A term of office is the length of time a person serves in a particular elected office. In many jurisdictions there is a defined limit on how long terms of office may be before the officeholder must be subject to re-election. Some jurisdictions exercise term limits, setting a maximum number of terms an individual may hold in a particular office.
In the United Kingdom Members of Parliament (MPs) in the House of Commons are elected for the duration of the parliament. Following dissolution of the Parliament, a general election is held which consists of simultaneous elections for all seats. For most MPs this means that their terms of office are identical to the duration of the Parliament, though an individual's term may be cut short by death or resignation. An MP elected in a by-election mid-way through a Parliament, regardless of how long they have occupied the seat, is not exempt from facing re-election at the next general election.
The Septennial Act 1715 provided that a Parliament expired seven years after it had been summoned; this maximum period was reduced to five years by the Parliament Act 1911. Prior to the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 parliaments had no minimum duration. Parliaments could be dissolved early by the monarch at the Prime Minister's request. Early dissolutions occurred when the make-up of Parliament made forming government impossible (as occurred in 1974), or, more commonly, when the incumbent government reasoned an early general election would improve their re-election chances (e.g. 2001). The Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 mandated that Parliaments should last their full five years. Early dissolution is still possible, but under much more limited circumstances.
Because the government and Prime Minister are effectively indirectly elected through the Commons, the terms of Parliaments and MPs do not directly apply to offices of government, though in practice these are affected by changes in Parliament. While, strictly speaking, a Prime Minister whose incumbency spans multiple Parliaments only serves one, unbroken, term of office, some writers may refer to the different Parliaments as separate terms.
Hereditary peers and life peers retain membership of the House of Lords for life, though members can resign or be expelled. Lords Spiritual hold membership of the House of Lords until the end of their time as bishops, though a senior bishop may be made a life peer upon the end of their bishopric (e.g. George Carey, made Baron Carey of Clifton the day after he ceased being Archbishop of Canterbury).
The office of the leader of the devolved administrations has no numeric term limit imposed upon it. However, in the case of the Scottish Government and the Welsh Assembly Government there are fixed terms for which the legislatures can sit. This is imposed at four years. Elections may be held before this time but only if no administration can be formed, which has not happened yet.
Offices of local government other regional elected officials follow similar rules to the national offices discussed above, with persons elected to fixed terms of a few years.
In the United States, the president of the United States is elected indirectly through the United States Electoral College to a four-year term, with a term limit of two terms (totaling eight years) or a maximum of ten years if the president acted as president for two years or less in a term where another was elected as president, imposed by the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1951.
Federal judges have different terms in office. Article I judges; such as those that sit on the United States bankruptcy courts, United States Tax Court, and United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces, and certain other federal courts and other forms of adjudicative bodies serve limited terms: The Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces for 15 years, bankruptcy courts for 14. However, the majority of the federal judiciary, Article III judges (such as those of the Supreme Court, courts of appeal, and federal district courts), serve for life.
Members of Council of the District of Columbia serve a four-year term.
As a former British territory following the Westminster System, there are many similarities with the United Kingdom, although with some variations based on local customs, the federal system of government and the absentee monarch.
The Governor General is appointed by the monarch as his/her personal representative on the advice of the Prime Minister, and serves for an indefinite term, though the normal convention is 5 years. Similarly, the Lieutenant Governors, who represent the monarch at the provincial level, are appointed by the Governor General on the advice of the Prime Minister (usually also with consultation of the relevant provincial premier), and generally also serve 5 year terms by convention. The territories have Commissioners, who are not representatives of the monarch, but are instead appointed by and represent the Governor-in-Council (i.e. the federal cabinet), and conventionally serve for about 5 years.
Similar to the United Kingdom, MPs serve for the duration of the Parliament. They may resign before the end of a Parliament or be elected in by-elections during the middle of a Parliament.
Under the Constitution Act, 1867, a Parliament may last for a maximum of 5 years from the most recent election before expiring, although all Parliaments to date have been dissolved before they could expire. Bill C-16, introduced in the 39th Parliament, provided for fixed election dates every 4 years on the third Monday in October, beginning in 2009. However, the Prime Minister may still advise the Governor General to dissolve Parliament at any time.
As in the United Kingdom, the cabinet and head of government are indirectly elected based on the composition of the House of Commons, they are not technically affected by the terms of legislators or Parliaments. In practice however, the terms of government office holders are affected by changes in the House of Commons, and those who serve for multiple consecutive Parliaments are generally considered to have served a single term. The term of a government generally ends when it is defeated on a confidence matter or the governing party fails to gain enough seats in a general election.
Senators are appointed to the Canadian Senate to represent a province by the Governor General of Canada on the advice of the Prime Minister, and serve until the mandatory retirement age of 75. Senators appointed before the passage of the British North America Act, 1965 served for life. Senators may also resign from office or be expelled from the Senate.
Provincial legislatures and the legislature of the Yukon function very similarly to the federal House of Commons. MLAs (called MPPs in Ontario, MNAs in Quebec, and MHAs in Newfoundland and Labrador) serve for the duration of the legislature, though they may resign before the legislature is dissolved or be elected in by-elections between general elections. The legislatures of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut operate using a consensus model, but are similar otherwise. The premiers and their cabinets are selected in the same way as in the House of Commons, and like at the federal level, the term of a provincial government can be ended by defeat in a general election or the loss of the legislature's confidence.
All provincial legislatures except that of Nova Scotia have fixed-term election legislation in place, as does the legislature of the Northwest Territories. Premiers may also advise Lieutenant Governors to dissolve legislatures at any time before the prescribed election date.
|Heads of state|
|Lower houses and heads of government|
|Not applicable||Varies||Until removed|
Numbers in years unless stated otherwise. Note that some countries where fixed-term elections are uncommon, the legislature is almost always dissolved earlier than its expiry date. "Until removed from office" refers to offices that don't have fixed terms; in these cases, the officeholder(s) may serve indefinitely until death, abdication, resignation, retirement, or forcible removal from office (such as impeachment).
In cases where the head of government is a different person from the head of state, its term of office is identical to the chamber that elected it (the legislature if it is unicameral, or most usually the lower house if it is bicameral), unless it doesn't survive a vote of no confidence.
|Country||Head of state||Members of the upper house*||Members of the lower (or sole) house|
|Afghanistan||5||3, 4 and 5||5|
|Andorra||Until removed from office (Bishop of Urgel); 5 (President of France)||N/A||4|
|Antigua and Barbuda||Until removed from office||5||5|
|Australia||Until removed from office||6||3|
|Austria||6||4 to 6||5|
|Bahamas||Until removed from office||5||5|
|Bahrain||Until removed from office||N/A||4|
|Barbados||Until removed from office||5||5|
|Belgium||Until removed from office||5||4|
|Bhutan||Until removed from office||5||5|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||4**||4||4|
|Brunei||Until removed from office||N/A||Until removed from office|
|Cambodia||Until removed from office||6||5|
|Canada||Until removed from office||Until removed from office||5|
|Central African Republic||5||N/A||5|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||5||5||4|
|Denmark||Until removed from office||N/A||4|
|Germany||5||4 to 5||4|
|Grenada||Until removed from office||5||5|
|Italy||Until removed from office||5||5|
|Jamaica||Until removed from office||5||5|
|Japan||Until removed from office||6||4|
|Jordan||Until removed from office||4||4|
|Kuwait||Until removed from office||N/A||4|
|Lesotho||Until removed from office||5||5|
|Liechtenstein||Until removed from office||N/A||4|
|Luxembourg||Until removed from office||N/A||5|
|F.S. Micronesia||4||N/A||2, 4|
|Monaco||Until removed from office||N/A||5|
|Morocco||Until removed from office||N/A||5|
|Netherlands||Until removed from office||4||4|
|New Zealand||Until removed from office||N/A||3|
|North Korea||Until removed from office||N/A||5|
|Norway||Until removed from office||N/A||4|
|Oman||Until removed from office||4||4|
|Papua New Guinea||Until removed from office||N/A||5|
|Qatar||Until removed from office||N/A||N/A|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||Until removed from office||N/A||5|
|Saint Lucia||Until removed from office||N/A||5|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||Until removed from office||N/A||5|
|Samoa||Until removed from office||N/A||5|
|San Marino||0.5 (6 months)||N/A||5|
|São Tomé and Príncipe||5||N/A||4|
|Saudi Arabia||Until removed from office||N/A||N/A|
|Solomon Islands||Until removed from office||N/A||4|
|Spain||Until removed from office||4||4|
|Eswatini||Until removed from office||5||5|
|Sweden||Until removed from office||N/A||4|
|Thailand||Until removed from office||6||4|
|Tonga||Until removed from office||N/A||5|
|Trinidad and Tobago||5||5||5|
|Tuvalu||Until removed from office||N/A||4|
|United Arab Emirates||Until removed from office||Until removed from office||5|
|United Kingdom||Until removed from office||Until removed from office||5|
|Vatican City||Until removed from office||N/A||Until removed from office|
*Excludes senators for life.
**The Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina is composed of three members as a collective head of state, all elected at the same time via popular vote, by different constituencies each, every four years.
***The Federal Council of Switzerland is composed of seven members as a collective head of state, all elected at the same time by the Federal Assembly of Switzerland every four years.
During her three terms…
The Governor of California is the head of government of the U.S. state of California. The California Governor is the chief executive of the state government and the commander-in-chief of the California National Guard and the California State Military Reserve.
Established in the Constitution of California, the governor's responsibilities also include making the annual State of the State address to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, and ensuring that state laws are enforced. The position was created in 1849, the year before California became a state.
The current governor of California is Democrat Gavin Newsom who was inaugurated on January 7, 2019.Governor of Michigan
The Governor of Michigan is the chief executive of the U.S. state of Michigan. The current governor is Gretchen Whitmer, a member of the Democratic Party, who was inaugurated on January 1, 2019, as the state's 49th governor. She is eligible for a second term under Michigan's term limits, which limit a governor to only two, four-year terms.Governor of Wisconsin
The Governor of Wisconsin is the highest executive authority in the government of the U.S. state of Wisconsin. The position was first filled by Nelson Dewey on June 7, 1848, the year Wisconsin became a state. Prior to statehood, there were four Governors of Wisconsin Territory.
The current governor is Tony Evers, a Democrat who took office on January 7, 2019.Grand Council of Fascism
The Grand Council of Fascism (Italian: Gran Consiglio del Fascismo) (aka: Fascist Grand Council) was the main body of Mussolini's Fascist government in Italy. A body which held and applied great power to control the institutions of government, it was created as a body of the National Fascist Party in 1923 and became a state body on 9 December 1928. The council usually met at the Palazzo Venezia, Rome, which was also the seat of head of the Italian government.Haryana Legislative Assembly
The Haryana Legislative Assembly or the Haryana Vidhan Sabha is the unicameral state legislature of Haryana state in India. The seat of the Vidhan Sabha is at Chandigarh, the capital of the state. The Vidhan Sabha comprises 90 Members of Legislative Assembly, directly elected from single-seat constituencies. The term of office is five years.List of Prime Ministers of Hungary
The following is a list of Prime Ministers of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyarország miniszterelnöke, literally Ministers-President) from when the first Prime Minister (in the modern sense), Lajos Batthyány, took office in 1848 (during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848) until the present day. The prime minister is head of the Government of Hungary.
There are currently five living former Prime Ministers of Hungary.List of heads of government of Grenada
The following article contains a list of heads of government of Grenada, from the establishment of the office of Chief Minister in 1960 to the present day.List of heads of state of Hungary
For earlier rulers, see Grand Prince of the Hungarians, King of Hungary and List of Hungarian monarchsThe following is a list of heads of state of Hungary, from the Hungarian Declaration of Independence and the establishment of the Hungarian State in 1849 (during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848) until the present day.President of Colombia
The President of Colombia (Spanish: Presidente de Colombia), officially known as the President of the Republic of Colombia (Spanish: Presidente de la República de Colombia) is the head of state and head of government of Colombia. The office of president was established upon the ratification of the Constitution of 1819, by the Congress of Angostura, convened in December 1819, when Colombia was the "Gran Colombia". The first president, General Simón Bolívar, took office in 1819. His position, initially self-proclaimed, was subsequently ratified by Congress.
The current president of the Republic of Colombia is Iván Duque Márquez, who took office on August 7, 2018.President of Indonesia
The President of the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: Presiden Republik Indonesia) is the head of state and also head of government of the Republic of Indonesia. The president leads the executive branch of the Indonesian government and is the commander-in-chief of the Indonesian National Armed Forces.
On 20 October 2014, Joko Widodo became the seventh and current president of Indonesia.President of Kosovo
The President of Kosovo (Albanian: Presidenti i Kosovës, Serbian: Predsednik Kosovo), officially styled the President of the Republic of Kosovo (Albanian: Presidenti i Republikës së Kosovës, Serbian: Predsednik Republike Kosovo), is the head of state and chief representative of the Republic of Kosovo in the country and abroad.
The President is elected indirectly, by the Assembly of Kosovo, in a secret ballot by a two-thirds majority of deputies in functions. If no candidate achieves a two-thirds majority, at the third ballot the candidate who receives a simple majority is elected.The vote in the Assembly should take place no later than a month before the end of the incumbent President's term of office. He or she serves for a five-year term, renewable once.President of Serbia
The President of Serbia (Serbian: Председник Србије / Predsednik Srbije), officially styled as the President of the Republic, is the head of state of Serbia.
The current office holder is Aleksandar Vučić, who was elected on 2 April 2017 and took office on 31 May 2017.President of Somalia
The President of Somalia (Somali: Madaxaweynaha Soomaaliya) is the head of state of Somalia. The President is also commander-in-chief of the Somali Armed Forces. The President represents the Federal Republic of Somalia, and the unity of the Somali nation, as well as ensuring the implementation of the Constitution of Somalia and the organized and harmonious functioning of the organs of state. The office of President of Somalia was established with the proclamation of the Republic of Somalia on 1 July 1960. The first President of Somalia was Aden Abdullah Osman Daar. The current office-holder is the 9th President Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed ‘Farmaajo’, since 16 February 2017.President of Syria
The President of Syria is the head of state of the Syrian Arab Republic. He is vested with sweeping powers that may be delegated, at his sole discretion, to his Vice Presidents. He appoints and dismisses the Prime Minister and other members of the Council of Ministers (the cabinet) and military officers.President of Turkey
The President of the Republic of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Cumhurbaşkanı) is the head of state and head of government of the Republic of Turkey. Following the 2018 general election, the incumbent office-holder assumed the role of an Executive President and holds both ceremonial and executive status. In this capacity, the President represents the Republic of Turkey, and the unity of the Turkish nation, as well as ensuring the implementation of the Constitution of Turkey and the organized and harmonious functioning of the organs of state. The articles from 101 to 106 of the Constitution establish all the requirements, election, duties, and responsibilities for the office of the President. The office of the President of Turkey was established with the proclamation of the Republic of Turkey on 29 October 1923. The President of Turkey is often referred to as the Cumhurbaşkanı, meaning 'President of the People'.Often since 1950, the presidency has been a mostly ceremonial office. However, in a 2017 referendum, the Turkish people narrowly voted to make the presidency an executive post, effective with the 2018 general election.
The current office-holder is Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, who has held the office since 28 August 2014. Since 9 July 2018, Erdoğan has served as the first Executive President, with increased legislative and judicial powers.Prime Minister of Israel
The Prime Minister of Israel (Hebrew: רֹאשׁ הַמֶּמְשָׁלָה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. Head of the Government, Hebrew acronym: רה״מ; Arabic: رئيس الحكومة, Ra'īs al-Ḥukūma) is the head of government and chief executive of Israel.
Israel is a republic with a President as head of state. However, the President's powers are largely ceremonial; the Prime Minister holds the real power. The official residence of the Prime Minister, Beit Aghion, is in Jerusalem. The current Prime Minister is Benjamin Netanyahu of Likud, the ninth person to hold the position (excluding caretakers).
Following an election, the President nominates a member of the Knesset to become Prime Minister after asking party leaders whom they support for the position. The nominee has 42 days to put together a viable coalition. He then presents a government platform and must receive a vote of confidence from the Knesset in order to become Prime Minister. In practice, the Prime Minister is usually the leader of the largest party in the governing coalition. Between 1996 and 2001, the Prime Minister was directly elected, separately from the Knesset.Unlike most prime ministers in parliamentary republics, the Prime Minister is both de jure and de facto chief executive. This is because the Basic Laws of Israel explicitly vest executive power in the government, of which the Prime Minister is the leader.Royal Dutch Football Association
The Royal Dutch Football Association (Dutch: Koninklijke Nederlandse Voetbalbond, pronounced [ˌkoːnɪŋkləkə ˌneːdərlɑntsə ˈvudbɑlbɔnt], or KNVB [ˌkaːʔɛnveːˈbeː]) is the governing body of football in Netherlands. It organises the main Dutch football leagues (Eredivisie and Eerste Divisie), the amateur leagues, the KNVB Cup, and the Dutch men's and women's national teams.
For three seasons in the 2010s, the KNVB and its Belgian counterpart operated a joint top-level women's league, the BeNe League, until the two countries dissolved the league after the 2014–15 season and reestablished their own top-level leagues. The KNVB is based in the central municipality of Zeist. With over 1.2 million members the KNVB is the single largest sports association in the Netherlands.Term limit
A term limit is a legal restriction that limits the number of terms an officeholder may serve in a particular elected office. When term limits are found in presidential and semi-presidential systems they act as a method of curbing the potential for monopoly, where a leader effectively becomes "president for life". This is intended to protect a democracy from becoming a de facto dictatorship. Sometimes, there is an absolute or lifetime limit on the number of terms an officeholder may serve; sometimes, the restrictions are merely on the number of consecutive terms he or she may serve.World Heritage Committee
The World Heritage Committee is a committee which selects the sites to be listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the World Heritage List and the List of World Heritage in Danger, monitors the state of conservation of the World Heritage properties, defines the use of the World Heritage Fund and allocates financial assistance upon requests from States Parties. It comprises 41 state parties that are elected by the General Assembly of States Parties for a four-year term.According to the World Heritage Convention, a committee member's term of office is six years, however many State's Parties choose to voluntarily limit their term to four years, in order to give other States Parties an opportunity to serve. All members elected at the 15th General Assembly (2005) voluntarily chose to reduce their term of office from six to four years.