Teos

Teos (Ancient Greek: Τέως) or Teo was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia, on a peninsula between Chytrium and Myonnesus. It was founded by Minyans from Orchomenus, Ionians and Boeotians, but the date of its foundation is unknown. Teos was one of the twelve cities which formed the Ionian League. The city was situated on a low hilly isthmus. Its ruins are located to the south of the modern town Sığacık in the Seferihisar district of Izmir Province, Turkey.

Teos
Τέως (in Ancient Greek)
Theater teos
Ruins of the theatre in Teos
Teos is located on the western coast of Turkey.
Teos is located on the western coast of Turkey.
Shown within Turkey
Alternative nameTeo
LocationSığacık, Izmir Province, Turkey
RegionIonia
Coordinates38°10′38″N 26°47′06″E / 38.17722°N 26.78500°ECoordinates: 38°10′38″N 26°47′06″E / 38.17722°N 26.78500°E
TypeSettlement
History
PeriodsArchaic Greek to Roman Imperial
CulturesGreek, Roman
Associated withAndron, Anacreon, Antimachus, Apellicon, Hecataeus of Abdera, Nausiphanes, Protagoras, Scythinus
Site notes
ConditionRuined

History

Pausanias writes that the city was founded by Minyans from Orchomenus under the leadership of Athamas, a descendant of Athamas the son of Aeolus. Later on they were joined by Ionians and more colonists from Athens and Boeotia.[1]

Teos was a flourishing seaport with two fine harbours until Cyrus the Great invaded Lydia and Ionia (c. 540 BC). The Teans found it prudent to retire overseas, to the newly founded colonies of Abdera in Thrace and Phanagoria on the Asian side of the Cimmerian Bosporus. The port was revived by Antigonus Cyclops. During the times of the Roman emperors, the town was noted for its wine, a theatre and Temple of Dionysus. These are positioned near the acropolis, which is situated on a low hill and had fortifications by the 6th century. A shipwreck near Tektaş, a small rock outcrop near Teos harbour, dates from the Classical period (around the 6th to the 4th centuries BC) and implies trading connections by sea with eastern Aegean Islands.

It was a member of the Lydian group of the Ionian League, one of the four groups defined by Herodotus, based on the particular dialects of the cities. It was the birthplace of Anacreon the poet, Hecateus the historian, Protagoras the sophist, Scythinus the poet, Andron the geographer, Antimachus the epic poet and Apellicon, the preserver of the works of Aristotle. Epicurus reportedly grew up in Teos and studied there under Nausiphanes, a disciple of Democritus.[2][3] Vitruvius notes Hermogenes of Priene as the architect of the monopteral temple of Dionysus at Teos.[4]

The site today

The modern village of Sığacık is situated close to the ruins of Teos. The interior of what was previously the city has now been intensively farmed, which makes it difficult to excavate the site. Through ploughing, pottery has been brought to the surface of the earth, which has been collected through archaeological survey.

An interesting rental agreement chiseled into stone was uncovered in 2016 in the ruins of Teos.[5][6]

See also

Category:People from Teos

References

  1. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece 7.3.6
  2. ^ Strabo, Geographica 14.1.18
  3. ^ Diogenes Laërtius, Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers 10.13
  4. ^ Vitruvius, De architectura 7.0.12
  5. ^ http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/centuries-old-rental-agreement-unearthed-in-turkeys-izmir.aspx?pageID=238&nID=104520&NewsCatID=375
  6. ^ https://arstechnica.com/science/2016/10/2200-years-ago-in-turkey-this-insane-rental-agreement-was-inscribed-in-stone/

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Teos". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.

External links

Airai (Ionia)

Airai (Ancient Greek: Αἰραί) was a town of ancient Ionia, near Erythrae mentioned by Thucydides. It was a polis (city-state), and a member of the Delian League since it appears in tribute records of Athens between the years 454/3 and 427/6 BCE. In the year 411 BCE, during the Peloponnesian War, the Chians caused the cities of Lebedus and Airai, until then allies of Athens, to revolt against it. Then the Athenian Diomedon commanded the ten ships and attacked Airai, but was unable to take it. In Strabo's time it was a small town that belonged to Teos. Airai's silver and bronze coins dating from the 4th century BCE bearing the inscription «ΑΙΡΑΙΩΝ» survive.Its site is located near the modern Aşağı Demirci, Asiatic Turkey.

Alexamenus of Teos

Alexamenus of Teos (Greek: Τήιος Ἀλεξαμενός) was, according to Aristotle in his dialogue On Poets, the first person who wrote Socratic dialogues before the time of Plato. An Aristotelian papyrus from Oxyrhynchus claims that this is merely malicious gossip by Aristotle.

Antimachus of Teos

Antimachus of Teos (Greek: Ἀντίμαχος ὁ Τήϊος) was an early Greek epic poet. According to Plutarch, he observed an eclipse of the sun in 753 BC, the same year in which Rome was founded. The epic Epigoni, a sequel to the legend of Thebes, was apparently sometimes ascribed to Antimachus of Teos. However, confusion is possible with the much later literary poet Antimachus of Colophon (c. 400 BC), who wrote an epic Thebais on what must have been an overlapping subject.

Apellicon of Teos

Apellicon (Greek: Ἀπελλικῶν; died c. 84 BC), a wealthy man from Teos, afterwards an Athenian citizen, was a famous book collector of the 1st century BC.

He not only spent large sums in the acquisition of his library, but stole original documents from the archives of Athens and other cities of Greece. Being detected, he fled in order to escape punishment, but returned when Athenion (or Aristion), a bitter opponent of the Romans, had made himself tyrant of the city with the aid of Mithradates. Athenion sent him with some troops to Delos, to plunder the treasures of the temple, but he showed little military capacity. He was surprised by the Romans under the command of Orobius (or Orbius), and only saved his life by flight. He died a little later, probably in 84 BC.

Casystes

Casystes or Kasystes (Ancient Greek: Κασύστης) was a port town of ancient Ionia, near Erythrae. Strabo, whose description proceeds from south to north, after describing Teos, says, "before you come to Erythrae, first is Erae, a small city of the Teians, then Corycus, a lofty mountain, and a harbour under it, Casystes; and another harbour called Erythras." It is probably the Cyssus of Livy, the port to which the fleet of Antiochus III sailed (191 BCE) before the naval engagement in which the king was defeated by Eumenes II and the Romans.

Its site is tentatively located near the modern Kırkdilim Limanı, Asiatic Turkey.

Dios Hieron (Ionia)

Dios Hieron (Ancient Greek: Διὸς Ἱερόν, meaning 'Sanctuary of Zeus') was a town of ancient Ionia, between Lebedus and Colophon. The position which Stephanus of Byzantium assigns to the place seems to agree with the narrative in Thucydides where it is mentioned. It belonged to the Delian League since it is mentioned in tribute records of Athens between the years 454/3 and 416/5 BCE. On the other hand, an Athenian decree of the year 427/6 BCE indicates that at that time Dios Hieron was dependent on Colophon. Thucydides writes that in the year 412 BCE the Chians, after revolting against the Athenians, equipped several ships with the intention of encouraging other cities to revolt. They were in Annaea and then in Dios Hieron, where they met the Athenian ships that were under the command of Diomedon. The Chian ships fled from there to Ephesus and Teos. Pliny the Elder says that in his time, the people of Dios Hieron came to Ephesus to settle their legal affairs.Its site is located near Kurukemer, Asiatic Turkey.

Elaeus

Elaeus (Ancient Greek: Ἐλαιοῦς Elaious, later Ἐλεοῦς Elaeus), the “Olive City”, was an ancient Greek city located in Thrace, on the Thracian Chersonese. Elaeus was located at the southern end of the Hellespont (now the Dardanelles) near the southernmost point of the Thracian Chersonese (now the Gallipoli peninsula) in modern-day Turkey. According to the geographer Scymnus, Elaeus was founded by settlers from Ionian Teos, while the Pseudo-Scymnus writes that it was a colony of Athens and was founded by Phorbas

Erythras (Ionia)

Erythras (Ancient Greek: Ἐρυθρᾶς) was a port town of ancient Ionia, near Erythrae. Strabo, whose description proceeds from south to north, after describing Teos, says, "before you come to Erythrae, first is Erae, a small city of the Teians, then Corycus, a lofty mountain, and a harbour under it, Casystes; and another harbour called Erythras."Its site is tentatively located near the modern Sarpdere Limanı, Asiatic Turkey.

Gerriadai

Gerriadai was a town of ancient Ionia, near Teos.

Its site is located near the modern Sığacık Liman, Asiatic Turkey.

Hecataeus of Abdera

See Hecataeus of Miletus for the earlier historian.Hecataeus of Abdera or of Teos (Greek: Ἑκαταῖος ὁ Ἀβδηρίτης), was a Greek historian and sceptic philosopher who flourished in the 4th century BC.

Hermaea (festival)

The Hermaea (Greek: Ἔρμαια) were ancient Greek festivals held annually in honour of Hermes, notably at Pheneos at the foot of Mt Cyllene in Arcadia. Usually the Hermaea honoured Hermes as patron of sport and gymnastics, often in conjunction with Heracles. They included athletic contests of various kinds and were normally held in gymnasia and palaestrae. The Athenian Hermaea were an occasion for relatively unrestrained and rowdy competitions for the ephebes, and Solon tried to prohibit adults from attending. In the Cretan city of Cydonia, the festival had a more Saturnalian character, as the social order was inverted and masters waited on their slaves. Apart from the Hermaea at Pheneos, Athens, and Cydonia, various sources attest the celebration of Hermaea at Salamis Island in Attica, at Tanagra in Boeotia, at Pellene in Achaea, in Laconia, at Argos (where they took place during the month of Hermaios), on Delos, at Teos, at Pergamum, in the Thracian Chersonese, at Odessos, and at Hermaion on the Bosphorus.

Lebedus

Lebedus or Lebedos (Ancient Greek: Λέβεδος) was one of the twelve cities of the Ionian League, located south of Smyrna, Klazomenai and neighboring Teos and before Ephesus, which is further south. It was on the coast, ninety stadia (16.65 km) to the east of Cape Myonnesus, and 120 (22.2 km) west of Colophon.

The city was built on and around a very small peninsula (175 m long, reaching a height of 61 m and with an isthmus 201 m wide), which is called the Kısık Peninsula today and depends on the coastal township of Ürkmez, part of Seferihisar locality, a district center depending on the province seat of İzmir.

The bishopric of Lebedus, a suffragan of Ephesus, is included in the Catholic Church's list of titular sees.

Nectanebo I

Kheperkare Nakhtnebef, better known by his hellenized name Nectanebo I, was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh, founder of the last native dynasty of Egypt, the thirtieth.

Salinity

Salinity (/səˈlɪnəti/) is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water, called saline water (see also soil salinity). This is usually measured in (note that this is technically dimensionless). Salinity is an important factor in determining many aspects of the chemistry of natural waters and of biological processes within it, and is a thermodynamic state variable that, along with temperature and pressure, governs physical characteristics like the density and heat capacity of the water.

A contour line of constant salinity is called an isohaline, or sometimes isohale.

Teos of Egypt

Djedhor, better known as Teos (Ancient Greek: Τέως) or Tachos (Ancient Greek: Τάχως), was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 30th Dynasty.

Tetraethyl orthosilicate

Tetraethyl orthosilicate, formally named tetraethoxysilane and abbreviated TEOS, is the chemical compound with the formula Si(OC2H5)4. TEOS is a colorless liquid that degrades in water. TEOS is the ethyl ester of orthosilicic acid, Si(OH)4. It is the most prevalent alkoxide of silicon.

TEOS is a tetrahedral molecule. Like its many analogues, it is prepared by alcoholysis of silicon tetrachloride:

SiCl4 + 4 EtOH → Si(OEt)4 + 4 HClwhere Et is the ethyl group, C2H5, and thus EtOH is ethanol.

Theban Cycle

The Theban Cycle (Greek: Θηβαϊκὸς Κύκλος) is a collection of four lost epics of ancient Greek literature which related the mythical history of the Boeotian city of Thebes. They were composed in dactylic hexameter verse and were probably written down between 750 and 500 BC.

The 9th-century AD scholar and clergyman Photius, in his Bibliotheca, considered the Theban Cycle part of the Epic Cycle; however, modern scholars normally do not.

The stories in the Theban Cycle were traditional ones: the two Homeric epics, the Iliad and Odyssey, display knowledge of many of them. The most famous stories in the Cycle were those of Oedipus and of the "Seven against Thebes", both of which were heavily drawn on by later writers of Greek tragedy.

The epics of the Theban Cycle were as follows:

The Oedipodea, attributed to Cinaethon: told the story of Oedipus' solution to the Sphinx's riddle, and presumably of his incestuous marriage to his mother Epicaste or Jocasta.

The Thebaid, of uncertain authorship but sometimes attributed in antiquity to Homer: told the story of the war between Oedipus' two sons Eteocles and Polynices, and of Polynices' unsuccessful expedition against the city of Thebes with six other commanders (the "Seven Against Thebes"), in which both Eteocles and Polynices were killed.

The Epigoni, attributed in antiquity to either Antimachus of Teos or Homer: a continuation of the Thebaid, which told the story of the next generation of heroes who attacked Thebes, this time successfully.

The Alcmeonis, of unknown authorship: told the story of Alcmaeon's murder of his mother Eriphyle for having arranged the death of his father Amphiaraus (told in the Thebaid).

Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt

The Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXX, alternatively 30th Dynasty or Dynasty 30) is usually classified as the fifth Dynasty of the Late Period of ancient Egypt. It was founded after the overthrow of Nepherites II in 380 BC by Nectanebo I, and was disestablished upon the invasion of Egypt by the Achaemenid emperor Artaxerxes III in 343 BC. This is the final native dynasty of ancient Egypt; after the deposition of Nectanebo II, Egypt fell under foreign domination.

Tähtivaeltaja Award

Tähtivaeltaja Award is an annual prize by Helsingin science fiction seura ry for the best science fiction book released in Finnish.

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