Terrestrial television

Terrestrial television is a type of television broadcasting in which the television signal is transmitted by radio waves from the terrestrial (Earth-based) transmitter of a television station to a TV receiver having an antenna. The term terrestrial is more common in Europe and Latin America, while in the United States it is called broadcast or over-the-air television (OTA). The term "terrestrial" is used to distinguish this type from the newer technologies of satellite television (direct broadcast satellite or DBS television), in which the television signal is transmitted to the receiver from an overhead satellite, and cable television, in which the signal is carried to the receiver through a cable.

Terrestrial television was the first technology used for television broadcasting, with the first public television broadcast from Schenectady, NY, in January, 1928.[1] The BBC began broadcasting in 1929 and by 1930 many radio stations had a regular schedule of experimental television programmes. However, these early experimental systems had insufficient picture quality to attract the public, due to their mechanical scan technology, and television did not become widespread until after World War II with the advent of electronic scan television technology. The television broadcasting business followed the model of radio networks, with local television stations in cities and towns affiliated with television networks, either commercial (in the US) or government-controlled (in Europe), which provided content. Television broadcasts were in black and white until the transition to color television in the 1950s and 60s.[2]

There was no other method of television delivery until the 1950s with the beginnings of cable television and community antenna television (CATV). CATV was, initially, only a re-broadcast of over-the-air signals. With the widespread adoption of cable across the United States in the 1970s and 1980s, viewing of terrestrial television broadcasts has been in decline; in 2013, it was estimated that about 7% of US households used an antenna.[3][4] A slight increase in use began after the 2009 final conversion to digital terrestrial television broadcasts, which offer HDTV image quality as an alternative to CATV for cord cutters.

OTA antenna.jpeg
Indoor "rabbit ears" antenna often used for terrestrial television reception

Analogue terrestrial television

Rooftop television antennas like these are required to receive terrestrial television in fringe reception areas far from the television station.


Following the ST61 conference, UHF frequencies were first used in the UK in 1964 with the introduction of BBC2. In UK, VHF channels were kept on the old 405-line system, while UHF was used solely for 625-line broadcasts (which later used PAL colour). Television broadcasting in the 405-line system continued after the introduction of four analogue programmes in the UHF bands until the last 405-line transmitters were switched off on January 6, 1985. VHF Band III was used in other countries around Europe for PAL broadcasts until planned phase out and switchover to digital television.

The success of analogue terrestrial television across Europe varied from country to country. Although each country had rights to a certain number of frequencies by virtue of the ST61 plan, not all of them were brought into service.


In 1941, the first NTSC standard was introduced by the National Television System Committee. This standard defined a transmission scheme for a black and white picture with 525 lines of vertical resolution at 60 fields per second. In the early 1950s, this standard was superseded by a backwards-compatible standard for color television. The NTSC standard was exclusively being used in the Americas as well as Japan until the introduction of digital terrestrial television (DTT). While Mexico have ended all its analogue television broadcasts and the US and Canada have shut down nearly all of their analogue TV stations, the NTSC standard continues to be used in the rest of Latin American countries while testing their DTT platform.[5]

In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the Advanced Television Systems Committee developed the ATSC standard for digital high definition terrestrial transmission. This standard was eventually adopted by many American countries, including the United States, Canada, Dominican Republic, Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras; however, the three latter countries ditched it in favour of ISDB-Tb. [6][7]

The Pan-American terrestrial television operates on analog channels 2 through 6 (VHF-low band, 54 to 88 MHz, known as band I in Europe), 7 through 13 (VHF-high band, 174 to 216 MHz, known as band III elsewhere), and 14 through 51 (UHF television band, 470 to 698 MHz, elsewhere bands IV and V). Unlike with analog transmission, ATSC channel numbers do not correspond to radio frequencies. Instead, a virtual channel is defined as part of the ATSC stream metadata so that a station can transmit on any frequency but still show the same channel number.[8] Additionally, free-to-air television repeaters and signal boosters can be used to rebroadcast a terrestrial television signal using an otherwise unused channel to cover areas with marginal reception. (see Pan-American broadcast television frequencies for frequency allocation charts)[9]

Analog television channels 2 through 6, 7 through 13, and 14 through 51 are only used for LPTV translator stations in the U.S. Channels 52 through 69 are still used by some existing stations, but these channels must be vacated if telecommunications companies notify the stations to vacate that signal spectrum.


Terrestrial television broadcast in Asia started as early as 1939 in Japan through a series of experiments done by NHK Broadcasting Institute of Technology. However, these experiments were interrupted by the beginning of the World War II in the Pacific. On February 1, 1953, NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation) began broadcasting. On August 28, 1953, Nippon TV (Nippon Television Network Corporation), the first commercial television broadcaster in Asia was launched. Meanwhile, in the Philippines, Alto Broadcasting System (now ABS-CBN), the first commercial television broadcaster in Southeast Asia, launched its first commercial terrestrial television station DZAQ-TV on October 23, 1953, with the help of Radio Corporation of America (RCA).

Digital terrestrial television

By the mid-1990s, the interest in digital television across Europe was such the CEPT convened the "Chester '97" conference to agree means by which digital television could be inserted into the ST61 frequency plan.

The introduction of digital terrestrial television in the late 1990s and early years of the 21st century led the ITU to call a Regional Radiocommunication Conference to abrogate the ST61 plan and to put a new plan for DTT broadcasting only in its place.

In December 2005, the European Union decided to cease all analogue audio and analogue video television transmissions by 2012 and switch all terrestrial television broadcasting to digital audio and digital video (all EU countries have agreed on using DVB-T). The Netherlands completed the transition in December 2006, and some EU member states decided to complete their switchover as early as 2008 (Sweden), and (Denmark) in 2009. While the UK began the switch in late 2007, it was not completed until 24 October 2012. Norway ceased all analogue television transmissions on 1 December 2009.[10] Two member states (not specified in the announcement) have expressed concerns that they might not be able to proceed to the switchover by 2012 due to technical limitations; the rest of the EU member states had stopped analogue television transmissions by the end 2012.

Many countries are developing and evaluating digital terrestrial television systems.

Australia has adopted the DVB-T standard and the government's industry regulator, the Australian Communications and Media Authority, has mandated that all analogue transmissions will cease by 2012. Mandated digital conversion started early in 2009 with a graduated program. The first centre to experience analog switch-off will be the remote Victorian regional town of Mildura, in 2010. The government will supply underprivileged houses across the nation with free digital set-top converter boxes in order to minimise any conversion disruption. Australia's major free-to-air television networks have all been granted digital transmission licences and are each required to broadcast at least one high-definition and one standard-definition channel into all of their markets.

In North America, a specification laid out by the ATSC has become the standard for digital terrestrial television. In the United States, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) set the final deadline for the switch-off of analogue service for 12 June 2009. All television receivers must now include a DTT tuner using ATSC. In Canada, the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) set 31 August 2011 as the date that terrestrial analogue transmission service ceased in metropolitan areas and provincial capitals. [11][12] In Mexico, the Federal Telecommunications Institute (IFT) set the final deadline for the end of analogue terrestrial television for 31 December 2015.

Competition for radio spectrum

In late 2009, US competition for the limited available radio spectrum led to debate over the possible re-allocation of frequencies currently occupied by television, and the FCC began asking for comments on how to increase the bandwidth available for wireless broadband. Some have proposed mixing the two together, on different channels that are already open (like White Spaces) while others have proposed "repacking" some stations and forcing them off certain channels, just a few years after the same thing was done (without compensation to the broadcasters) in the DTV transition in the United States.

Some US commentators have proposed the closing down of terrestrial TV broadcasting, on the grounds that available spectrum might be better used, and requiring viewers to shift to satellite or cable reception. This would eliminate mobile TV, which has been delayed several years by the FCC's decision to choose ATSC and its proprietary 8VSB modulation, instead of the worldwide COFDM standard used for all other digital terrestrial broadcasting around the world. Compared to Europe and Asia, this has hamstrung mobile TV in the US, because ATSC cannot be received while in motion (or often even while stationary) without ATSC-M/H as terrestrial DVB-T or ISDB-T can even without DVB-H or 1seg.

The National Association of Broadcasters has organised to fight such proposals, and public comments are also being taken by the FCC through mid-December 2009, in preparation for a plan to be released in mid-February 2010.

See also


  1. ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WRGB
  2. ^ "The Color Revolution: Television In The Sixties". TVObscurities. 2005-02-15. Retrieved 2017-09-04.
  3. ^ "CEA Study Says Seven Percent of TV Households Use Antennas", '"TVTechnology, 30 July 2013
  4. ^ "Nielsen: Broadcast Reliance Grew in 2012", TVTechnology, 14 January 2013
  5. ^ Mick Hurbis-Cherrier (2007). "NTSC Broadcast Standards" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-09-04.
  6. ^ "About ATSC". Advanced Television Systems Committee. Retrieved 2017-09-04.
  7. ^ "ATSC Standards". Advanced Television Systems Committee. Retrieved 2017-09-04.
  8. ^ ATSC Standard: Program and System Information Protocol for Terrestrial Broadcast and Cable (PDF), Advanced Television Systems Committee, retrieved 2017-09-04
  9. ^ "FCC regulations CFR 47 Part 74 Subpart L: FM Broadcast Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations". Edocket.access.gpo.gov. Retrieved 2017-09-04.
  10. ^ "DVB - Digital Video Broadcasting - Norway". Digital Video Broadcasting Project.
  11. ^ "The Commission establishes a new approach for Canadian conventional television" (Press release). Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission. 2007-05-17. Archived from the original on 2007-05-19. Retrieved 2007-05-17.
  12. ^ "Broadcasting Public Notice CRTC 2007-53". Sections 50 to 80. Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission. 2007-05-17. Retrieved 2007-05-17.

External links

7food network

7food network is an Australian free-to-air television channel owned by the Seven Network which launched on December 1, 2018. The channel marks the start of Seven's new deal with Discovery, Inc., immediately after the end of SBS's previous deal with Discovery which saw the creation of SBS Food (formerly Food Network) in 2015. The channel features shows about food and cooking from around the world.

Analogue terrestrial television in the United Kingdom

Analogue terrestrial television in the United Kingdom was originally the method by which the significant majority of viewers in the UK, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man received television. Analogue terrestrial television broadcasts have ceased everywhere in the UK with Northern Ireland being the last region to have ceased broadcasting analogue terrestrial television broadcasts. Northern Ireland switched off the last analogue television signals, making all of the United Kingdom only capable of receiving digital television, in the early hours of 24 October 2012. It has been completely replaced by digital terrestrial television and other non-terrestrial means as of the end of 2012.


DNA Oyj (DNA) is a Finnish telecommunications company. It was founded in 2000, and refounded in 2007 after a merger.

DNA offers cellular phone services, FTTx, ADSL, terrestrial television (DVB-T/DVB-T2), cable television (DVB-C) and regular (landline) telephone service.

DNA was founded as the cell phone operator of the Finnet group of telephone cooperatives after there was a split-up in the association. The Helsinki Telephone Association (now Elisa Oyj) left Finnet and they needed to find a new owner, which they did in 2000.

In 2006, there began to be new difficulties between the remaining Finnet companies. The largest members merged themselves with DNA and left the association.

In 2012, DNA challenged a long-time dominated Digita Oy in the Finnish terrestrial television network markets, and construction of its own competing digital-terrestrial television network with DVB-T2-technology.

In 2013, DNA acquired the monopoly (in the Finnish market) pay-per-view television provider PlusTV, from the Swedish state owned radio and television network operator Teracom AB. PlusTV offers pay-per-view television services on Digita's and DNA's own digital terrestrial television networks, with DVB-T/MPEG-2 and DVB-T2/MPEG-4 technologies.

Digital terrestrial television

Digital terrestrial television (DTTV or DTT) is a technology for broadcast television in which land-based (terrestrial) television stations broadcast television content by radio waves to televisions in consumers' residences in a digital format. DTTV is a major technological advance over the previous analog television, and has largely replaced analog which had been in common use since the middle of the last century. Test broadcasts began in 1998 with the changeover to DTTV (aka Analog Switchoff (ASO) or Digital Switchover (DSO)) beginning in 2006 and is now complete in many countries. The advantages of digital terrestrial television are similar to those obtained by digitising platforms such as cable TV, satellite, and telecommunications: more efficient use of limited radio spectrum bandwidth, provision of more television channels than analog, better quality images, and potentially lower operating costs for broadcasters (after the initial upgrade costs).

Different countries have adopted different digital broadcasting standards; the major ones are:

ATSC DTV – Advanced Television Standards Committee (System A)

ATSC-M/H – Advanced Television Systems Committee Mobile & Handheld


DVB-H – Digital Video Broadcasting Handheld

DVB-T/DVB-T2 – Digital Video Broadcasting Terrestrial (System B)

ISDB-T – Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting Terrestrial (System C)


ISDB-TSB – Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting-Terrestrial Sound Broadcasting – (System F)

FLO – Forward Link Only (System M)

Digital terrestrial television in Australia

Digital terrestrial television in Australia commenced on 1 January 2001 in Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide and Perth using DVB-T standards. The phase out of analogue PAL transmissions began in 2010 and was completed by 10 December 2013.

Digital terrestrial television brought a number of enhancements over the previous analogue television, primarily higher-quality picture and sound, as well as datacasting and multi-view services such as video program guides, high definition, and now-and-next program information. There are a number of additional channels, datacasting, as well as high definition services, available to digital terrestrial television viewers in Australia. Digital-only content is subject to availability and differs greatly in various television markets.

Although approximately 96% of the population had access to at least one digital service, take up was initially sluggish, with only 28% of Australia's 7.8 million households having adopted free-to-air digital television by March 2007. However, by August 2010, 75% of Australian households had made the switch. Analogue transmissions began to be phased out in 2010, and ceased to be available nationwide by the end of 2013.

From 2009, the free-to-air digital television platform has been promoted under the Freeview brand name.

Digital terrestrial television in Canada

Digital terrestrial television in Canada (often shortened to DTT) is transmitted using the ATSC standard. Because Canada and the U.S. use the same standard and frequencies for channels, people near the Canada–United States border can watch digital television programming from television stations in either country where available. The ATSC standards are also used in Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Suriname and South Korea.

Jurisdiction over terrestrial broadcasting in Canada is primarily regulated by Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada and the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC). Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada has jurisdiction over the allotment of the terrestrial spectrum and the CRTC has jurisdiction over the allotment of broadcast licences.

The CRTC imposed in 28 mandatory markets a digital transition deadline for full power transmitters of August 31, 2011, with the exception of some CBC transmitters. Two weeks before the deadline, the CBC transmitters were given a temporary one-year extension to remain in analog. No digital transition deadline has been set for low-power analogue transmitters and analog transmitters outside the 28 mandatory markets.

In January 2007, Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada stopped issuing licences within Canada for new television transmitters broadcasting in analogue.All remaining analog terrestrial television signals across Canada are scheduled to be shut down no later than 2022.

Digital terrestrial television in Portugal

Digital terrestrial television in Portugal (Portuguese: Televisão Digital Terrestre, or TDT) started on 29 April 2009 with currently (as of December 2016) 7 free-to-air (FTA) channels. In the Azores and Madeira Islands, the respective regional channels (RTP Açores or RTP Madeira) are also available. In June 2010 TDT coverage reached 83% of the population and was expected to reach 100% by the end of 2010. The analog switch-off occurred on 26 April 2012. The already four existing analog FTA channels simulcasted in DVB-T, MPEG-4/H.264 (digital), and PAL (analog).

The TDT process was broken into two different licenses: one for the management of the FTA network and frequencies, and one for the management and distribution of pay TV channels and content. Both licenses were won by Portugal Telecom (PT). PT acquired also the transmitter network of Televisão Independente (TVI), thus becoming the sole broadcaster of analog television signals. ANACOM's objective was to have 5 TDT FTA channels (including a new 5th FTA channel) and a paid TV offer of around 40 channels. The plan for a paid TV offer was abandoned when PT announced that they were returning the paid TV license to ANACOM, which returned the €2.5 million paid by PT for the license.The creation of the 5th TV channel has been criticized by the main private broadcasters, TVI and Sociedade Independente de Comunicação (SIC). They argued that the television advertising market is already saturated and a new broadcaster would be detrimental to the existing channels.

Digital terrestrial television in the United Kingdom

Digital terrestrial television in the United Kingdom encompasses over 100 television, radio and interactive services broadcast via the United Kingdom's terrestrial television network and receivable with a standard television set. The majority of digital terrestrial television (DTT) services, including the five former analogue channels, are broadcast free-to-air, and a further selection of encrypted pay TV services (such as BT Sport) are also available.

Freeview is the only DTT service since Top Up TV closed in 2013. BT TV offers only BT Sport on DTT and their other services are carried via IPTV signals.

The digital broadcasting technology adopted in the UK is the DVB-T system (Digital Video Broadcasting – Terrestrial) carrying compressed digital audio, video and other data in a combined transport stream, using COFDM modulation. A total of eight national and one local 'multiplexes' are broadcast in the UK, guaranteed to reach over 90% of the country. Three of the multiplexes, carrying the free public service channels operated by the BBC, ITV, Channel 4, S4C and Channel 5, are guaranteed wider coverage still, reaching 98.5% of the country including areas dependent on low-power local relays.In the UK, the switchover from analogue to digital TV started on 17 October 2007 and was completed on 24 October 2012. Each group of regional transmitters had its analogue broadcasts switched off at a certain point between those dates.

Digital terrestrial television in the United States

See digital television for more technical details, or DTV transition in the United States for specific information related to the analog-to-digital switchoverIn the United States, digital television broadcasts, or DTV, can be received via cable, via internet, via satellite, or via digital terrestrial television - much like analog television broadcasts have been. Full-power analog television broadcasts, however, were required by U.S. federal law to cease by June 12, 2009. Low-power, Class A, and TV Translator stations are not currently required to cease analog broadcasts. Also by law, digital broadcasts - when transmitted as OTA signals - must conform to ATSC standards.; it is unclear whether satellite operators are free to use their own proprietary standards; and many standards exist for Internet television (most are proprietary).

List of DTT channels in the United Kingdom

This is a list of the current channels available on digital terrestrial television (DTT) in the United Kingdom, and those that have been removed.

Almost all channels broadcast on DTT are free-to-air, with a limited number of subscription channels (requiring a subscription to a pay-TV package) and pay-per-view channels (requiring a one-off payment to view an event) also available. Most free-to-air channels are promoted as part of the Freeview line-up.

All multiplexed H.222 transports for HDTV (1080i) channels use DVB-T2 256-QAM modulation. Local channels on the LTVmux use DVB-T QPSK modulation. All other transports for PAL (576i), radio and interactive channels use DVB-T 64-QAM modulation.

All HD channels are encoded in H.264 and subject to a MPEG-LA controlled transmission patent licensing tax which is included in the Freeview broadcaster cost and varies on viewership figures. This tax is currently paid via one of three registered licensees: the BBC, ITV and Sky plc. The SD channels continue to use H.262, which does not incur any additional transmission costs.

The PSB1 transport (operating name BBC A) is used solely for the standard definition PSB (public service broadcasting) services of the BBC. The PSB2 transport (operating name D3&4) carries only standard definition versions of both the commercial broadcasters' PSB services and some of their commercial services. The PSB3 transport (operating name BBC B) is used for HDTV versions of most of the BBC and commercial PSB services and for standard definition commercial services (viz Film4 +1). The COM4 (operating name SDN), COM5 (operating name ARQ A) and COM6 (operating name ARQ B) transports, which are only transmitted from main transmission sites, carry only standard definition commercial services. The even less geographically available COM7 and COM8 transports, only broadcast from a few principal transmitting sites at significantly lower power than the other transports, carry both commercial HDTV and commercial standard definition services; SDTV channels on these multiplexes can only be received by HDTV-capable equipment.

LTVmux is a series of localised transports at certain transmitter sites carrying local and nationwide channels. Its availability is much less than that of the commercial COM transports. In addition to this, the NImux transport (operating name RNI_1) is only available in parts of Northern Ireland, and the GImux transport (operating name G_MAN) is only available in Greater Manchester.

Spree TV

Spree TV is an Australian free-to-air television channel launched on 17 September 2013 by Ten Network Holdings and Brand Developers. The channel broadcasts infomercials and home shopping.

Television channel

A television channel is a terrestrial frequency or virtual number over which a television station or television network is distributed. For example, in North America, "channel 2" refers to the terrestrial or cable band of 54 to 60 MHz, with carrier frequencies of 55.25 MHz for NTSC analog video (VSB) and 59.75 MHz for analog audio (FM), or 55.31 MHz for digital ATSC (8VSB). Channels may be shared by many different television stations or cable-distributed channels depending on the location and service provider

Depending on the multinational bandplan for a given regional n, analog television channels are typically 6, 7, or 8 MHz in bandwidth, and therefore television channel frequencies vary as well. Channel numbering is also different. Digital terrestrial television channels are the same as their analog predecessors for legacy reasons, however through multiplexing, each physical radio frequency (RF) channel can carry several digital subchannels. On satellites, each transponder normally carries one channel, however multiple small, independent channels can be on one transponder, with some loss of bandwidth due to the need for guard bands between unrelated transmissions. ISDB, used in Japan and Brazil, has a similar segmented mode.

Preventing interference between terrestrial channels in the same area is accomplished by skipping at least one channel between two analog stations' frequency allocations. Where channel numbers are sequential, frequencies are not contiguous, such as channel 6 to 7 skip from VHF low to high band, and channel 13 to 14 jump to UHF. On cable TV, it is possible to use adjacent channels only because they are all at the same power, something which could only be done terrestrially if the two stations were transmitted at the same power and height from the same location. For DTT, selectivity is inherently better, therefore channels adjacent (either to analog or digital stations) can be used even in the same area.

Television in France

Television in France was introduced in 1931, when the first experimental broadcasts began. Colour television was introduced in October 1967 on La Deuxième Chaîne.

Television in Italy

Television in Italy was introduced in 1939, when the first experimental broadcasts began. However, this lasted for a very short time: when fascist Italy entered World War II in 1940 all transmissions were interrupted, and were resumed in earnest only nine years after the end of the conflict, on January 3, 1954.

There are two main national television organisations responsible for most viewing: state-owned RAI, accounting for 37% of the total viewing figures in May 2014, and Mediaset, a commercial network which holds about 33%. The third largest player, the Italian branch of Discovery Communications, had a viewing share of 5.8%. Apart from these three free to air companies, News Corporation's satellite pay TV platform Sky Italia is increasing in viewing and shares.According to the BBC, the Italian television industry is widely considered both inside and outside the country to be overtly politicized. Unlike the BBC which is controlled by an independent trust, the public broadcaster RAI is under direct control of the parliament. According to a December 2008 poll, only 24% of Italians trusted television news programmes, compared unfavourably to the British rate of 38%, making Italy one of only three examined countries where online sources are considered more reliable than television ones for information.

Television in Malaysia

Malaysian television broadcasting was introduced on 28 December 1963. Colour television was introduced on 28 December 1978. Full-time colour transmissions were officially inaugurated on New Year's Day 1982. There are currently 8 national free-to-air terrestrial television stations in Malaysia and 2 national pay subscription television stations in Malaysia.

Television in Russia

Television is the most popular medium in Russia, with 74% of the population watching national television channels routinely and 59% routinely watching regional channels. There are 3300 television channels in total. 3 channels have a nationwide outreach (over 90% coverage of the Russian territory): Channel One, Russia-1 and NTV.

Television in Spain

Television in Spain was launched in October 1956, when the state broadcaster Televisión Española (TVE) started regular broadcasts. The first private channels started in 1990. Colour transmissions started in 1972 after two years of test transmissions, with all programming transmitted in color from 1977, and colour commercials, which started in 1978. Currently, television is one of the leading mass media of the country, and by 2008 was in 99.7% of households in Spain according to INE statistics.

Until recently terrestrial television was considered an essential public service. Broadcasting is managed both directly by the State and indirectly, through controlled concessions to private firms. The Audiovisual Law of 2010 changed this by defining radio and television as commercial services that individuals pay for, fostering liberalization within some constraints.

Television in the Republic of Ireland

Television in the Republic of Ireland is available through a variety of platforms. The digital terrestrial television service is known as Saorview and is the primary source of broadcast television since analogue transmissions ended on 24 October 2012. Digital satellite (from Sky Ireland, Saorsat and other European satellite service providers are available) and digital cable (from Virgin Media Ireland) are also widely used.

The Irish satellite fill-in service (Saorsat) is via Ka-Sat using the Irish Ka band spot and has been available since June 2011.While many people receive their television via Saorview, which is broadcast by 2RN, more than half subscribe to multichannel television networks. The biggest single multichannel television network in Ireland is Sky Ireland, which broadcasts digital satellite television services. Virgin Media Ireland, Vodafone TV and Eir among others, provide similar digital television services to Irish viewers.

Terrestrial television systems

Terrestrial television systems are encoding or formatting standards for the transmission and reception of terrestrial television signals. There were three main analogue television systems in use around the world until the late 2010s (expected): NTSC, PAL, and SECAM. Now in digital terrestrial television (DTT), there are four main systems in use around the world: ATSC, DVB, ISDB and DTMB.

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