day Internationals, Test matches consist of two innings per team, with no limit in the number of overs. Test cricket is first-class cricket, so statistics and records set in Test matches are also counted toward first-class records. The duration of Tests, currently limited to five days, has varied through Test history, ranging from three days to timeless matches. The earliest match now recognised as a Test was played between England and Australia in March 1877; since then there have been over 2,000 Tests played by 13 teams. The frequency of Tests has steadily increased partly because of the increase in the number of Test-playing countries, and partly as cricket boards seek to maximise their revenue.Cricket is, by its nature, capable of generating large numbers of records and statistics. This list details the most significant team and individual records in Test cricket.

As of January 2019, the most successful team in Test cricket, in terms of both wins and win percentage, is Australia, having won 385 of their 819 Tests (47.00%). Excluding teams who have only played a single Test (the ICC World XI, a rest of world team who played a single Test against Australia in 2005, and recent Test newcomers Ireland and Afghanistan) the least successful team are Bangladesh who have struggled since their introduction to Test cricket in 2000, leading to questioning of their Test status.Australian Donald Bradman, widely considered the greatest batsman of all time, holds several personal and partnership records. He scored the most runs in a series, has the most double centuries and was a part of the record 5th wicket partnership. His most significant record is his batting average of 99.94. One of cricket's most famous statistics, it stands almost 40 runs higher than any other batsman's average. Don Bradman is the only player in the world to have scored 5000 runs against a single opposition: 5028 runs against England.In the Manchester Test of 1956, England spin bowler Jim Laker took 19 wickets for 90 runs (19–90) which set not only the Test record for best match figures but also the first-class one. In taking 10–53 in the second innings he became the first bowler to capture all ten wickets in a Test match innings, and his analysis remains the best innings figures. Indian Leg-spinner Anil Kumble is the only other bowler to have taken 10 wickets in an innings, claiming 10–74 against Pakistan in 1999. West Indies batsman Brian Lara has the highest individual score in Test cricket: he scored 400 not out against England in 2004 to surpass the innings of 380 by Matthew Hayden six months earlier. Lara had held the record before Hayden, with a score of 375 against England 10 years earlier. Pakistan's Misbah-ul-Haq holds the record of the fastest Test half century, scoring 50 runs from 21 balls. The record for the fastest Test century is held by New Zealand's Brendon McCullum, who scored 100 runs from 54 balls in his final Test match.

The trend of countries to increase the number of Test matches they play means that the aggregate lists are dominated by modern players. Sri Lankan spinner Muttiah Muralitharan became the highest Test wicket-taker in December 2007, when he passed Shane Warne's total of 708 wickets. Within a year, the equivalent batting record of highest run-scorer had also changed hands: Sachin Tendulkar surpassed the tally of 11,953 runs by Brian Lara. The record for most dismissals by a wicket-keeper is held by Mark Boucher of South Africa while the record for most catches by a fielder is held by Rahul Dravid.

List of Test cricket triple centuries

A triple century (an individual score of 300 or more) in Test cricket has been scored on 30 occasions by 26 different batsmen from eight of the twelve Test-cricket playing nations. No player from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Ireland or Zimbabwe has scored 300.The first Test triple century was achieved by Andy Sandham of England against the West Indies in 1930 in the first Test series hosted in the West Indies. The frequency of a batsman scoring a Test triple century is slightly less than that of a bowler taking a Test hat-trick (30 triple centuries versus 43 hat-tricks as of July 2017). The quickest Test triple-century was scored in 4 hours 48 minutes, by Wally Hammond for England against New Zealand at Auckland in 1932–33. The fastest Test triple-century by number of balls faced, where that figure is recorded, is Virender Sehwag's 278-ball triple century for India against South Africa in the first Test of the Future Cup in Chennai in 2008.Brian Lara and Chris Gayle of the West Indies, Donald Bradman of Australia and Virender Sehwag of India are the only batsmen to reach 300 more than once. Lara's 400 not out against England in 2004, his second Test triple-century, is the highest score in Test cricket and the only instance of a Test quadruple century; Lara is also the only player to have surpassed 350 twice. Bradman also scored 299 not out against South Africa in 1932. Sehwag also scored 293 off 254 balls in the third Test between Sri Lanka and India in December 2009.The two cricket grounds with the most triple centuries scored at them are Headingley in Leeds, England, and the Antigua Recreation Ground in St. John's, Antigua and Barbuda, which have both had three triple centuries scored at them. The most triple centuries from one country is seven, by Australia.

List of Test cricket umpires

This is a list of cricket umpires who have officiated at least one Test match. As of March 2019, 482 umpires have officiated in a Test match.NB Current members of the current Emirates Elite Panel of ICC Umpires, appointed by the International Cricket Council to officiate in Test matches and One Day Internationals, are shown in bold. Current members of the Emirates International Panel of ICC Umpires, who may also be called upon to officiate in Test matches in busy cricketing years, are marked with a dagger (†).

List of bowlers who have taken 300 or more wickets in Test cricket

Taking 300 or more wickets across a playing career is considered a significant achievement in Test cricket. The feat, first accomplished by Englishman Fred Trueman in 1964, has only been achieved by thirty-three players in the history of the game as of October 2018. Six players from Australia, five each from India, England and South Africa; four from the West Indies; three each from Pakistan and Sri Lanka; and two from New Zealand have crossed the 300-wicket mark in Tests. Bangladesh and Zimbabwe are yet to see a player reach the 300 mark.As of October 2018, former Sri Lankan cricketer Muttiah Muralitharan has the highest aggregate with 800 wickets. He also holds the record for the most five-wicket hauls (67) and ten-wicket hauls in a match (22); his 16 wickets for 220 runs against England in 1998 is the fifth-best bowling performance by a player in a match. Indian spinner Ravichandran Ashwin is the fastest to cross the 300-wicket mark (54 Tests), while the late West Indian player Malcolm Marshall has the best bowling average (20.94) among those who have achieved the milestone. Fellow West Indian Lance Gibbs is the most economical player with 1.98 runs per over, while South African fast bowler Dale Steyn has the best strike rate of 42.3 balls per wicket. India's Anil Kumble has the best bowling figures in an innings (10 wickets for 74 runs against Pakistan in 1999); they are the second-best in the history of Test cricket after English cricketer Jim Laker's 10 for 53 (against Australia in 1956).

Mahela Jayawardene

Denagamage Praboth Mahela de Silva Jayawardene (Sinhala: මහේල ජයවර්ධන; born 27 May 1977), known as Mahela Jayawardene, is a Sri Lankan cricket coach and former cricketer. He is regarded as one of the best batsmen of all time, especially due to his mastery of playing spin bowling. Jayawardene's highest test score, 374 against South Africa is the highest test score by a right handed batsman in the history of test cricket.Jayawardene made his Test cricket debut in 1997 and his One Day International (ODI) debut the following season. In 2006 he made the highest ever score by a Sri Lankan in Test cricket, scoring 374 in the second Test of Sri Lanka's home series against South Africa. He has a test cricket average of just under 50 and a One Day average in the 30s. He is the first player in the history of Sri Lankan cricket to score over 10,000 Test runs. Despite his relatively low ODI average, Jayawardene is considered to be one of the best batsmen produced by Sri Lanka.

-to have the prestigious record of having scored more than 10,000 runs in ODIs. Along with teammate Sangakkara, he recorded for the most partnership runs for the 3rd wicket in Tests, scoring 5890 runs surpassing 5826 run stand of Rahul Dravid and Sachin Tendulkar , during the first test match against Pakistan at Galle International Stadium, which was his last test at the venue. He scored 56 runs at that match, where his counterpart scored 221 runs.

Jayawardene was a key member of the team that won the 2014 ICC World Twenty20 and was part of the team that made to the final of 2007 Cricket World Cup, 2011 Cricket World Cup, 2009 ICC World Twenty20 and 2012 ICC World Twenty20.

In 2006, Jayawardene was named by the International Cricket Council as the best international captain of the year and was nominated in 2007 as the best Test cricket player of the year. He is also known for his fielding skills in the inner ring, with a report prepared by Cricinfo in late 2005 showing that since the 1999 Cricket World Cup, he had affected the most number of run-outs in ODI cricket of any fieldsman, with the fifth highest run-out/match ratio in ODI's. Statistics also reveal that c Jayawardene b Muralitharan is the most common bowler-fielder combination in the history of Test cricket.

Jayawardene also worked as an international TV commentator in the first test at Headingley on 19 May 2016 between England and Sri Lanka.

Mohammad Hafeez

Mohammad Hafeez (Urdu: محمد حفیظ‎; born 17 October 1980) is a Pakistani cricket player. Hafeez usually opens the batting and forms part of the bowling attack. He is widely regarded as one of the best all-rounders in the world, having been ranked as the top all-rounder by the ICC Player Rankings in the limited overs formats on numerous occasions. He is known for his intelligent batting but also for aggressive shot plays when needed. He retired from Test Cricket in December 2018, departing the ground for the final time in white clothing to a guard of honour from his teammates.

He was the fourth international player signed to the Caribbean Premier League and the first Pakistani player to be named to the new Twenty20 tournament. He is nicknamed "The Professor". The major teams for which he played are Pakistan, Lahore, Lahore Lions, Guyana Amazon Warriors, Kolkata Knight Riders, Sargodha, Sui Gas Corporation of Pakistan. He has been a trusted player over the years. Hafeez scored his test career best of 224 runs against Bangladesh in 2015 at Khulna during the Dan Cake Series.

In August 2018, he was one of the thirty-three players to be awarded a central contract for the 2018–19 season by the Pakistan Cricket Board (PCB). In December 2018, during Pakistan's series against New Zealand, Hafeez announced that he would retire from Test cricket following the conclusion of the tour, to focus on limited-overs cricket. Hafeez said that the time was right to retire from Test cricket and that he was honoured to represent Pakistan in 55 Test matches, including captaining the side. As of January 2019 he is the fourth ranked ODI all rounder and 10th ranked T20I all rounder.

Sri Lanka national cricket team

The Sri Lanka national cricket team, (Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා ජාතික ක්‍රිකට් කණ්ඩායම) nicknamed The Lions, represents Sri Lanka in international cricket. It is a full member of the International Cricket Council (ICC) with Test, One-Day International (ODI) and T20 International (T20I) status. The team first played international cricket (as Ceylon) in 1926–27, and were later awarded Test status in 1982, which made Sri Lanka the eighth Test cricket playing nation. The team is administered by Sri Lanka Cricket.

Sri Lanka's national cricket team achieved considerable success beginning in the 1990s, rising from underdog status to winning the Cricket World Cup in 1996. Since then, the team has continued to be a force in international cricket. The Sri Lankan cricket team reached the finals of the 2007 and 2011 Cricket World Cups consecutively. They ended up being runners up on both occasions.The batting of Aravinda de Silva, Sanath Jayasuriya, Mahela Jayawardene, Kumar Sangakkara, Marvan Atapattu and Tillakaratne Dilshan backed up by the bowling of Muttiah Muralitharan, Chaminda Vaas, Lasith Malinga, Rangana Herath, Nuwan Kulasekara among many other talented cricketers, has underpinned the successes of Sri Lankan cricket in the last two decades.Sri Lanka won the Cricket World Cup in 1996, the ICC Champions Trophy in 2002 (co-champions with India), and the ICC T20 World Cup in 2014. They have been consecutive runners up in the 2007 and 2011 Cricket World Cups, and have been runners up in the ICC T20 World Cup in 2009 and 2012. The Sri Lankan cricket team currently holds several world records, including the world record for the highest team total in Test cricket.

The Oval

The Oval, known for sponsorship reasons as the Kia Oval, is an international cricket ground in Kennington, in the London Borough of Lambeth, in south London. The Oval has been the home ground of Surrey County Cricket Club since it was opened in 1845. It was the first ground in England to host international Test cricket in September 1880. The final Test match of the English season is traditionally played there.

In addition to cricket, The Oval has hosted a number of other historically significant sporting events. In 1870, it staged England's first international football match, versus Scotland. It hosted the first FA Cup final in 1872, as well as those between 1874 and 1892. In 1876, it held both the England v. Wales and England v. Scotland rugby international matches and, in 1877, rugby's first varsity match. It also hosted the final of the 2017 ICC Champions Trophy.

Trent Bridge

Trent Bridge is a cricket ground mostly used for test, one-day international and county cricket located in West Bridgford, Nottinghamshire, England, just across the River Trent from the city of Nottingham. Trent Bridge is also the headquarters of Nottinghamshire County Cricket Club. As well as International cricket and Nottinghamshire's home games, the ground has hosted the Finals Day of the Twenty20 Cup twice.

In 2009, the ground was used for the ICC World Twenty20 and hosted the semi-final between South Africa and Pakistan. The site takes its name from the nearby main bridge over the Trent, and is also close to Meadow Lane and the City Ground, the football stadia of Notts County and Nottingham Forest respectively.

Wasim Akram

Wasim Akram (Urdu: وسیم اکرم‎; born 3 June 1966) is a Pakistani cricket commentator, coach and former cricketer, captain of Pakistan national cricket team. He is acknowledged as one of the greatest bowlers of all time. A left-arm fast bowler who could bowl with significant pace, he represented the Pakistan cricket team in Test cricket and One Day International (ODI) matches. In October 2013, Wasim Akram was the only Pakistani cricketer to be named in an all-time Test World XI to mark the 150th anniversary of Wisden Cricketers' Almanack.Akram regarded as one of the greatest fast bowlers in the history of game, and perhaps the finest of all left-arm fast bowlers. He holds the world record for most wickets in List A cricket, with 881, and he is second only to Sri Lankan off-spin bowler Muttiah Muralitharan in terms of ODI wickets, with 502 in total. He is considered to be one of the founders, and perhaps the finest exponent of, reverse swing bowling.He was the first bowler to reach the 500-wicket mark in ODI cricket during the 2003 World Cup. In 2002, Wisden released its only list of best players of all time. Wasim was ranked as the best bowler in ODI of all time, with a rating of 1223.5, ahead of Allan Donald, Imran Khan, Waqar Younis, Joel Garner, Glenn McGrath and Muralitharan. Wasim took 23 four-wicket hauls in 356 ODI matches played. On 30 September 2009, Akram was one of five new members inducted into the ICC Cricket Hall of Fame. He was the bowling coach of Kolkata Knight Riders. However, he took a break from the position for IPL 6, citing a need to spend more time with family in Karachi, and he took a further break from IPL 2017; and was replaced by Lakshmipathy Balaji.

He was working as director and bowling coach of Islamabad United in Pakistan Super League, until he left to join Multan Sultans in August 2017. In October 2018, he was named in the Pakistan Cricket Board's seven-member advisory cricket committee.. In November 2018, he joined PSL franchise, Karachi Kings, as a President.

The Government of Pakistan awarded him the Hilal-e-Imtiaz on 23 March 2019 on his life time achievements In field of Cricket.

Women's Test cricket

Women's Test cricket is the longest format of women's cricket and is the female equivalent to men's Test cricket. Matches comprise four-innings and are held over a maximum of four days between two of the leading cricketing nations. The rules governing the format differ little from those for the men's game, with differences generally being technicalities surrounding umpiring and field size. Far fewer women's Test matches are played each year than women's One Day Internationals, with the international calendar revolving around the shorter format of the game. The first women's Test match was played by England women and Australia women in December 1934, a three-day contest held in Brisbane which England won by nine wickets.

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