Terek sandpiper

The Terek sandpiper (Xenus cinereus) is a small migratory Palearctic wader species, the only member of the genus Xenus. It is named after the Terek River which flows into the west of the Caspian Sea, as it was first observed around this area.[2] The genus name Xenus is from Ancient Greek xenos stranger, and cinereus is Latin for "ash-grey" from cinis, cineris, "ashes".[3]

Terek sandpiper
Xenus cinereus (Alnus)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Charadriiformes
Family: Scolopacidae
Genus: Xenus
Kaup, 1829
X. cinereus
Binomial name
Xenus cinereus

Tringa cinerea
Tringa terek

Description and systematics

Xenus cinereus Lapland

Slightly larger than the common sandpiper at 22–25 cm (8.7–9.8 in) length, its long upcurved bill – somewhat reminiscent of an avocet's, but not as strongly curved – makes it very distinctive. As the scientific specific name implies, this wader has a grey back, face and breast in all plumages; a white supercilium may appear more or less distinct. The belly is whitish and the feet yellow; the bill has a yellowish base, with the rest being black.

The call is a high whistle.

Among the Scolopacidae, Xenus is part of the shank-tattler-phalarope clade and less closely related to the calidrid sandpipers. Based on the degree of DNA sequence divergence and putative shank and phalarope fossils from around the Oligocene/Miocene boundary some 23–22 million years ago, the Terek sandpiper presumably diverged from their relatives in the Late Oligocene. Given the numerous basal fossils of the group found in Eurasia it is likely that the Terek sandpiper lineage originated there, possibly by being isolated as the remains of the Turgai Sea dried up, which happened just around this time.[4][5][6]

Distribution and ecology

This bird breeds near water in the taiga from Finland through northern Siberia to the Kolyma River, and migrate south in winter to tropical coasts in east Africa, south Asia and Australia, usually preferring muddy areas. It is a rare vagrant in western Europe, and particularly in autumn it is sometimes seen passing through the Marianas on migration; on Palau, further off its usual migration route, it is decidedly uncommon on the other hand. Almost annually and apparently more and more often in recent times, a few birds stray to Alaska and the Aleutian and Pribilof Islands. Every few years, individual vagrants are recorded in the Neotropics, where they arrive either as migrating birds from Africa, or as North American strays accompanying local waders south for winter. Such vagrants have been recorded as far south as Argentina.[7][8][9]

It feeds in a distinctive and very active way, chasing insects and other mobile prey, and sometimes then running to the water's edge to wash its catch.

It lays three or four eggs in a lined ground scrape.

The Terek sandpiper likes to associate with ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres), smallish calidrids, and Charadrius (but maybe not Pluvialis) plovers; a vagrant bird at Paraty (Rio de Janeiro state) was noted to pair up with a spotted sandpiper (Actitis macularius).[9] Thus it may be that the Terek sandpiper under natural conditions may mate with common sandpiper (A. hypoleucos), the Old World sister species of spotted sandpiper (A. macularius). As hybridisation in shorebirds is extremely commonplace and Actitis is among the closer relatives of the Terek sandpiper, such pairings (should they indeed occur) may produce hybrid offspring.

This is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies. Widespread and often quite commonly seen, the Terek sandpiper is not considered a threatened species by the IUCN.[10]


Terek Sandpiper, Little Stint, Marsh Sandpiper, C Redshank W2 IMG 6891

Terek sandpiper Xenus cinereus, little stint Calidris minuta and marsh sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis in Krishna Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Xenus cinereus eating ragworm

Eating ragworm in Shōnai River, Japan.

Xenus cinereus MWNH 0248

Egg, Collection Museum Wiesbaden

Terek Sandpiper (Xenus cinereus) (8079446567)

In flight


  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Xenus cinereus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ Carnaby, Trevor (2009). Beat About the Bush Birds. Jacana Media. p. 77. ISBN 978-1-77009-241-9. Retrieved 5 June 2012.
  3. ^ Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 107, 411. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  4. ^ Mlíkovský, Jiří (2002). Cenozoic Birds of the World, Part 1: Europe (PDF). Prague: Ninox Press. OCLC 156629447.
  5. ^ Paton, Tara A.; Baker, Allan J.; Groth, J.G.; Barrowclough, G.F. (2003). "RAG-1 sequences resolve phylogenetic relationships within charadriiform birds". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 29 (2): 268–278. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00098-8. PMID 13678682.
  6. ^ Thomas, Gavin H.; Wills, Matthew A.; Székely, Tamás (2004). "A supertree approach to shorebird phylogeny". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 4: 28. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-28. PMC 515296. PMID 15329156.
  7. ^ Wiles, Gary J.; Johnson, Nathan C.; de Cruz, Justine B.; Dutson, Guy; Camacho, Vicente A.; Kepler, Angela Kay; Vice, Daniel S.; Garrett, Kimball L.; Kessler, Curt C.; Pratt, H. Douglas (2004). "New and Noteworthy Bird Records for Micronesia, 1986–2003". Micronesica. 37 (1): 69–96.
  8. ^ VanderWerf, Eric A.; Wiles, Gary J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Knecht, Melia (2006). "Observations of migrants and other birds in Palau, April–May 2005, including the first Micronesian record of a Richard's Pipit" (PDF). Micronesica. 39 (1): 11–29.
  9. ^ a b White, Richard W.; Lehnhausen, Bud; Kirwan, Guy M. (2006). "The first documented record of Terek Sandpiper Xenus cinereus for Brazil". Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia (in English and Portuguese). 14 (4): 460–462.
  10. ^ "Species factsheet: Xenus cinereus". www.birdlife.org. BirdLife International. 2008.

External links

Arabuko Sokoke National Park

The Arabuko Sokoke Forest Reserve is located on the coast of Kenya, 110 km north of Mombasa and is protected as a national Forest Reserve. The Arabuko Sokoke National Park, situated at the north-western edge of the Arabuko Sokoke Forest Reserve, is only a few square kilometres in size and constitutes only a small portion of the latter.

Bird Islands Conservation Park

Bird Islands Conservation Park is a 3.69-square-kilometre (1.42 sq mi) protected area in eastern Spencer Gulf, South Australia. It is located at Warburto Point on Yorke Peninsula, about 10 km (6.2 mi) south of the town of Wallaroo. In 1991, land additions were made to the park to include the intertidal zone of both islands. In 1999, a larger, mainland section was added to support mangroves, samphire and coastal fringe vegetation.

Cemlyn Bay and lagoon

Cemlyn Bay is a bay on the northwest coast of Anglesey, North Wales, approximately 2.5 km west of Wylfa nuclear power station, within the community of Cylch-y-Garn.

Separated from the bay by a shingle beach is a brackish lagoon, which is fed by a number of small streams. A weir at the western (Bryn Aber) end of the beach regulates the lagoon's water level.

The site was designated a Site of Special Scientific Interest in 1957, and is currently part of the Anglesey Heritage Coast and the Isle of Anglesey Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. The Cemlyn estate is owned by the National Trust; the lagoon and its immediate surrounds comprise Cemlyn Nature Reserve (25.2 ha in extent, set up in 1971 and leased by the North Wales Wildlife Trust). The Anglesey Coastal Path passes through it.

Chundikkulam National Park

Chundikkulam National Park (Tamil: சுண்டிக்குளம் தேசிய பூங்கா, romanized: Cuṇṭikkuḷam Tēciya Pūṅkā; Sinhala: චුණ්ඩිකුලම ජාතික වනෝද්‍යානය, romanized: Cuṇḍikulama Jātika Vanōdyānaya) is a national park in northern Sri Lanka, approximately 12 km (7 mi) north east of Kilinochchi.

Conwy RSPB reserve

Conwy RSPB reserve is a nature reserve of the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds situated on the east side of the Conwy estuary in Conwy county borough, North Wales. It covers 47 hectares (114 acres) and protects a variety of habitats including grassland, scrubland, reedbeds, salt marsh and mudflats. It was created as compensation for the destruction of areas of wildlife habitat during the construction of the A55 road tunnel under the estuary between 1986 and 1991. Waste from dredging was dumped onto the site which was later landscaped to create two large pools and several smaller ones. The reserve opened to the public on 14 April 1995 and facilities for visitors now include a visitor centre, café and three hides. A farmers' market is held on the reserve car park each month.

Over 220 species of bird have been recorded on the reserve, including lapwing, little ringed plover, skylark and reed warbler. Large numbers of ducks and waders are present outside the breeding season, together with water rails and a large roost of starlings. Vagrant birds have included the stilt sandpiper, Terek sandpiper, broad-billed sandpiper and alpine swift.

Other wildlife includes otter, stoat and weasel along with 11 species of dragonfly and damselfly and 22 different butterflies. The reserve has become increasingly well-vegetated and 273 species of plant have been found. Stands of common reed and areas of willow and alder have been planted.

Hastings Rarities

The Hastings Rarities affair is a case of statistically demonstrated ornithological fraud that misled the bird world for decades in the twentieth century. The discovery of the long-running hoax shocked ornithologists.

The Hastings Rarities were a series of records of rare birds added to the British list on the basis of hundreds of reports, supported by preserved specimens, from George Bristow (1863–1947), a taxidermist and gunsmith of St Leonards-on-Sea, a town on the south coast of England. His reports were made between 1892 and 1930.

In August 1962, the statistician John Nelder published an analysis in the journal British Birds, demonstrating that the records were unlikely to be genuine. This was supported by an editorial in the same issue. 29 bird species or subspecies were dropped from the British List. On the basis of later records from elsewhere in Britain, most have subsequently been readmitted.

Konstantina Bay

Konstantina Bay (Russian: Zaliv Konstantina) is a small bay in the northwestern Sea of Okhotsk, just south of the Shantar Islands. It is a western branch of the larger Academy Bay to the east. The bay is about 9.6 km (6 mi) in diameter and its entrance is about 4.8 km (3 mi) wide. Spring tides rise 3.8 m (12.5 ft), while neaps rise 2.7 m (9 ft).

List of birds of Christmas Island

The Birds of Christmas Island form a heterogeneous group of over 100 species. There is a core group of ten endemics that have evolved on the remote island in the eastern Indian Ocean for thousands of years, attended by a suite of regular migrants, opportunists and occasional visitors. Some 200 km from the nearest land, Java, Christmas Island was not occupied by humans until the late 19th century. It is now an Australian territory. The natural vegetation of most of the 140 km² island is rainforest, to which the endemic landbirds are adapted, while the seabirds have taken advantage of a breeding location which had no major natural predators.

After over a century of human exploitation of the phosphate deposits covering much of the island, two thirds of the rainforest cover remains and is now protected as a national park. However, gaps where the forest has been cleared, and the introduction of exotic fauna, continue to destabilise the island’s biological diversity. The endemic Abbott's booby is threatened when nesting by wind turbulence caused by past forest clearance. However, the biggest immediate threat is the introduction and spread of yellow crazy ants, through both direct predation and ecosystem collapse. This has led to all the island’s endemic bird species and subspecies being classified as Critically Endangered.

Meanwhile, the number of species recorded from Christmas Island continues to increase as birders, especially from Australia, attracted by the island’s endemics, record a variety of vagrants previously unnoticed. Some of these may in time, as with the white-breasted waterhen, establish breeding populations. Christmas Island is now seen as a birding ‘hot spot’, not only for its endemics but also for the chance of recording new species for the Australian bird list, something reflected in the frequency of submissions of sightings to the Birds Australia Rarities Committee.

List of birds of Kyrgyzstan

376 bird species have occurred in the Kyrgyz Republic.

List of birds of Réunion

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Réunion. The avifauna of Réunion include a total of 91 species, of which four are endemic, 21 have been introduced by humans and 20 are rare or accidental. One species listed is extirpated in Réunion and is not included in the species count. Six species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Réunion.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. Not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring native species.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Réunion

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Réunion

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Réunion as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Réunion although populations exist elsewhere

(X) Extinct - a species formerly found on Réunion, but no longer exists alive globally

List of birds of the Houtman Abrolhos

The Houtman Abrolhos, an island chain off the coast of Western Australia, is one of the most important areas in the world for breeding colonies of seabirds. Around 90 species of seabird occur there, as well as three species of shore bird, and six species of land bird.

List of birds of the Maldives

The following is a list of birds recorded in the Maldives. The small size and isolation of this Indian Ocean republic means that its avifauna is extremely restricted. Most of the species are characteristic of Eurasian migratory birds, only a few being typically associated with the Indian sub-continent.

Due to poorness of native avifauna, some people (especially resort owners) deliberately release non-native birds.

Some of them, like red lory and budgerigar are established in wild, but are not included in official checklists.

This can't pose threat to native ecosystems because Maldives have no endemic birds and all native land birds are common in India and Bangladesh also.

Little stint

The little stint (Calidris minuta) (or Erolia minuta), is a very small wader. It breeds in arctic Europe and Asia, and is a long-distance migrant, wintering south to Africa and south Asia. It occasionally is a vagrant to North America and to Australia. The genus name is from Ancient Greek kalidris or skalidris, a term used by Aristotle for some grey-coloured waterside birds. The specific minuta is Latin for "small.

Ras Al Khor

Ras Al Khor (Arabic: رَأْس ٱلْخَوْر‎, romanized: Raʾs Al-Khawr) is a wetland reserve in Dubai, the United Arab Emirates, renowned for attracting migratory birds in large numbers. The wetlands have large numbers of birds, crustaceans, small mammals and fish.Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary represents an enclave of relative wilderness amidst swirling traffic and sprawling urban infrastructure. Located just as the name in Arabic suggests - at the Cape of the Creek, it is among the few urban protected areas of the world.

The Dubai Municipality has taken great efforts to protect and preserve the biodiversity of this delicate ecosystem. The wetland has been fenced off from the public and three birding hides have been built. The bird hides are a first step towards development of more elaborate visitor education facilities in the protected area. WWF UAE Project Office collaborated with Dubai Municipality's Environment Department, in setting up the facilities that were sponsored by the National Bank of Dubai.

Opportunities for experiencing a natural environment in this rapidly building-up emirate are so limited that the opening of Ras Al Khor to visitors is a boon to present and potential nature lovers.

Presently there are three birding hides located on the perimeter of the sanctuary open to the public. Entrance is free and operate from 9:00 am to 4:00 pm Saturday to Thursday.

Ras Al Khor is also home to about 500 greater flamingoes (Phoenicopterus roseus), which has become something of a mascot for Dubai's Wild Life protection program.

Roebuck Bay

Roebuck Bay is a bay on the coast of the Kimberley region of Western Australia. Its entrance is bounded in the north by the town of Broome, and in the south by Bush Point and Sandy Point. It is named after HMS Roebuck, the ship captained by William Dampier when he explored the coast of north-western Australia in 1699. The Broome Bird Observatory lies on the northern coast of the bay.

Sirinat National Park

Sirinat National Park (Thai: อุทยานแห่งชาติสิรินาถ) is a national park in Phuket Province, Thailand. This park, with sections on land and sea, is in the northwest of the island of Phuket.


Terek may refer to:

PeopleTerek Zinger (born 2001), Egyptian Labwa

Terek, a character in the 2007 TV series Flash GordonPlacesTerek River, a river in Georgia and Russia

Terek Oblast (1860–1920), a former division in the Russian Empire and early Russian SFSR

Terek Soviet Republic (1918–1919), a former division of the Russian SFSR

Terek, Russia, several inhabited localities in Russia

Terek Urban Settlement, a municipal formation which the town of Terek in Tersky District of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic, Russia is incorporated as

in Kyrgyzstan:

Terek, Alay, a village in Alay District, Osh Region

Terek, Kara-Kulja, a village in Kara-Kulja District, Osh Region

Terek, Baicheng County, a town in Xinjiang, China

Terek Pass, a mountain pass in the Altay Mountains, KyrgyzstanOtherFC Terek Grozny, a soccer club in Grozny, Chechen Republic, Russia

Spanish cruiser Rapido (1889), a ship which later served as the Imperial Russian Navy auxiliary cruiser Terek during the Russo-Japanese War

Torrens Island Conservation Park

Torrens Island Conservation Park (formerly Torrens Island National Park Reserve and Torrens Island Wild-life Reserve) is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia located on Torrens Island in the Adelaide metropolitan area about 17 kilometres (11 miles) north-northwest of the state capital of Adelaide and about 3.9 kilometres (2.4 miles) north-northeast of Port Adelaide.The conservation park consists of land in Allotments 300 and 304 in Deposited Plan 90964, and sections 464 and 467 in the cadastral unit of the Hundred of Port Adelaide. This consists of all of Torrens Island down to low water with exception to the most of land associated with the former quarantine station and the land associated with the Quarantine and Torrens Island Power Stations, and some land exposed at low water at the eastern end of Garden Island.On 28 November 1963, land in section 467 was proclaimed as a "wild-life reserve" under the National Park and Wild Life Reserves Act 1891. On 9 November 1967, it was proclaimed as the Torrens Island National Park Reserve under the National Parks Act 1966 in respect to section 467 in the Hundred of Port Adelaide. On 27 April 1972, it was reconstituted as Torrens Island Conservation Park upon the proclamation of the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972. On 23 January 2014, the following land in the Hundred of Port Adelaide was added to the conservation park all subject to the preservation of rights under the Petroleum and Geothermal Energy Act 2000 for the "construction or operation of a transmission pipeline" - Allotments 300 and 304 in Deposited Plan 90964, and Section 464. As of 2016, it covered an area of 6.35 square kilometres (2.45 sq mi).

In 1980, the conservation park was described as follows:Situated at the northern end of Torrens Island, which lies near the mouth of the Port River, this park preserves a salt-marsh land system. The vegetation comprises a low woodland of Avicennia marina var. resinifera (white mangrove) and low-shrubland of Salicornia spp. and Arthrocnemum. Over thirty species of salt tolerant plants have been recorded for the park. The marshes breed a myriad of worms, shrimps and simple organisms on which fish feed, helping to stock the Port River for fishing and providing food for over forty species of birds. The latter include a number of rare or uncommon summer visiting waders, ie. Tringa terek (terek sandpiper), Limosa lapponica (bar-tailed godwit), Numenius minutus (whimbrel) and Pluvialis dominica (lesser golden plover) ... The park is relatively undisturbed, although rabbits, which cross from the mainlands at low tide, are very common on the Island.

In 2014, it was reported as protecting ‘areas of mangrove forest, samphire shrubland and sand dune systems home to vulnerable and threatened species such as the Australasian bittern, the fairy tern and the white-bellied sea eagle’.The conservation park is also respectively fully and partially within the boundaries of the following protected areas - the Adelaide Dolphin Sanctuary and the Barker Inlet-St Kilda Aquatic Reserve.The conservation park is classified as an IUCN Category III protected area. In 1980, it was listed on the now-defunct Register of the National Estate

Ulban Bay

Ulban Bay (Russian: Ul'bansky Zaliv) is a bay in the northwestern Sea of Okhotsk, just south of the Shantar Islands. It is a southern branch of Academy Bay to the north. The Syran and Ulban rivers flow into its head.


This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.