Terai

The Terai (Hindi: तराई Nepali: तराइ) is a lowland region in southern Nepal and northern India that lies south of the outer foothills of the Himalayas, the Siwalik Hills, and north of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. This lowland belt is characterised by tall grasslands, scrub savannah, sal forests and clay rich swamps. In northern India, the Terai spreads from the Yamuna River eastward across Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. The Terai is part the Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands ecoregion. The corresponding lowland region in West Bengal, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Assam in the Brahmaputra River basin is called 'Dooars'.[1] In Nepal, the Terai stretches over 33,998.8 km2 (13,127.0 sq mi), about 23.1% of Nepal's land area, and lies at an altitude of between 67 and 300 m (220 and 984 ft). The region comprises more than 50 wetlands. North of the Terai rises the Bhabhar, a narrow but continuous belt of forest about 8–12 km (5.0–7.5 mi) wide.[2]

Terai nepal
Aerial view of Terai plains near Biratnagar, Nepal

Etymology

In Hindi the region is called तराई, 'tarāī' meaning "foot-hill".[3] In Nepali, the region is called तराइ 'tarāi' meaning "the low-lying land, plain" and especially "the low-lying land at the foot of the Himālayas".[4] The region's name in Urdu is ترائي 'tarāʼī' meaning "lands lying at the foot of a watershed" or "on the banks of a river; low ground flooded with water, valley, basin, marshy ground, marsh, swamp; meadow".[5]

Geology

The Terai is crossed by the large perennial Himalayan rivers Yamuna, Ganges, Sarda, Karnali, Narayani and Kosi that have each built alluvial fans covering thousands of square kilometres below their exits from the hills. Medium rivers such as the Rapti rise in the Mahabharat Range. The geological structure of the region consists of old and new alluvium, both of which constitute alluvial deposits of mainly sand, clay, silt, gravels and coarse fragments. The new alluvium is renewed every year by fresh deposits brought down by active streams, which engage themselves in fluvial action. Old alluvium is found rather away from river courses, especially on uplands of the plain where silting is a rare phenomenon.[6]

A large number of small and usually seasonal rivers flow through the Terai, most of which originate in the Siwalik Hills. The soil in the Terai is alluvial and fine to medium textured. Forest cover in the Terai and hill areas has decreased at an annual rate of 1.3% between 1978 and 1979, and 2.3% between 1990 and 1991.[2] With deforestation and cultivation increasing, a permeable mixture of gravel, boulders and sand evolves, which leads to a sinking water table. But where layers consist of clay and fine sediments, the groundwater rises to the surface and heavy sediment is washed out, thus enabling frequent and massive floods during monsoon, such as the 2008 Bihar flood.[7]

The reduction in slope as rivers exit the hills and then transition from the sloping Bhabhar to the nearly level Terai causes current to slow and the heavy sediment load to fall out of suspension. This deposition process creates multiple channels with shallow beds, enabling massive floods as monsoon-swollen rivers overflow their low banks and shift channels. Many areas show erosion such as gullies.

Climate

Biratnagar, 26°N, 87°E
Climate chart (explanation)
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Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Levoyageur
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Climate chart (explanation)
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Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: World Weather Information Service

There are several differences between the climate on the western edge of the Terai at Chandigarh in India and at Biratnagar in Nepal near the eastern edge.

  • Moving inland and away from monsoon sources in the Bay of Bengal, the climate becomes more continental with a greater difference between summer and winter.
  • In the far western Terai, which is five degrees latitude further north, the coldest months' average is 3 °C (37 °F) cooler.
  • Total rainfall markedly diminishes from east to west. The monsoon arrives later, is much less intense and ends sooner. However, winters are wetter in the west.

Geography

In India, the Terai extends over the states of Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal. These are mostly the districts of these states that are on the Indo-Nepal border:[1]

Nepal topo en
Mostly the light green areas indicate the Terai in Nepal

The Terai in Nepal is differentiated into "Inner" and "Outer" Terai and includes 20 districts.

Inner Terai

The Inner Terai consists of five elongated valleys located between the Mahabharat and Shivalik ranges.[12] From north-west to south-east these valleys are:

Most of these valleys are 5–10 km (3.1–6.2 mi) wide (north-south) and up to 100 km (62 mi) long (east-west).

Outer Terai

The Outer Terai begins south of the Siwalik Hills and extends to the Indo-Gangetic plain. In the Far-Western Region, Nepal it comprises the Kanchanpur and Kailali districts, and in the Mid-Western Region, Nepal Bardiya and Banke districts. Farther east, the Outer Terai comprises the Kapilvastu, Rupandehi, Nawalparasi, Parsa, Bara, Rautahat, Sarlahi, Mahottari, Dhanusa, Siraha, Saptari, Sunsari, Morang and Jhapa districts.[13]

East of Banke the Nepalese Outer Terai is interrupted where the international border swings north and follows the edge of the Siwaliks adjacent to Deukhuri Valley. Here the Outer Terai is entirely in Uttar Pradesh's Shravasti and Balrampur districts. East of Deukhuri the international border extends south again and Nepal has three more Outer Terai districts.

Protected areas

Several protected areas were established in the Terai since the late 1950s:

Ethnic groups

Tharu and Dhimal people are the indigenous inhabitants of the Terai forests.[20] Several Tharu subgroups are scattered over most of the Nepal and Indian Terai.[10][21][22] They used to be semi-nomadic, practised shifting cultivation and collected wild fruits, vegetables and medicinal herbs.[23] They have been living in the Terai for many centuries and reputedly had an innate resistance to malaria.[24] Dhimal reside in the eastern Nepal Terai, viz Sunsari, Morang and Jhapa districts. In the past, they lived in the fringes of the forest and conducted a semi-nomadic life to evade outbreaks of diseases. Today, they are subsistence farmers.[20]

The Bhoksa people are indigenous to the western Terai in the Indian Kumaon division.[9]

Maithils inhabit the Indian Terai in Bihar and the eastern Terai in Nepal. Bhojpuris reside in the central and eastern Terai, and Awadhis live in the central and western Terai. Bantawa people reside foremost in two districts of the eastern Terai in Nepal.[25]

Following the malaria eradication program using DDT in the 1960s, a large and heterogeneous non-Tharu population settled in the Nepal Terai.[24] Pahari people from the mid-hills including Bahun, Chhetri and Newar moved to the plains in search of arable land. In the rural parts of the Nepal Terai, distribution and value of land determine economic hierarchy to a large extent. High caste migrants from the hills and traditional Tharu landlords who own agriculturally productive land constitute the upper level of the economic hierarchy. The poor are the landless or near landless Terai Dalits, including the Musahar, Chamar and Mallah.[26] Several Chepang people also live in Nepal's central and eastern Terai districts.[27][28]

As of June 2011, the human population in the Nepal Terai totalled 13,318,705 people in 2,527,558 households comprising more than 120 different ethnic groups and castes such as Badi, Chamling, Ghale, Kumal, Limbu, Magar, Muslim, Rajbanshi, Teli, Thakuri, Yadav and Majhi speaking people.[29]

History

Nainital, Uttarakhand, India - panoramio - Vipin Vasudeva (7)
Jungle in Uttarakhand

The Muslim invasion of northern India during the 14th century caused Hindu and Buddhist people to seek refuge from religious persecution. Rajput nobles and their entourage migrated to the Himalayan foothills and gained control over the region from Kashmir to the eastern Terai during the next three centuries.[30]

Until the mid 18th century, the Nepal Terai was divided into several smaller kingdoms, and the forests were little disturbed.[31] The Kingdom of Chaudandi ruled by scion of Palpa Kingdom controlled the Terai districts of Saptari, Siraha, Dhanusa, Mahottari and Sarlahi.[32] The Makwanpur Kingdom controlled the central Terai region of present-day Nepal.[32] The Bijayapur Kingdom ruled Sunsari, Morang and Jhapa districts.[33] The Tulsipur State in the Dang Valley of Nepal's western Terai was also an independent kingdom, until it was conquered in 1785 by Bahadur Shah of Nepal during the unification of Nepal.[34] The Shah rulers also conquered land in the eastern Terai that belonged to the Kingdom of Sikkim.[35] Since the late 18th century, they encouraged Indian people to settle in the Terai and supported famine-stricken Bihari farmers to convert and cultivate land in the eastern Nepal Terai.[36] From at least 1786 onwards, the Shah rulers appointed government officers in the eastern Terai districts of Parsa, Bara, Rautahat, Mahottari, Saptari and Morang to levy taxes, collect revenues, and capture elephants and rhinos.[37][38]

The far-western and mid-western regions of the Nepal Terai called 'Naya Muluk' (new country) lay on the northern periphery of the Awadh dynasty. After Nepal lost the Anglo–Nepalese War in 1816, the British annexed these regions in the Terai when the Sugauli Treaty was ratified. But as reward for Nepal's military aid in the Indian Rebellion of 1857, they returned some of this region in 1860, namely today's districts Kanchanpur, Kailali, Banke and Bardiya.[13]

Dacoit gangs retreated to the Terai jungles, and the area was considered lawless and primitive by the British, who sought control of the region's valuable timber reserves.[39]

Indian immigration increased between 1846 and 1950.[36] Immigrants settled in the eastern Nepal Terai together with native Terai peoples.[13] The Indian Terai remained largely uninhabited until the end of the 19th century, as it was arduous and dangerous to penetrate the dense and marshy malarial jungle.[40] The region was densely forested with stands of foremost Sal.[13]

Heavy logging began in the 1920s. Extracted timber was exported to India to collect revenues. Cleared areas were subsequently used for agriculture.[31] But still, the Terai jungles were teaming with wildlife.[41]

Inner Terai valleys historically were agriculturally productive but extremely malarial. Some parts were left forested by official decree during the Rana dynasty as a defensive perimeter called Char Kose Jhadi, meaning 'four kos forest'; one kos equals about 3 km (1.9 mi). A British observer noted, "Plainsmen and paharis generally die if they sleep in the Terai before November 1 or after June 1." British travelers to Kathmandu went as fast as possible from the border at Raxaul to reach the hills before nightfall.[13]

Malaria was eradicated using DDT in the mid-1950s. Subsequently, people from the hills migrated to the Terai.[42] About 16,000 Tibetan refugees settled in the Nepal Terai in 1959–1960, followed by refugees of Nepali origin from Burma in 1964, from Nagaland and Mizoram in the late 1960s, and about 10,000 Bihari Muslims from Bangladesh in the 1970s.[43] Timber export continued until 1969. In 1970, the king granted land to loyal ex-army personnel in the districts of Jhapa, Sunsari, Rupandehi and Banke, where seven colonies were developed for resettling about 7,000 people. They acquired property rights over uncultivated forest and 'waste' land, thus accelerating the deforestation process in the Terai.[42] Between 1961 and 1991, the annual population growth in the Terai was higher than the national average, which indicates that migration from abroad occurred at a large scale. Deforestation continued, and forest products from state-owned forest were partly smuggled to India. Community forestry was introduced in 1995.[44] Since the 1990s, migration from the Terai to urban centres is increasing and causing sociocultural changes in the region.[45]

Politics

The Janatantrik Terai Mukti Morcha is a separatist organisation founded in 2004 by Jay Krishna Goit with the aim of gaining independence for the Terai (Madhesh) region from Nepal.[46] Organisation members have been responsible for various acts of terrorism including bombings and murders.[47] Other armed outfits have appeared that also demand secession through violent means including the "Terai Army", "Madhesh Mukti Tigers" and the "Tharuwan National Liberation Front". There is also movement that is demanding the secession of the region from Republic of Nepal led by CK Raut called the Alliance for Independent Madhesh, a group of activists, parties and organisations.[48][49]

Border disputes

The most significant border dispute of the Indo-Nepal boundary in the Terai region is the Susta area.[50][51] In the Susta region, 14,500 hectares of land is generally dominated by Indian side with support of Seema Shashatra Bal (SSB) forces.[50]

Indian influence in Nepal Terai

After the Nepalese Constituent Assembly election, 2008, Indian politicians kept on trying to secure strategic interests in the Nepal Terai, such as over hydropower energy, development projects, business and trade.[52] The government of Nepal has accused India of imposing an undeclared blockade in 2015.[53] India has denied the allegations, stating the supply shortages have been imposed by Madheshi protesters within Nepal, and that India has no role in it.[54]

Humanitarian works

Dhurmus Suntali Foundation handed over an integrated community containing 50 houses to Musahar community of Bardibas at a cost of Rs. 63 million.[55]

Economy

Economy in Indian Terai

Tea cultivation was introduced in the Darjeeling Terai in 1862.[11]

Economy in Nepal Terai

The Terai is the most productive region in Nepal with the majority of the country's industries. Agriculture is the basis of the economy.[56] Major crops include rice, wheat, pulses, sugarcane, jute, tobacco, and maize. In the eastern districts from Parsa to Jhapa agro-based industries are supported including: jute factories, sugar mills, rice mills and tobacco factories. The Terai is also known for beekeeping and honey production, with about 120,000 colonies of Apis cerana.[57]

In the Jhapa district, tea has been cultivated since 1960; the annual production of 2005 was estimated at 10.1 million kg.[58]

Cities with more than 50,000 inhabitants in Nepal's Terai include:

Municipality District Census 2001 Economy
Biratnagar Morang 166,674 agro-industry, education, trade and transport hub
Birganj Parsa 112,484 trade and transport hub, agro- and other industries
Dharan Sunsari 95,332 tourism hub and destination, education, financial services
Bharatpur Chitwan 89,323 agro-industry and food processing, tourism, health care, education
Bhim Dutta Kanchanpur 80,839 transport hub, education, health services
Butwal Rupandehi 75,384 transport hub, retailing, agro-industry, health care, education
Hetauda Makwanpur 68,482 transport hub, cement factory, large and small-scale industries
Dhangadhi Kailali 67,447
Janakpur Dhanusa 67,192 transport hub, agro-industry, education, health care, pilgrimage site
Nepalganj Banke 57,535 transport hub, retailing, financial services, health services
Triyuga Udayapur 55,291 tourism
Siddharthanagar Rupandehi 52,569 trade and transport hub, retailing, tourist and pilgrim services

Transport

The Mahendra Highway crosses the Nepal Terai from Kankarbhitta on the eastern border in Jhapa District, Mechi Zone to Mahendranagar near the western border in Kanchanpur District, Mahakali Zone. It is the only motor road spanning the country from east to west.

Tourism

Tourist attractions in the Terai include:

References

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Bibliography

Further reading

  • Chaudhary, D. 2011. Tarai/Madhesh of Nepal : an anthropological study. Ratna Pustak Bhandar, Kathmandu. ISBN 978-99933-878-2-4.

External links

2011 Nepal census

Nepal conducted a widespread national census in 2011 by the Nepal Central Bureau of Statistics. Working with the 58 municipalities and the 3915 Village Development Committees at a district level, they recorded data from all the municipalities and villages of each district. The data included statistics on population size, households, sex and age distribution, place of birth, residence characteristics, literacy, marital status, religion, language spoken, caste/ethnic group, economically active population, education, number of children, employment status, and occupation.

Total population in 2011: 26,494,504

Increase since last census 2001: 3,343,081

Annual population growth rate (exponental growth): 1.35

Number of households: 5,427,302

Average Household Size: 4.88

Population in Mountain: 6.73%, Hill: 43.00% and Terai: 50.27%.

Dooars

The Dooars or Duars () are the alluvial floodplains in northeastern India that lie south of the outer foothills of the Himalayas and north of the Brahmaputra River basin. This region is about 30 km (19 mi) wide and stretches over about 350 km (220 mi) from the Teesta River in West Bengal to the Dhanshiri River in Assam. The region forms the gateway to Bhutan. It is part of the Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands ecoregion.Dooars means 'doors' in Assamese, Bengali, Maithili, Bhojpuri, and Magahi languages. There are 18 passages or gateways between the hills in Bhutan and the plains in India. This region is divided by the Sankosh River into Eastern and Western Dooars, consisting of an area of 880 km2 (340 sq mi). The Western Dooars are also known as the Bengal Dooars, and the Eastern Dooars also as the Assam Dooars. Dooars is analogous with the Terai in northern India and southern Nepal.

Geography of Nepal

Nepal measures about 800 kilometers (497 mi) along its Himalayan axis by 150 to 250 kilometers (93 to 155 mi) across. Nepal has an area of 147,181 square kilometers (56,827 sq mi).

Nepal is landlocked by India on three sides and China's Tibet Autonomous Region to the north. West Bengal's narrow Siliguri Corridor or Chicken's Neck separate Nepal and Bangladesh. To the east are India and Bhutan. Nepal depends on India for goods transport facilities and access to the sea, even for most goods imported from China.

Hinduism in Nepal

Hinduism is the largest and has been considerd as state religion of Nepal due to call for protection of Sanatan Dharma I.e Hinduism. In the 2011 census, approximately 81.3 percent of the Nepalese people identified themselves as Hindus, although observers note that many of the people regarded as Hindus in the 1981 census could, with as much justification, be called Buddhists. According to 2011 census, the Hindu population in Nepal is estimated to be around 22.1 million which accounts 81.3% of country's population. The national calendar of Nepal, Vikram Samvat, is a solar Hindu calendar essentially the same to that widespread in North India as a religious calendar, and is based on Hindu units of time.

The geographical distribution of religious groups revealed a preponderance of Hindus, accounting for at least 87 percent of the population in every region. Among Tibeto-Burman-speaking communities in Nepal, those most influenced by Hinduism are the Magars, Sunwar, and Rai peoples.

Inner Terai Valleys of Nepal

The Inner Terai Valleys of Nepal (Nepali: भित्री मधेश) comprise several elongated river valleys in the southern lowland Terai part of the country. These tropical valleys are enclosed by the Himalayan foothills, viz the Mahabharat Range and the Sivalik Hills farther south.

The Inner Terai is called "bhitri Terai " in Nepali language.The Inner Terai Valleys are part of the Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands ecoregion. They are filled up with coarse to fine alluvial sediments. The Chitwan Valley and the Dang and Deukhuri Valleys are some of the largest Inner Terai Valleys. Malaria was prevalent in this region until the late 1950s. Since its eradication, the area became a viable destination for large-scale migration of people from the hills, who transformed the area from virgin forest and grassland to farmland.

Janakpur Zone

Janakpur (Nepali: जनकपुर अञ्चल Listen ) is one of the fourteen zones of Nepal, reaching from the Indian border in the south to the Tibetan border in the north and Sagarmatha Zone in the east and Bagmati and Naryani Zones in the west.

The headquarters of Janakpur Zone and its main city is Janakpur. Close to the Indian border, it is a historic city of Hinduism. The city was believed to be the capital city of King Janaka, the father in law of Lord Rama, the son of the then king of Ayodhya, Dasharatha. The city was then called 'Mithila Nagari'. The name of this zone is related to the historic King Janaka and his capital Janakpur.

Other cities within Janakpur Zone are Kamalamai (in Inner Terai) and Bhimeshwor and Bardibas, Dhalkebar, Jaleshwor, Malangwa, Gaushala Bazar and Matihani (Outer Terai).

Lumbini Zone

Lumbini (Nepali: लुम्बिनी अञ्चलListen ) was one of the fourteen zones of Nepal until the restructure of zones to provinces. It is home to the Lumbini site, the birthplace of Siddhartha Gautama, who later became the historical Buddha and founder of the Buddhist philosophy. The zone's headquarters was Butwal.

Madheshi people

The term Madheshi people is defined in two different ways:

Anthropologists use it for people of Indian ancestry residing in the Terai of Nepal and comprising various cultural groups such as Hindu caste groups, muslims, merchants and indigenous people of the Terai. Many of these groups share cultural traditions and marital ties with people living south of the international border in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.

In recent times, some politicians and journalists have used the term for all Nepali citizens of the Terai.Migrants to the Terai from the hills in Nepal and Tharu people do not consider themselves to be Madheshi.

Madheshi people comprise caste groups like Brahmin and Dalit as well as ethnic groups such as Maithils, Bhojpuri, Awadhi and Bajjika speaking people. Indian immigrants settled foremost in present-day eastern Nepal Terai since the late 18th century, when the rulers of Nepal encouraged deforestation and agricultural development of this region.

Mahakali Zone

Mahakali (Nepali: महाकाली अञ्चलListen ) is one of the fourteen zones located in the Far-Western Development Region of Nepal, covering an area of 6,205 km2 in the most western part of the country. It stretches along Nepal's far western border with India, marked by the Kali River or Mahakali River, which originates from Limpiyadhura, a disputed location for whether or not the Tri-country border point of Nepal and India with China.

Mahakali is divided into four districts:

Mahakali's headquarters is Bhimdatta (formerly called Mahendranagar) in Kanchanpur District. The zone covers the Himalayan range including Api Peak in the North, Hill valleys, Inner Terai valleys such as Patan Municipality in Baitadi District in the center and the outer Terai in the South. The name of this zone is derived from the Kali River.

Mechi Zone

Mechi (Nepali: मेची अञ्चल Listen was one of the fourteen zones of Nepal until the restruction of zones to Provinces, comprising four districts; namely Ilam, Jhapa, Panchthar and Taplejung. Its headquarters are at Ilam. It comes under the Eastern Development Region of Nepal. The Indian state of Bihar is to the south, West Bengal and Sikkim in East and Tibet to the north. The largest town is Damak in the Terai. The majority of the population in Mechi are Kirantis (Limbu and Rai) and other ethnic groups like Koche and Meche, and hill castes like Bahun and Chhetris.

Mechi is divided into four districts:

Among the four districts, Jhapa is in the Terai and it is more developed than the other three districts. Ilam and Panchthar are in the hilly region. Ilam is also in a developing stage. Ilam is naturally very beautiful, with many tourists visiting Ilam annually. Kanyam is popular for its tea garden. At Antu the rising sun can be viewed. Panchthar is the least developed of the four districts. Taplejung is in the mountainous zone.There are two airports within Mechi: one in Bhadrapur and one in Taplejung.

Narayani Zone

Narayani (Nepali: नारायणी अञ्चलListen ) was one of the fourteen zones of Nepal until the restruction of zones to Provinces, located in the central south of the country. Narayani Zone is named after the Narayani River which is on the western border of the zone, separating it from the Gandaki and Lumbini zones. Narayani means beloved of Narayan which is Parvati his sister, and Narayan refers to Lord Vishnu (the preserver) in the Hindu religion.

Province No. 1

Province No. 1 (proposed names: Koshi or Purbanchal) is one of the seven provinces established by the new constitution of Nepal which was adopted on 20 September 2015.As per a CDC (Constituency Delimitation Commission) report, Province No. 1 has 28 parliamentary seats and 56 provincial seats under the first-past-the-post voting system. As per a 17 January 2018 cabinet meeting, the city of Biratnagar has been declared the interim capital of Province No. 1. It borders the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north, the Indian states of Sikkim and West Bengal to the east, Province No. 3 and Province No. 2 to the west, and Bihar of India to the south.According to the 2011 census, there are around 4.5 million people in the province, with a population density of 175.6 per square kilometer.

Sagarmatha Zone

Sagarmāthā (Nepali: सगरमाथा अञ्चलListen ) was one of the fourteen zones of Nepal until the restructuring of zones into provinces. Sagarmāthā is a Nepali word derived from सगर् (sagar) meaning "sky" and माथा (māthā) meaning "head".It includes mountain districts of the Himalayas (including Mount Everest) in the north, hill districts in the center, and valley districts of the Terai in the south. It is bordered by China to the north, India to the south, the Koshi Zone to the east and the Janakpur Zone to the west.

Sagarmāthā is divided into six districts:

The main city of the Sagarmāthā Zone was Rajbiraj which was also the headquarters. Other towns of the Sagarmāthā hill area were Katari, Okhaldhunga, Diktel, Salleri and Namche Bazaar; while Kathauna, Lahan, Fatepur, Rajbiraj and Siraha are in the outer Terai. Triyuga is an emerging city in the zone.Sagarmāthā Zone took its name from the Nepalese name for Mount Everest, which is located in the very north of the zone within the Sagarmatha National Park (1,148 km²) in the Solu Khumbu district. Sagarmāthā means "the Head in the Great Blue Sky".

Seti Zone

Seti (Nepali: सेती अञ्चलListen ) is one of the fourteen zones located in the Far-Western Development Region of Nepal.

Seti is divided into five districts:

Dhangadhi in the Terai is the major city of Seti Zone, headquarters are in Dipayal-Silgadhi.

Shin Terai

Shin Terai is a Japanese musician and producer most known for his work with Bill Laswell and Buckethead. On his albums he combines ambient and electronic music with dub and avant-garde jazz.

Soup Live

Soup Live is a collaborative album by Bill Laswell, Yasuhiro Yoshigaki and Otomo Yoshihide. It was released on September 20, 2004 by P-Vine Records.

Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands

The Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands is a narrow lowland ecoregion at the base of the Himalayas, about 25 km (16 mi) wide, and a continuation of the Gangetic Plain. It is colloquially called Terai in the Ganges Basin east to Nepal, then Dooars in West Bengal, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Assam east to the Brahmaputra River. The world's tallest grasslands are found in this ecoregion, which are the most threatened and rare worldwide.

Tharu people

The Tharu people are an ethnic group indigenous to the southern foothills of the Himalayas; most of the Tharu people live in the Nepal Terai. The word थारू thāru is thought to be derived from sthavir meaning follower of Theravada Buddhism. Some Tharu groups also live in the Indian Terai, foremost in Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.The Tharus are recognized as an official nationality by the Government of Nepal. The Government of India recognizes the Tharu people as a scheduled tribe.

Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0.4
 
 
73
48
 
 
0.5
 
 
79
52
 
 
0.7
 
 
90
57
 
 
2.1
 
 
93
68
 
 
6.7
 
 
91
73
 
 
13
 
 
91
77
 
 
22
 
 
90
79
 
 
14
 
 
91
79
 
 
12
 
 
90
75
 
 
3.5
 
 
88
72
 
 
0.5
 
 
82
57
 
 
0.2
 
 
77
50
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
1.3
 
 
69
43
 
 
1.5
 
 
74
47
 
 
1.2
 
 
83
56
 
 
0.4
 
 
94
66
 
 
1.1
 
 
101
74
 
 
5.7
 
 
101
78
 
 
11
 
 
93
75
 
 
12
 
 
91
74
 
 
5.2
 
 
92
71
 
 
0.9
 
 
89
63
 
 
0.4
 
 
81
51
 
 
0.9
 
 
72
44
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

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