Territory of Hawaii

The Territory of Hawaii or Hawaii Territory[1][2][3] was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from August 12, 1898, until August 21, 1959, when most of its territory, excluding Palmyra Island and the Stewart Islands, was admitted to the Union as the fiftieth U.S. state, the State of Hawaii. The Hawaii Admission Act specified that the State of Hawaii would not include the distant Palmyra Island, the Midway Islands, Kingman Reef, and Johnston Atoll, which includes Johnston (or Kalama) Island and Sand Island, and the Act was silent regarding the Stewart Islands.[4]

The U.S. Congress passed the Newlands Resolution which annexed the Republic of Hawaii to the United States. Hawaii's territorial history includes a period from 1941 to 1944—during World War II—when the islands were placed under martial law. Civilian government was dissolved and a military governor was appointed.

Territory of Hawaii
Panalāʻau o Hawaiʻi
Organized incorporated territory of the United States


Flag Coat of arms
Flag Seal
Location of Hawaii Territory
Territory of Hawaii
Capital Honolulu
Government Organized incorporated territory
 •  1900–1903 Sanford B. Dole
 •  1957–1959 William F. Quinn
Military Governor
 •  1941–1944 Maj. Gen. T. H. Green
 •  Republic proclaimed July 4, 1894
 •  Annexation of Hawaii August 12, 1900
 •  Organic Act 1900
 •  Martial law 1941–1944
 •  Revolution of 1954 1946–1958
 •  Statehood August 21, 1959

Provisional Government

Upon the overthrow of Queen Liliʻuokalani in 1893, the Committee of Safety, Henry E. Cooper, Chairman (which had been started by Cooper and newspaper publisher Lorrin A. Thurston), established the Provisional Government of Hawaii to govern the islands in transition to expected annexation by the United States. Thurston actively lobbied Congress for annexation, while the former monarchy lobbied Congress to protest the overthrow and lobbied against any annexation of Hawaii.

First annexation proceedings began when Democrat Grover Cleveland took office. Cleveland was an anti-imperialist and was strongly against annexation. He withdrew the annexation treaty from consideration, mounted an inquiry, and recommended the restoration of Liliʻuokalani as queen. Further investigation by Congress led to the Morgan Report, which established that the actions of U.S. troops were completely neutral, and exonerated the U.S. from any accusations of complicity with the overthrow.[5]

On August 12, 1898, the flag of the Republic of Hawaii over ʻIolani Palace was lowered and the United States flag raised to signify annexation.

Lowering the Hawaiian flag at Annexation ceremony (PPWD-8-3-006)
Raising the American Flag Over Iolani Palace

The provisional government convened a constitutional convention to establish the Republic of Hawaii. Thurston was urged to become the nation's first president but he was worried his brazen personality would damage the cause of annexation. The more conservative Sanford B. Dole, former Supreme Court Justice and friend of Queen Liliʻuokalani, was elected as the first and only president of the new regime.[6]

School Begins (Puck Magazine 1-25-1899)
Cartoon depiction of the United States, its territories, and US controlled regions as a classroom with belligerent Philippines, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and Cuba

Hawaii's strategic location to support the Spanish–American War in the Philippines made it especially important to American interests, as argued by naval strategist Alfred Thayer Mahan.[7]

On July 4, 1898, the United States Congress passed the Newlands Resolution (named after Congressman Francis Newlands), which officially annexed Hawaii. It was signed into law by President McKinley on July 7, 1898, and came into effect on August 12, 1898.[8] A formal ceremony was held on the steps of the formerly royal ʻIolani Palace in Honolulu where the Hawaiian flag of the Republic was lowered and the American flag of the "Stars and Stripes" raised on August 12. Former President Sanford B. Dole was appointed Hawaii's first territorial governor.

Sanford B. Dole and Harold M. Sewall (PPWD-8-3-009)
Former President of the Republic of Hawaii, Sanford B. Dole was sworn in as the first territorial governor on the steps of the former royal ʻIolani Palace in Honolulu as American businessmen and plantation owners lauded victory against the previous Hawaiian monarchy.

The Newlands Resolution said,

Whereas, the Government of the Republic of Hawaii having, in due form, signified its consent, in the manner provided by its constitution, to cede absolutely and without reserve to the United States of America, all rights of sovereignty of whatsoever kind in and over the Hawaiian Islands and their dependencies, and also to cede and transfer to the United States, the absolute fee and ownership of all public, Government, or Crown lands, public buildings or edifices, ports, harbors, military equipment, and all other public property of every kind and description belonging to the Government of the Hawaiian Islands, together with every right and appurtenance thereunto appertaining: Therefore, Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That said cession is accepted, ratified, and confirmed, and that the said Hawaiian Islands and their dependencies be, and they are hereby, annexed as a part of the territory of the United States and are subject to the sovereign dominion thereof, and that all and singular the property and rights hereinbefore mentioned are vested in the United States of America.[8]

The Newlands Resolution established a five-member commission to study which laws were needed in the newly organized Territory of Hawaii. The commission included: Territorial Governor Sanford B. Dole (R-Hawaii Territory), Senators Shelby M. Cullom (R-Illinois) and John T. Morgan (D-Alabama), Representative Robert R. Hitt (R-Illinois) and former Hawaii Chief Justice and later succeeding Territorial Governor Walter F. Frear (R-Hawaii Territory). The commission's final report was submitted to Congress for a debate which lasted over a year. Many Congressmen and Senators raised objections that establishing an elected territorial government in Hawaii would lead to the admission of a state with a "non-white" majority in the then racist and segregated era of "Jim Crow" laws in the South at the time.

Organic Act

The United States Congress finally agreed to grant Hawaii a popularly elected government of its own and 25th President William McKinley signed a law passed by the Congress, "An Act to Provide a Government for the Territory of Hawaii", also known as the Hawaiian Organic Act of 1900.

The Organic Act established the Office of the Territorial Governor, an office appointed by the sitting American president, usually from his own political party. The territorial governor "served at the pleasure" of the President of the United States, was nominated by him and confirmed by the Senate, and could be replaced at any time.

Territorial governors

The Organic Act created a bicameral Hawaii Territorial Legislature, consisting of a lower chamber House of Representatives and the upper chamber, the Senate, with its members elected by popular vote.

A Territorial Supreme Court of several justices/judges led by a Chief Justice, and additional appellate courts, also appointed by the President with the constitutional "advice and consent" of the Senate.

The Act also provided as with the other several Federal territories for a non-voting Delegate to the United States Congress, seated and with offices and the otherwise usual rights and privileges of a U.S. Representative in the U.S. House of Representatives

Congressional delegates

Representation in the U.S. House of Representatives was limited to a single, non-voting delegate:


Hawaii State Archives image from Matson Lines 1900s
Matson Navigation Company advertised Hawaii as a tourist destination for the first time late 1890s.

Hawaii's tourism industry began in 1882 when Matson Navigation Company, founded by William Matson, began sailing vessels between San Francisco and Hawaii carrying goods. His transports encouraged him to purchase passenger steamships that would carry tourists hoping to vacation in Hawaii from the mainland United States.[9][10]

Matson's fleet included the SS Wilhelmina, rivaling the best passenger ships serving traditional Atlantic routes. With the boom in interest of Hawaiian vacations by America's wealthiest families in the late 1920s, Matson added the SS Mariposa, SS Monterey and SS Lurline (one of many Lurlines) to the fleet.

Matson Navigation Company operated two resort hotels in Honolulu near royal grounds. The first (and for a time the only) hotel on Waikīkī was the Moana Hotel which opened in 1901. As the first hotel in Waikīkī, the Moana Hotel was nicknamed the "First Lady of Waikīkī." The hotel gained international attention in 1920 when Edward, Prince of Wales and future King Edward VIII of the United Kingdom, stayed as a guest.

In 1927, the luxurious Royal Hawaiian Hotel, informally called the "Pink Palace of the Pacific," opened for business. It was the preferred Hawaii residence of President Franklin D. Roosevelt when he visited Hawaii during World War II.

Military bases

With annexation, the United States saw Hawaii as its most strategic military asset. McKinley and his successor U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt expanded the military presence in Hawaii and established several key bases, some still in use today. By 1906, the entire island of Oahu was being fortified at the coastlines with the construction of a "Ring of Steel," a series of gun batteries mounted on steel coastal walls. One of the few surviving batteries completed in 1911, Battery Randolph, is today the site of the U.S. Army Museum of Hawaii.[11][12]

List of Territorial Installations:

Industrial boom and the "Big Five"

As a territory of the United States, sugarcane plantations gained a new infusion of investment. By getting rid of tariffs imposed on sugarcane sent to the United States, planters had more money to spend on equipment, land and labor. Increased capital resulted in increased production. Five kingdom-era corporations benefited from annexation, becoming multi-million dollar conglomerations: Castle & Cooke, Alexander & Baldwin, C. Brewer & Co., American Factors (later Amfac), Theo H. Davies & Co. Together, the five companies dominated the Hawaiian economy as the "Big Five."[13]

Pineapples and Hawaii

James Dole, also known as the Pineapple King, arrived in Hawaii in 1899. He purchased land in Wahiawa and established the first pineapple plantation in Hawaii. Confident that canned pineapples could become a popular food export, Dole built a cannery near his first plantation in 1901. Hawaiian Pineapple Company, later renamed Dole Food Company, was born. With his profits soaring, Dole expanded and built a larger cannery in Iwilei near Honolulu Harbor in 1907. The Iwilei location made his main operations more accessible to labor. The cannery at Iwilei was in operation until 1991. Dole found himself in the midst of an economic boom industry. In response to growing pineapple demand in 1922, Dole purchased the entire island of Lanai and transformed the Hawaiian tropical low shrublands into the largest pineapple plantation in the world. For a long stretch of time, Lanai would produce 75% of the world's pineapple and become immortalized as the "Pineapple Island."[14]

By the 1930s, Hawaii became the pineapple capital of the world and pineapple production became its second largest industry. After World War II, there were a total of eight pineapple companies in Hawaii. Today pineapples are imported from Thailand and elsewhere; few are commercially grown in Hawaii.[15]

Race relations

One of the most prominent challenges territorial Hawaii had to face was race relations. Intermarriage was tolerated and even sought after. Many native women married immigrant men and joined their community.[16] By 1898, most of Hawaii's population was made up of plantation workers from China, Japan, the Philippines and Portugal. Their plantation experiences molded Hawaii to become a plantation culture. The Hawaiian Pidgin language was developed on the plantations so they all could understand each other. Buddhism and Shintoism grew to become large religions. Catholicism became Hawaii's largest Christian denomination.[17]

Massie Trial

Race relations in Hawaii took to the national spotlight on September 12, 1931 when Thalia Massie, a United States Navy officer's wife, got drunk and alleged that she was beaten and raped. That same night, the Honolulu Police Department stopped a car and detained five men, all plantation workers. Officers took the men to Massie's hospital bedroom where she identified them. Although evidence could not prove that the men were directly involved, national newspapers quickly ran stories about the brute locals on the prowl for white women in Hawaii. The jury in the initial trial failed to reach a verdict. One of the accused was afterwards severely beaten, while another, Joseph Kahahawai, was murdered. Police caught the Kahahawai killers: Massie's husband Thomas, mother Grace Fortescue, and two sailors. Famed criminal lawyer Clarence Darrow defended them. A jury of locals found them guilty and sentenced to hard labor for ten years. Outraged by the court's punishment, the territory's white leaders as well as 103 members of Congress signed a letter threatening to impose martial law over the territory. This pressured Governor Lawrence M. Judd to commute the sentences to an hour each in his executive chambers. Hawaii residents were shocked[18] and all of America reconsidered what they thought of Hawaii's racial diversity.[19] The term "local" (Hawaii's non-Caucasian population) was galvanized through the Massie trial[20]

Martial law

From 1941 to 1944, following the attack on Pearl Harbor and America's entry into World War II, Territorial Governors Joseph B. Pointdexter and Ingram M. Stainback stripped themselves of their administrative powers by declaring martial law.[21] With the territorial constitution suspended, the legislature and supreme court were also dissolved indefinitely. Military law was enforced on all residents of Hawaii. The formation of the military government was mostly done by Maj. Gen. Thomas H. Green of the U.S Army Judge Advocate General's Corps, who became Military Attorney General. General Walter Short appointed himself military governor December 7, 1941. He assumed control of Hawaii and governed from ʻIolani Palace, which was quickly barricaded and fitted with trenches. He was relieved December 17 and charged with dereliction of duty, accused of making poor preparations in case of attack before the attack on Pearl Harbor.

Under martial law, every facet of Hawaiian life was under the control of the military governor. His government fingerprinted all residents over the age of six, imposed blackouts and curfews, rationed food and gasoline, censored the news and media, censored all mail, prohibited alcohol, assigned business hours, and administered traffic and special garbage collection. The military governor's laws were called General Orders. Violations meant punishment without appeal by military tribunals.

Anthony, the shadow Attorney General of the period, provides different information. The "aged and weak"[22] Poindexter (sic), an appointed Democrat, was variously misled into surrendering his powers. Anthony does not mention fingerprinting; corroborates gasoline rationing but not food (the latter unlike the mainland); and disproves a liquor ban by showing how the military gained handsome profits by liquor permits and fees.

The military government instituted employment stasis by General Order No. 91 (no leaving an employer without a letter of good standing); and the banning of courts that required witnesses and juries. Traffic violations were said to have netted prison terms[23] and the military courts evidenced bias against civilians. There ensued a turf battle between the federal Departments of War, Justice and Interior, in which the middle one played a mediating or flip-flopping role. Indeed, it appeared War if not the Pacific Command was operating autonomously.[24]

The Glockner and Seifert cases, actually two detained, naturalized Germans, tested the military's suspension of habeas corpus. In the second year of martial law, August 1943, U.S. District Judge Metzger subpoenaed General Richardson as to why these two were held without charges. The General, according to General Order No. 31, could have had the server arrested for bringing charges against a military person, but instead had the Marshal manhandled so as to evade summons.[25] The prisoners were released outside of Hawaii, avoiding the implicated fall of military power.

List of Military Governors:

Democratic Revolution of 1954

The Democratic Revolution of 1954 was a nonviolent revolution consisting of general strikes, protests, and other acts of civil disobedience. The Revolution culminated in the territorial elections of 1954 where the reign of the Hawaii Republican Party in the legislature came to an abrupt end, as they were voted out of office to be replaced by members of the Democratic Party of Hawaii.

Hawaii 7

During the years leading up to the ousting of the Republican Party Cold War fears brewed and the U.S. was in the middle of the Second Red Scare. The FBI employed the Smith Act toward the ILWU and Communist Party of Hawaii, arresting those who would become known as the Hawaii 7 on August 28, 1951 in synchronized raids at 6:30 that morning. They were convicted in a two-year-long trial. The Hawaii 7 were eventually released in 1958.[26][27]

  • Jack Hall
  • John Reinecke
  • Koji Ariyoshi
  • Jack Kimoto
  • Jim Freeman
  • Charles Fujimoto
  • Eileen Fujimoto


The first Congressional bill for Hawaii statehood was proposed in 1919 by Kuhio Kalanianaole,[28] and was based upon the argument that World War I had proved Hawaii’s loyalty.[29] It was ignored, and proposals for Hawaii statehood were forgotten during the 1920s because the archipelago’s rulers believed that sugar planters’ interests would be better served if Hawaii remained a territory.[30] Following the Jones-Costigan Act, another statehood bill was introduced to the House in May 1935 by Samuel Wilder King but it did not come to be voted on, largely because FDR himself strongly opposed Hawaii statehood,[31] while “Solid South” Democrats who could not accept non-white Congressmen controlled all the committees.[32]

Hawaii resurrected the campaign in 1940 by placing the statehood question on the ballot. Two-thirds of the electorate in the territory voted in favor of joining the Union.[33] After World War II, the call for statehood was repeated with even larger support, even from some mainland states. The reasons for the support of statehood were clear:

  • Hawaii wanted the ability to elect its own governor
  • Hawaii wanted the ability to elect the president
  • Hawaii wanted an end to taxation without voting representation in Congress
  • Hawaii suffered the first blow of the war
  • Hawaii’s non-white ethnic populations, especially the Japanese, proved their loyalty by having served on the European frontlines
  • Hawaii consisted of 90% United States citizens, most born within the U.S.
All islands voted at least 93 percent in favor of Admission acts. Ballot (inset) and referendum results for the Admission Act of 1959.

A former officer of the Honolulu Police Department, John A. Burns, was elected Hawaii’s delegate to Congress in 1956.[34] A Democrat, Burns won without the white vote but rather with the overwhelming support of Japanese and Filipinos in Hawaii. His election proved pivotal to the statehood movement. Upon arriving in Washington, D.C., Burns began making key political maneuvers by winning over allies among Congressional leaders and state governors. Burns’ most important accomplishment was convincing Senate Majority Leader Lyndon B. Johnson (D-Texas) that Hawaii was ready to become a state, despite the continuing opposition of such Deep Southerners as James Eastland[35] and John Sparkman.

In March 1959, both houses of Congress passed the Hawaii Admission Act and U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed it into law. On June 27, 1959, a plebiscite was held asking Hawaii residents to vote on accepting the statehood bill. The plebiscite passed overwhelmingly, with 94.3% voting in favor.[36] On August 21, church bells throughout Honolulu were rung upon the proclamation that Hawaii was finally a US state.

See also


  1. ^ "Department of Commerce and Labor, Coast and Geodetic Survey, Terrestrial magnetism results of magnetic observations made by the coast and geodetic survey between July 1, 1905, and June 30, 1906" (PDF). ftp.ngdc.noaa.gov. p. 119.
  2. ^ "Department of Commerce, Statistical Abstract of the United States, page 1" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-02-01.
  3. ^ https://www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/phc-3-13.pdf (U.S. Census Bureau, 2003, page III-1)
  4. ^ "An Act to Provide for the Admission of the State of Hawaii into the Union". Hawaii Nation.org. March 18, 1959.
  5. ^ Niklaus R. Schweizer, His Hawaiian Excellency: The Overthrow of the Hawaiian Monarchy and the Annexation of Hawaii (1994).
  6. ^ Helena G. Allen, Sanford Ballard Dole: Hawaii's Only President, 1844–1926 (1988)
  7. ^ Peter Karsten, "The Nature of 'Influence': Roosevelt, Mahan and the Concept of Sea Power." American Quarterly 23#4 (1971): 585–600. JSTOR
  8. ^ a b 30 Stat. 750
  9. ^ Christine Skwiot, The purposes of paradise: US tourism and empire in Cuba and Hawai'i (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011).
  10. ^ James Mak, "Creating 'Paradise of the Pacific': How Tourism Began in Hawaii" (2015) online
  11. ^ Dan Cragg, Guide to military installations (U of Illinois Press, 2000).
  12. ^ Bertrand M. Roehner, "Relations Between US Military Forces and the Population of Hawaii" Laboratoire de physique théorique et hautes énergies (2014). online
  13. ^ Julia Flynn Siler (2012). Lost Kingdom: Hawaii's Last Queen, the Sugar Kings and America's First Imperial Adventure. p. 292.
  14. ^ Helena G. Allen, Sanford Ballard Dole: Hawaii's Only President, 1844-1926 (1988).
  15. ^ Duane P. Bartholomew, Richard A. Hawkins, and Johnny A. Lopez. "Hawaii pineapple: the rise and fall of an industry." HortScience 47#10 (2012): 1390-1398. online
  16. ^ Margaret A. Parkman and Jack Sawyer. "Dimensions of ethnic intermarriage in Hawaii." American Sociological Review (1967): 593-607. in JSTOR
  17. ^ Lawrence H. Fuchs, Hawaii Pono: 'Hawaii the Excellent': An Ethnic and Political History (1961), pp 83. 110.
  18. ^ Robinson, Jennifer. "AMERICAN EXPERIENCE: Island Murder". KPBS Public Media. Retrieved 2018-11-18.
  19. ^ "The Crime That Changed the Islands". www.honolulumagazine.com. Retrieved 2018-11-18.
  20. ^ Soong, Micheline. Asian American Society : An Encyclopedia. Gale Virtual Reference Library. p. 454. ISBN 978-1-4522-8189-6.
  21. ^ Robinson, Greg. Interview Archived 2011-11-16 at the Wayback Machine. about his book, A Tragedy of Democracy: Japanese Confinement in North America. CUP. n.d. Retrieved 9 March 2012.
  22. ^ Anthony, J. Garner (1955). Hawaii Under Army Rule. California: Stanford University Press. p. 198. ISBN 0-8248-0377-9.
  23. ^ Anthony, J. Garner (1955). Hawaii Under army Rule. california: Stanford University Press. p. 106. ISBN 0-8248-0377-9.
  24. ^ Anthony, J. Garner (1955). Hawaii Under Army Rule. California: Stanford University Press. p. 96. ISBN 0-8248-0377-9.
  25. ^ Anthony, J. Garner (1955). Hawaii Under Army Rule. California: Stanford University Press. pp. 65–68. ISBN 0-8248-0377-9.
  26. ^ Dan Boylan, T. Michael Holmes (2000). John A. Burns. University of Hawaii Press. p. 104. 9780824822774.
  27. ^ Michael Holmes (1994). The specter of Communism in Hawaii. University of Hawaii Press. p. 104. 9780824815509.
  28. ^ Congressional Quarterly Incorporated (1965); Congress and the Nation: 1945-1964, p. 411
  29. ^ Tabrah, Ruth M. Hawaii: A History, pp. 135-136 ISBN 0393243699
  30. ^ Ogawa, Dennis M. and Grant, Glen; Kodomo no tame ni = for the sake of the children: the Japanese American experience in Hawaii; p. 234 ISBN 0824807308
  31. ^ Whitehead, John S.; Completing the Union: Alaska, Hawai‘i, and the Battle for Statehood, p. 30 ISBN 082633637X
  32. ^ Thomas, G. Scott; The Pursuit of the White House: A Handbook of Presidential Election Statistics and History, p. 396 ISBN 0313257957
  33. ^ "Hawaii Votes To Petition For Statehood: Plebiscite Shows 39,413 in Favor And 19,911 Opposed". The Washington Post. Associated Press. November 7, 1940. p. 8.
  34. ^ "Democrats Win Hawaii Delegate". The Washington Post. November 8, 1956. p. A25.
  35. ^ Bell, Roger; Last Among Equals: Hawaiian Statehood and American Politics; pp. 134, 256 ISBN 0824808479
  36. ^ "Commemorating 50 Years of Statehood". archive.lingle.hawaii.gov. State of Hawaii. 2009-03-18. Archived from the original on March 21, 2014. Retrieved 2014-03-21. On June 27, 1959, a plebiscite was held to allow Hawai`i residents to ratify the congressional vote for statehood. The 'yes for statehood' garnered 94.3 percent (132,773 votes) while the 'no' ballots totaled 5.7 percent (7,971 votes).

Further reading


  • Craig, Robert D. Historical dictionary of Honolulu and Hawaiʻi (Scarecrow Press, 1998).
  • Daws, Gavan (1968). Shoal of Time: A History of the Hawaiian Islands. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-0324-8.
  • Fuchs, Lawrence H. Hawaii Pono: 'Hawaii the Excellent': An Ethnic and Political History.(1961).
  • Haley, James L. Captive Paradise: A History of Hawaii (St. Martin's Press, 2014).
  • Kuykendall, Ralph Simpson, and Arthur Grove Day. Hawaii: a history, from Polynesian kingdom to American state (Prentice Hall, 1961).
  • Wyndette, Olive. Islands of Destiny: A History of Hawaii (1968).

Specialty studies

  • Allen, Helena G. Sanford Ballard Dole: Hawaii's Only President, 1844-1926 (1988).
  • Bartholomew, Duane P., Richard A. Hawkins, and Johnny A. Lopez. "Hawaii pineapple: the rise and fall of an industry." HortScience 47#10 (2012): 1390-1398. online
  • Beechert, Edward D. Working in Hawaii: A Labor History (U of Hawaii Press, 1985) 401pp
  • Brown, DeSoto and Anne Ellett. Hawaii goes to war: life in Hawaii from Pearl Harbor to peace (1989).
  • Chapin, Helen. Shaping history: The role of newspapers in Hawai'i (University of Hawaii Press, 1996).
  • Forbes, David W. Encounters with paradise: views of Hawaii and its people, 1778-1941 (Honolulu Academy of Arts, 1992).
  • Hawkins, Richard A. "James D. Dole and the 1932 Failure of the Hawaiian Pineapple Company," The Hawaiian Journal of History (2007) vol. 41, pp. 149–170.
  • Imai, Shiho. Creating the Nisei Market: Race & Citizenship in Hawai'i's Japanese American Consumer Culture (2010)
  • Jung, Moon-Kie. Reworking Race: the making of Hawaii's interracial labor movement (Columbia University Press, 2006).
  • MacLennan, Carol A. Sovereign Sugar, Industry and Environment in Hawaii (2014).
  • Melendy, Howard Brett, and Rhoda E.A. Hackler. Hawaii, America's Sugar Territory, 1898-1959 (Edwin Mellen Press, 1999).
  • Melendy, Howard Brett. Walter Francis Dillingham, 1875-1963: Hawaiian Entrepreneur and Statesman (Edwin Mellen Pr, 1996).
  • Melendy, H. Brett. "The Controversial Appointment of Lucius Eugene Pinkham, Hawaii's First Democratic Governor," Hawaiian Journal of History (1983(, Vol. 17, pp 185–208.
  • Parkman, Margaret A., and Jack Sawyer. "Dimensions of ethnic intermarriage in Hawaii." American Sociological Review (1967): 593-607. in JSTOR
  • Poblete, JoAnne. Islanders in the Empire: Filipino and Puerto Rican Laborers in Hawai‘i (University of Illinois Press, 2014).
  • Rohrer, Judy. Haoles in Hawai'i" (2010) 124pp; scholarly survey
  • Sumida, Stephen H. And the View from the Shore: Literary Traditions of Hawai'i (University of Washington Press, 2015).
  • Williams, Jr., Ronald. "Race, Power, and the Dilemma of Democracy: Hawaii's First Territorial Legislature, 1901." Hawaiian Journal of History (2015) 49#1 pp 1–45.
  • Whitehead, John S. Completing the Union: Alaska, Hawai`i, and the Battle for Statehood (2004).

Primary sources

  • Thomas H. Green, The Papers of Major General Thomas H. Green, Judge Advocate General's Corps, U.S. Army, University Publications of America, 2001

External links

Coordinates: 21°18′N 157°48′W / 21.3°N 157.8°W

Akaiko Akana

Akaiko Akana (1884–1933), became the first Kahu (pastor) of Hawaiian ancestry at Kawaiahaʻo Church in 1918. He served in that capacity until his death in 1933.

Alice Kahokuoluna

Alice Lillian Rosehill Kahokuoluna (February 20, 1888 – March 14, 1957) was a Congregational minister of Native Hawaiian ancestry. In her time and place, she was the first woman ordained by the Hawaiian Evangelical Association, and the only woman Christian minister in the Territory of Hawaii. Her pastorate was primarily on the Islands of Maui and Molokai, where she helped restore the Siloama Church. Her childhood and young adult church life had been at Kawaiahaʻo Church in Honolulu, and the board of directors of that church later offered her the position of Kahu (pastor).

Big Five (Hawaii)

The Big Five (Hawaiian: Nā Hui Nui ʻElima) was the name given to a group of what started as sugarcane processing corporations that wielded considerable political power in the Territory of Hawaii during the early 20th century and leaned heavily towards the Hawaii Republican Party. The Big Five were Castle & Cooke, Alexander & Baldwin, C. Brewer & Co., American Factors (now Amfac), and Theo H. Davies & Co. The extent of the power that the Big Five had was considered by some as equivalent to an oligarchy. Attorney General of Hawaii Edmund Pearson Dole, referring to the Big Five, said in 1903, "There is a government in this Territory which is centralized to an extent unknown in the United States, and probably almost as centralized as it was in France under Louis XIV."

Bobo Olson

Carl Olson (July 11, 1928 – January 16, 2002) was an American boxer. He was the World Middleweight champion between October 1953 and December 1955, the longest reign of any champion in that division during the 1950s.

His nickname, Bobo, was based on his younger sister's mispronunciation of "brother".

Cyrus Nils Tavares

Cyrus Nils Tavares (April 12, 1902 – August 3, 1976) was a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Hawaii.

Edward Kahale

Edward Kahale (1891 – 1989) was an American clergyman, and the third Kahu (pastor) of Hawaiian ancestry at Kawaiahaʻo Church, from January 1940 until the January 1957 installation of Abraham Akaka. He was an integral part of the University of Hawaii's early 20th century efforts to prevent the Hawaiian language from becoming a lost language.

Hawaii Territory's at-large congressional district

Hawaii Territory's at-large congressional district was the congressional district for the Territory of Hawaii, which was established by the Newlands Resolution of 1898.

On April 30, 1900, the Hawaiian Organic Act gave the Territory of Hawaii the authority to elect a single non-voting Congressional delegate.After Hawaii's admission to the Union as the 50th state by act of Congress on August 21, 1959, this district was replaced by Hawaii's at-large congressional district.

Hawaiian Organic Act

The Hawaiian Organic Act, Pub.L. 56–339, 31 Stat. 141, enacted April 30, 1900, was an organic act enacted by the United States Congress to establish the Territory of Hawaii and to provide a Constitution and government for the territory. The Act was in force until August 21, 1959, when the territory was admitted to the Union as a State.

Ingram Stainback

Ingram Macklin Stainback (May 12, 1883 – April 12, 1961) was an American politician. He served as the ninth Territorial Governor of Hawaii from 1942 to 1951.

Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole

Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole (March 26, 1871 – January 7, 1922) was a prince of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi until it was overthrown by a coalition of American and European businessmen in 1893. He later went on to become a representative in the Territory of Hawaii as delegate to the United States Congress, and as such is the only person ever elected to that body who had been born into royalty.

Lawrence M. Judd

Lawrence McCully Judd (March 20, 1887 – October 4, 1968) was a politician of the Territory of Hawaii, serving as the seventh Territorial Governor. He was devoted to the Hansen's Disease-afflicted residents of Kalaupapa on the island of Molokaʻi.

Newlands Resolution

The Newlands Resolution was a joint resolution passed on July 4, 1898 by the United States Congress to annex the independent Republic of Hawaii. In 1900, Congress created the Territory of Hawaii. It was drafted by Congressman Francis G. Newlands of Nevada, a Democrat. Annexation was a highly controversial political issue along with the similar issue of the acquisition of the Philippines in 1898.

Samuel Wilder King

Samuel Wilder King (December 17, 1886 – March 24, 1959) was the eleventh Territorial Governor of Hawaii and served from 1953 to 1957. He was appointed to the office after the term of Oren E. Long. Previously, King served in the United States House of Representatives as a delegate from the Territory of Hawaii. He was a member of the Republican Party of Hawaii and was the first of native Hawaiian descent to rise to the highest office in the territory.

Sanford B. Dole

Sanford Ballard Dole (April 23, 1844 – June 9, 1926) was a lawyer and jurist in the Hawaiian Islands as a kingdom, protectorate, republic and territory. A descendant of the American missionary community to Hawaii, Dole advocated the westernization of Hawaiian government and culture. After the overthrow of the monarchy, he served as the President of the Republic of Hawaii until his government secured Hawaii's annexation by the United States.

Seal of Hawaii

The Great Seal of the State of Hawaii was designated officially by Act 272 of the 1959 Territorial Legislature and is based on the territorial seal. Modifications to the territorial seal included the use of the words "State of Hawaii" at the top and "1959" within the circle. Provisions for a seal for the state of Hawaii was enacted by the Territorial Legislator and approved by Governor William F. Quinn on June 8, 1959. The passage of the Admission Act in 1959, admitted Hawaii as the 50th State of the United States of America on August 21, 1959.

The seal of the Territory of Hawaii was the same as the seal of the republic, except that it had "Territory of Hawaii" placed at the top and "1900" (signifying the year that the territorial government officially was organized) within the circle. The 1901 Territorial Legislature authorized the modified republic seal as the Seal of the Territory of Hawaii.The seal of the Republic of Hawaii had the words "Republic of Hawaii" at the top and "MDCCCXCIV" within the circle. The year 1894 signified the date that the republic was established. The republic seal was designed by Viggo Jacobsen, a Honolulu resident, and itself was derived from the Kingdom of Hawaii coat of arms used during the reign of King Kamehameha III, King Kalākaua and Queen Liliʻuokalani, which had been designed by the College of Arms in London in 1842 and officially adopted in 1845.

William Austin Whiting

William Austin Whiting (August 5, 1855 – January 18, 1908) was an American lawyer and politician of the Kingdom, Republic, and Territory of Hawaii. He served as Attorney General of Hawaii and was an associate justice of the Supreme Court of Hawaii. During his college years, he was captain of the 1875 Harvard Crimson football team.

William F. Quinn

William Francis Quinn (July 13, 1919 – August 28, 2006) was an American lawyer who served as the 12th and last governor of the Territory of Hawaii from 1957 to 1959 and the first governor of the State of Hawaii from 1959 to 1962. Originally appointed to the office by President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Quinn was the last executive appointed by an American president, after American rule of the Hawaiian Islands began after the overthrow of the monarchy in 1893. He was also the last Republican to serve as governor until Linda Lingle in 2002. Quinn appeared as a guest panelist on the television program What's My Line. He was the recipient of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre, a papal knighthood conferred by Pope John Paul II.

William Kamau

William Kamau (January 15, 1851 – January 9, 1944) was an American clergyman, and the second Kahu (shepherd) of Hawaiian ancestry at Kawaiahaʻo Church in Honolulu, Hawaii.

William Paul Jarrett

William Paul Jarrett (August 22, 1877 – November 10, 1929) was a sheriff and congressional delegate representing the Territory of Hawaii.

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