Temple Grandin

Mary Temple Grandin (born August 29, 1947) is an American professor of animal science at Colorado State University, consultant to the livestock industry on animal behavior, and autism spokesperson. She is one of the first individuals on the autism spectrum to publicly share insights from her personal experience of autism. She invented the "hug box" device to calm those on the autism spectrum. In the 2010 Time 100, an annual list of the 100 most influential people in the world, she was named in the "Heroes" category.[2] She was the subject of the Emmy- and Golden Globe-winning semi-biographical film Temple Grandin.

Temple Grandin
Grandin in 2011
Mary Temple Grandin[1]

August 29, 1947 (age 71)
Alma mater
Known for
  • Livestock industry consultancy
  • Autism rights activism
Scientific career
InstitutionsColorado State University

Early life


Mary Temple Grandin was born in Boston, Massachusetts, into a very wealthy family. One of the Irish girls who worked for the family was also named Mary, so Grandin was referred to by her middle name, Temple, to avoid confusion.[3] Her mother is Anna Eustacia Purves (now Cutler), an actress, singer and granddaughter of the co-inventor for the autopilot aviation system (John Coleman Purves),[4] with a degree in English from Harvard University. Her father was Richard McCurdy Grandin,[5][6] a real estate agent and heir to the largest corporate wheat farm business in America at the time, Grandin Farms.[7] Grandin's parents divorced when she was 15, and her mother eventually went on to marry Ben Cutler, a renowned New York saxophonist, in 1965[8] (when Grandin was 18 years old). Her father Richard died in California in 1993. Grandin is the eldest of four children and has three younger siblings: two sisters and a brother. Grandin has described one of her sisters as being dyslexic. Her younger sister is an artist, her other sister a sculptor, and her brother a banker.[7][9] John Livingston Grandin (Temple's paternal great-grandfather) and his brother William James Grandin, were French Huguenots who drilled for oil, intending to cut a deal with John D. Rockefeller, but the latter kept him waiting too long so he walked out before Rockefeller arrived. Then they went into banking and when Jay Cooke's firm collapsed they got thousands of acres of undeveloped land in North Dakota as collateral. They set up wheat farming in the Red River Valley with dormitories for the workers; the town of Grandin, North Dakota, is named after John Livingston Grandin.[10][11] Although raised in the Episcopal religion, Temple Grandin early on gave up on a belief in a personal deity or intention in favor of what she considers a more scientific idea of God.[12]


Contrary to widely published reports, Grandin was never formally diagnosed with autism in childhood or in youth. The only formal diagnosis received by Grandin was of 'brain damage' at the age of 2,[13][14] a finding corroborated subsequently when she was 64 years old, by cerebral imaging carried out in 2010 at the University of Utah.[15] When Grandin was in her mid-teens, her mother chanced upon a checklist on autism published by Dr. Bernard Rimland, a renowned American psychologist and founder of the Autism Research Institute. Completing the checklist, Grandin's mother hypothesised that Grandin's symptoms were best explained by autism.[13] A formal diagnosis consistent with being on the autistic spectrum was made only when Grandin was in her 40s. Grandin was later determined to be an autistic savant as well.[16][17][18][19]

Early childhood

Grandin's mother, Eustacia, took her to the world's leading special needs researchers at the Boston Children's Hospital, with the hope of unearthing an alternative to institutionalization. Grandin's mother eventually located a neurologist who suggested a trial of speech therapy. They soon hired a speech therapist, and Grandin received personalized input from the age of 2 and a half.[20] A nanny was also hired when Grandin was aged 3 to play educational games for hours with her.

Grandin's mother actively sought out and paid for private schools with sympathetic staff who were willing to work with her daughter's special needs[21] and thus, she started kindergarten in Dedham Country Day School. Her teachers and class strove to create an environment to accommodate Grandin's needs and sensitivities.

Grandin considers herself fortunate to have had supportive mentors from elementary school onward. Even so, Grandin states that junior high and high school were the most unpleasant times of her life.[22]

The medical advice at the time for a diagnosis of autism was to recommend institutionalization, a measure that caused a bitter rift of opinion between Grandin's parents.[14] Her father was keen to follow this advice while her mother was strongly opposed to the idea as it likely would have caused her to never be able see her daughter again.

Middle and high school

Grandin attended Beaver Country Day School from 7th to 9th grade. She was expelled at the age of 14 for throwing a book at a schoolmate who had taunted her. Grandin has described herself as the "nerdy kid" whom everyone ridiculed. She has described occasions when she walked down the hallways and her fellow students would taunt her by saying "tape recorder" because of her habit of repetitive speech. Grandin states, "I could laugh about it now, but back then it really hurt."[23]

The year after her expulsion, Grandin's parents divorced. Grandin's mother remarried three years later to Ben Cutler, a New York saxophonist.[8] At 15, Grandin spent a summer on the Arizona ranch of Ben Cutler's sister, Ann, and this would be a formative experience towards her subsequent career interest.

Following her expulsion from Beaver Country Day School (reports vary on the actual name of the school Grandin was expelled from, with Grandin herself noting it to be Cherry Falls Girls' School in her first book, Emergence: Labelled Autistic), Grandin's mother placed her in Mountain Country School (now known as Hampshire Country School), a private boarding school in Rindge, New Hampshire, for children with behavioral problems. It was here that Grandin met William Carlock, a science teacher who had worked for NASA, who would become her mentor and help significantly towards building up her self-confidence.[24]

It was Carlock who gave Grandin the idea to build herself a hug box (referred to as a "squeeze machine" by Grandin) when she returned from her aunt's farm in Arizona in her senior year of high school.[25] With Carlock's assistance, Grandin built her hug box at the age of 18 when she was still attending Mountain Country School.[26] Carlock's supportive role in Grandin's life continued even after she left Mountain Country School. For example, when Grandin was facing criticism for her hug box at Franklin Pierce College, it was Carlock who suggested that Grandin undertake scientific experiments to evaluate the efficacy of the device.[25] It was his constant guidance to Grandin to refocus her rigid obsessions with the hug box into a productive assignment that allowed this study undertaken by Grandin to be subsequently widely cited as evidence of Grandin's resourcefulness.

Higher education

After she graduated in 1966 from Mountain Country School, Grandin went on to earn her bachelor's degree in human psychology from Franklin Pierce College in 1970, a master's degree in animal science from Arizona State University in 1975, and a doctoral degree in animal science from the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign in 1989.


Grandin is a prominent and widely cited proponent for the humane treatment of livestock for slaughter. She is also internationally famous as a spokesperson on autism.[27]

Autism spectrum

Steve Silberman in his book NeuroTribes wrote that Temple Grandin helped break down years of shame and stigma because she was one of the first adults to publicly disclose that she was autistic. Bernard Rimland, a father of a son with autism and author of the book Infantile Autism, wrote the foreword to Grandin's first book Emergence: Labeled Autistic. The book was published in 1986. Dr. Rimland wrote "Temple's ability to convey to the reader her innermost feelings and fears, coupled with her capacity for explaining mental processes will give the reader an insight into autism that very few have been able to achieve."

In her later book Thinking in Pictures, published in 1995, the neurologist Oliver Sacks wrote at the end of the foreword that the book provided "a bridge between our world and hers, and allows us to glimpse into a quite other sort of mind."

In her early writings, Grandin made the mistake of presenting herself as a recovered autistic and in his foreword, Bernard Rimland used the term recovered autistic individual. In her later writings, this has been removed. Steve Silberman wrote, "It became obvious to her, however, that she was not recovered but had learned with great effort to adapt to the social norms of the people around her."

When her book Thinking in Pictures was written in 1995, Grandin thought that all individuals with autism thought in photographic specific images the way she did. When the expanded edition was published in 2006, she now realized that it had been wrong to assume that every person with autism processed information the same way she did. In this edition, she wrote that there were three types of specialized thinking. They were: 1. Visual Thinkers like her who think in photographically specific images. 2. Music and Math Thinkers – these people think in patterns and may be good at mathematics, chess, and programming computers. 3. Verbal Logic Thinkers – These people think in word details and their favorite subject may be history.

In one of her later books, The Autistic Brain: Thinking Across the Spectrum, the concept of three different types of thinking in autism is further developed. This book was published in 2013. An influential book which helped her develop her concept of pattern thinking was Clara Claiborne Park's book titled Exiting Nirvana: A Daughter's Life with Autism. It was published in 2001. The Autistic Brain also contains an extensive review of scientific studies that provide evidence that object visual thinking is different from spatial visualization abilities.

Grandin became well-known beyond the American autistic community, after being described by Oliver Sacks in the title narrative of his book An Anthropologist on Mars (1995), for which he won a Polk Award; the title is derived from Grandin's description of how she feels around neurotypical people. She first spoke in public about autism in the mid-1980s, at the request of Ruth C. Sullivan, one of the founders of the Autism Society of America (ASA). Sullivan writes:

I first met Temple in the mid-1980s [at the] annual [ASA] conference. Standing on the periphery of the group was a tall young woman who was obviously interested in the discussions. She seemed shy and pleasant, but mostly she just listened. I learned her name was Temple Grandin. It wasn't until later in the week that I realized she was someone with autism. I approached her and asked if she'd be willing to speak at the next year's [ASA] conference. She agreed. The next year Temple first addressed an [ASA] audience. People were standing at least three deep. The audience couldn't get enough of her. Here, for the first time, was someone who could tell us from her own experience, what it was like to be extremely sound sensitive ("like being tied to the rail and the train's coming"). She was asked many questions: "Why does my son do so much spinning?" "Why does he hold his hands to his ears?" "Why doesn't he look at me?" She spoke from her own experience, and her insight was impressive. There were tears in more than one set of eyes that day. Temple quickly became a much sought-after speaker in the autism community.[28]

Based on personal experience, Grandin advocates early intervention to address autism and supportive teachers, who can direct fixations of the child with autism in fruitful directions. She has described her hypersensitivity to noise and other sensory stimuli. She says words are her second language and that she thinks "totally in pictures," using her vast visual memory to translate information into a slideshow of mental images that can be manipulated or correlated.[29] Grandin attributes her success as a humane livestock facility designer to her ability to recall detail, which is a characteristic of her visual memory. Grandin compares her memory to full-length movies in her head, that may be replayed at will, allowing her to notice small details. She also is able to view her memories using slightly different contexts by changing the positions of the lighting and shadows.

As a partial proponent of neurodiversity, Grandin does not support eliminating autism genes or treating mildly autistic individuals. However, she believes that autistic children who are severely handicapped need therapy with applied behavioral analysis.[30] Additionally, she has claimed that she only will attend talks given by autistics that can hold down a career.[31][32] By contrast, Jonathan Mitchell describes Grandin as making generalizations about autistic people, saying that many autistics aren't visual thinkers and that her generalizations trivialize the difficulties associated with autism.[33] The autism rights activist Amy Sequenzia has criticized Temple Grandin for only focusing on and listening to high-functioning autistics, as opposed to low-functioning and non-speaking autistics. She has said that Grandin doesn't view those autistics as worthy of her attention.[34][35]

Handling livestock

In 1980 she published her first two scientific articles on beef cattle behavior during handling: "Livestock Behavior as Related to Handling Facilities Design" in the International Journal for the Study of Animal Problems, Vol. 1, pp. 33-52 and "Observations of Cattle Behavior Applied to the Design of Cattle Handling Facilities", Applied Animal Ethology, Vol. 6, pp. 19-31. She was one of the first scientists to report that animals are sensitive to visual distractions in handling facilities such as shadows, dangling chains, and other environmental details most people do not notice. When she got her Ph.D. at the University of Illinois, she studied the effects of environmental enrichment on pigs. The title of her dissertation was "Effect of Rearing Environment and Environmental Enrichment on the Behavior and Neural Development in Young Pigs". Grandin expanded on these theories in her book Animals Make Us Human.

In 1993, she edited the first edition of Livestock Handling and Transport. She wrote three chapters and had chapters from contributors from around the world. Subsequent editions of the book were published in 2000, 2007, and 2014. In her academic work as a professor at Colorado State University, her graduate student Bridgett Voisinet conducted one of the early studies that showed that cattle that remained calm during handling had higher weight gains. In 1997, when the paper was published, this was a new concept. The paper is titled "Feedlot Cattle with Calm Temperaments Have Higher Average Daily Gains Than Cattle with Excitable Temperaments", published in The Journal of Animal Science, Vol. 75, pp. 892-896.

Another important paper published by Grandin was "Assessment of Stress During Handling and Transport", Journal of Animal Science, 1997, Vol. 75, pp. 249-257. This paper presented the idea that an animal's previous experiences with handling could have an effect on how it will react to being handled in the future, which was then a new concept in the animal-handling industry.

A major piece of equipment that Grandin developed was a center track (double rail) conveyor restrainer system for holding cattle during stunning in large beef plants. The first system was installed in the mid-eighties for calves and a system for large beef cattle was developed in 1990. This equipment is now being used by many large meat companies. It is described in "Double Rail Restrainer Conveyor for Livestock Handling", first published in the Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, Vol. 4, pp. 327-338 in 1988, and "Transferring results of behavioral research to industry to improve animal welfare on the farm, ranch, and slaughter plant", Applied Animal Behavior Science, Vol. 8, pp. 215-228, published in 2003.

Grandin also developed an objective numerical scoring system for assessing animal welfare at slaughter plants. The use of this scoring system resulted in significant improvements in animal stunning and handling during slaughter. This work is described in "Objective scoring of animal handling and stunning practices in slaughter plants", Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Vol. 212, pp. 36-39, "The feasibility of using vocalization scoring as an indicator of poor welfare during slaughter", Applied Animal Behavior Science, Vol. 56, pp. 121–128, and "Effect of animal welfare audits of slaughter plants by a major fast food company on cattle handling and stunning practices", Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Vol. 216, pp. 848–851.

Other scientific contributions

Grandin is the author or co-author of over 60 peer reviewed scientific papers on a variety of other animal behavior subjects. Some of the other subjects are: the effect of hair whorl position on cattle behavior, preslaughter stress and meat quality, religious slaughter, mothering behavior of beef cows, cattle temperament, and causes of bruising.

Animal welfare

She has lectured widely about her first-hand experiences of the anxiety of feeling threatened by everything in her surroundings, and of being dismissed and feared, which motivates her work in humane livestock handling processes. She studied the behavior of cattle, how they react to ranchers, movements, objects, and light. Grandin then designed adapted curved corrals, intended to reduce stress, panic and injury in animals being led to slaughter. This has proved to be a further point of criticism and controversy among animal activists who have questioned the congruence of a career built on animal slaughter alongside Grandin's claims of compassion and respect for animals. While her designs are widely used throughout the slaughterhouse industry, her claim of compassion for the animals is that because of her autism she can see the animals' reality from their viewpoint, that when she holds an animal's head in her hands as it is being slaughtered, she feels a deep, godlike connection to them.[36]

Her business website promotes improvement of standards for slaughterhouses and livestock farms. The 'squeeze machine' itself remains on sale at US$4525 each from Therafin Corporation.[37] In 2004, she won a "Proggy" award in the "Visionary" category, from People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals.[38]

One of her notable essays about animal welfare is "Animals Are Not Things",[39] in which she posits that technically, animals are property in society, but the law ultimately gives them ethical protections or rights. She compares the properties and rights of owning cows, versus owning screwdrivers, enumerating how both may be used to serve human purposes in many ways, but when it comes to inflicting pain, there is a vital distinction between such "properties"; legally a person can smash or grind up a screwdriver, but cannot torture an animal.

Her insight into the minds of cattle has taught her to value the changes in details to which animals are particularly sensitive and to use her visualization skills to design thoughtful and humane animal-handling equipment. She was named a fellow of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers in 2009.[40]

In 2012, when the American beef industry was struggling with public perception of its use and sale of pink slime, Grandin spoke out in support of the food product. She said, "It should be on the market. It should be labeled. We should not be throwing away that much beef."[41]

Personal life

I think using animals for food is an ethical thing to do, but we've got to do it right. We've got to give those animals a decent life, and we've got to give them a painless death. We owe the animals respect.
—Temple Grandin
Temple Grandin at TED
Temple Grandin at TED 2010

Grandin says that "the part of other people that has emotional relationships is not part of me", and she has neither married nor had children. She later stated, for example, that she preferred the science fiction, documentary, and thriller genre of films and television shows to more dramatic or romantic ones. Beyond her work in animal science and welfare and autism rights, her interests include horse riding, science fiction, movies, and biochemistry.

She has noted in her autobiographical works that autism affects every aspect of her life. She has to wear comfortable clothes to counteract her sensory processing disorder and has structured her lifestyle to avoid sensory overload. She regularly takes antidepressants, but no longer uses a squeeze-box (hug machine), a device which she invented at the age of 18 as a form of stress relief therapy,[26] stating in February 2010 that: "It broke two years ago, and I never got around to fixing it. I'm into hugging people now."[42]


In 2010, Grandin was named in the Time 100 list of the one hundred most influential people in the world in the "Heroes" category.[2] In 2011, she received a Double Helix Medal.[43] She has received honorary degrees from many universities including McGill University in Canada (1999), and the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (2009), Carnegie Mellon University in the United States (2012), and Emory University (2016).[44] In 2015, she was named an Honorary Fellow of the Society for Technical Communication.[45]

In 2012, Grandin was inducted into the Texas Trail of Fame.[46]

Grandin received a Meritorious Achievement Award from the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in 2015.[47]

In 2016, Grandin was inducted into the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.[48]

In 2017, Grandin was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame.[49][50][51]

In popular culture

Grandin has been featured on major media programs, such as Lisa Davis' It's Your Health, ABC's Primetime Live, the Today Show, Larry King Live, and Fresh Air with Terry Gross. She has been written up in TIME magazine, People magazine, Discover magazine, Forbes, and The New York Times.[52][53] In 2012, Grandin was interviewed on Thriving Canine Radio to discuss "A Different Perspective on Animal Behavior".

She was the subject of the Horizon documentary, "The Woman Who Thinks Like a Cow", first broadcast by the BBC on June 8, 2006, and Nick News with Linda Ellerbee in the spring of 2006.[54] She also has been the subject of the first episode in the series First Person by Errol Morris.

Grandin is the focus of a semi-biographical HBO film, titled Temple Grandin,[55][56] starring Claire Danes as Grandin. The film was broadcast on February 6, 2010. The movie was nominated for 15 Primetime Emmy Awards and won seven awards, including Outstanding Television Movie and Outstanding Lead Actress in a Miniseries or Movie for Claire Danes.[57] Grandin was on stage as the award was accepted, and she spoke briefly to the audience. Coincidentally, the 62nd Primetime Emmy Awards happened on Grandin's birthday – August 29. On January 16, 2011, at the 68th Golden Globe Awards, Claire Danes won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Miniseries or Television Film.

Grandin was featured in Beautiful Minds: A Voyage Into the Brain, a documentary produced in 2006 by colourFIELD tell-a-vision, a German company. She was named one of 2010's one hundred most influential people in the world by Time magazine.[2] In 2011, she was featured in an episode of the Science documentary series Ingenious Minds and in 2018, Dr. Grandin will be featured in the upcoming documentary This Business of Autism exploring Autism Employment and the success story of Autism Employers such as Spectrum Designs Foundation produced by Mesh Omnimedia. [58]

She also was interviewed by Michael Pollan in his best-selling book, The Omnivore's Dilemma,[59] in which she discussed the livestock industry.

Folk-punk band AJJ, formerly known as Andrew Jackson Jihad, included two songs called "Temple Grandin" and "Temple Grandin Too" on their LP Christmas Island.

In 2018, Grandin was noted/profiled in the book, Rescuing Ladybugs [60] by author and animal advocate Jennifer Skiff as a “global hero” for “standing her ground and fighting for change after witnessing the extreme mistreatment of animals” used in farming.[61]


  • Emergence: Labeled Autistic (with Margaret Scariano, 1986, updated 1991), ISBN 0-446-67182-7
  • The Learning Style of People with Autism: An Autobiography (1995). In Teaching Children with Autism : Strategies to Enhance Communication and Socialization, Kathleen Ann Quill, ISBN 0-8273-6269-2
  • Thinking in Pictures: Other Reports from My Life with Autism (1996) ISBN 0-679-77289-8
  • Developing Talents: Careers for Individuals with Asperger Syndrome and High-Functioning Autism (2004). ISBN 1-931282-56-0
  • Animals in Translation: Using the Mysteries of Autism to Decode Animal Behavior (with Catherine Johnson, 2005), ISBN 0-7432-4769-8
  • The Unwritten Rules of Social Relationships: Decoding Social Mysteries Through the Unique Perspectives of Autism (with Sean Barron, 2005), ISBN 1-932565-06-X
  • The Way I See It: A Personal Look At Autism And Asperger's (2008), ISBN 9781932565720
  • Animals Make Us Human: Creating the Best life for Animals (with Catherine Johnson, 2009), ISBN 978-0-15-101489-7
  • The Autistic Brain: Thinking Across the Spectrum (with Richard Panek, 2013), ISBN 978-0-547-63645-0
  • The Loving Push: How Parents and Professionals Can Help Spectrum Kids Become Successful Adults (with Debra Moore Ph.D., 2016), ISBN 978-1941765203
  • Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals, Second Edition (with Mark Deesing, 2013), ISBN 978-0-12-394586-0
  • Improving animal welfare: a practical approach (2010). ISBN 978-1-84593-541-2, CABI, UK
  • Livestock handling and transport (2007). ISBN 978-1-84593-219-0. CABI, UK.
  • Grandin, T. 2013. Making slaughterhouses more humane for cattle, pigs, and sheep. Annual Review of Animal Biosciences. 1:491-512.
  • Grandin, T. 2001. Cattle vocalizations are associated with handling and equipment problems at beef slaughter plants. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. Volume 71, 2001, Pg. 191-201.
  • Grandin, T. 1996. Factors That Impede Animal Movement at Slaughter Plants. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 209 No.4:757-759.
  • Grandin, T. 1995. Restraint of Livestock. Proceedings: Animal Behaviour Design of Livestock and Poultry Systems International Conference (pages 208-223). Published by: Northeast Regional Agriculture Engineering Service. Cooperative Extension. 152 Riley – Robb Hall, Ithaca, New York, 14853 USA.
  • Grandin, T. 1994. Euthanasia and Slaughter of Livestock. Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association. Volume 204:1354-1360.
  • Grandin, T. 1989 (Updated 1999). Behavioral Principles of Livestock Handling. Professional Scientist. December 1989 (pages 1–11).
  • Calling All Minds: How to Think and Create Like an Inventor (2018) ISBN 1524738204

See also


  1. ^ Montgomery, Sy (April 3, 2012). Temple Grandin: How the Girl Who Loved Cows Embraced Autism and Changed the World. Houghton Mifflin Books for Children. ISBN 0547443153.
  2. ^ a b c Marc Hauser (April 29, 2010). "The 2010 Time 100. In our annual TIME 100 issue, we name the people who most affect our world: Temple Grandin". Time. Retrieved 2010-12-29.
  3. ^ page 204 of A Thorn in My Pocket: Temple Grandin's Mother Tells the Family Story by Eustacia Cutler
  4. ^ Chapter 10 of A Thorn in My Pocket: Temple Grandin's Mother Tells the Family Story by Eustacia Cutler
  5. ^ https://www.geni.com/people/Richard-Grandin/6000000018885300108
  6. ^ "United States Federal Census". Geni - a MyHeritage Company. August 5, 2015. Retrieved March 9, 2016.
  7. ^ a b Grandin, Temple (n.d.). "Autism Research Institute". Autism Research Institute. Retrieved March 9, 2016.
  8. ^ a b "Ben Cutler, 96, Whose Bands Entertained the Society Set". The New York Times. 2001-01-15. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-03-09.
  9. ^ page 205 of A Thorn in My Pocket: Temple Grandin's Mother Tells the Family Story by Eustacia Cutler
  10. ^ Chapter 10 The Legacy Of Genes in "A Thorn in My Pocket: Temple Grandin's Mother Tells the Family Story" by Eustacia Cutler
  11. ^ Federal Writer's Project of the Works Progress Administration for the State of North Dakota (1977). The WPA Guide To 1930s North Dakota (2nd ed.). State Historical Society of North Dakota. pp. 193–194. ISBN 1891419145.
  12. ^ Sacks, Oliver (1996). An anthropologist on Mars: Seven paradoxical tales. New York: Vintage Books: A division of Penguin Random House, LLC. p. 282.
  13. ^ a b Scariano, Margaret (1986). Emergence: Labelled Autistic. Arena Press. ISBN 0710400632.
  14. ^ a b Grandin, Temple (January 2, 2006). "Wrong Planet". Interview with Temple Grandin. Retrieved March 9, 2016.
  15. ^ Grandin, Temple (2013). The Autistic Brain. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 0547636458.
  16. ^ Hughes, Virginia (October 14, 2012). "Researchers reveal first brain study of Temple Grandin". SpectrumNews.org. Simons Foundation. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
  17. ^ Nuwer, Rachel (October 17, 2012). "What Makes Temple Grandin's Brain Special?". SmithsonianMag.com. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
  18. ^ Stix, Gary (October 19, 2012). "A Little Hard Science from the Big Easy: Temple Grandin's Brain and Transgenic Sniffer Mice". ScientificAmerican.com. Springer Nature. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
  19. ^ McGowan, Kat (March 13, 2013). "Exploring Temple Grandin's Brain". Discover Magazine. Kalmbach Publishing. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
  20. ^ White, Randall (2005). "Autism First-Hand: An Expert Interview with Temple Grandin". Medscape Psychiatry. Retrieved March 9, 2016.
  21. ^ "Encyclopaedia of World Biography". Encyclopaedia of World Biography. Retrieved March 9, 2016.
  22. ^ Temple., Grandin, (2006). Thinking in pictures : and other reports from my life with autism (2nd Vintage books ed.). New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 0307275655. OCLC 63040769.
  23. ^ 'Temple Grandin Inducted into Colorado Women's Hall of Fame', http://www.wherefoodcomesfrom.com/article/2281/Temple-Grandin-Inducted-into-Colorado-Womens-Hall-of-Fame#.UdA8G2thiK0 Archived 2013-12-28 at the Wayback Machine, retrieved 30 June 2013.
  24. ^ "How the squeeze machine came to be - Aspergers Test Site". Aspergers Test Site. Retrieved 2016-03-09.
  25. ^ a b "How the squeeze machine came to be - Aspergers Test Site". Aspergers Test Site. Retrieved 2016-03-10.
  26. ^ a b Temple Grandin (Spring 1992). "Calming Effects of Deep Touch Pressure in Patients with Autistic Disorder, College Students, and Animals". Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2 (1): 63–72. doi:10.1089/cap.1992.2.63. PMID 19630623.
  27. ^ "Temple Grandin – Speaker Profile and Speaking Topics". apbspeakers.com.
  28. ^ The Way I See It: A Personal Look at … – Temple Grandin – Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2011-11-17.
  29. ^ Grandin T (2009). "How does visual thinking work in the mind of a person with autism? A personal account". Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 364 (1522): 1437–42. doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0297. PMC 2677580. PMID 19528028.
  30. ^ Wrong Planet – Aspergers and Autism Community. "Interview with Temple Grandin". Wrong Planet. Retrieved 2011-11-17.
  31. ^ Sandison, Ron. "Temple Grandin to Autistic adults: get your butts out of the house and get a job | The Art of Autism". The Art of Autism. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  32. ^ Sandison, Ron (26 April 2017). "The Day I Met Temple Grandin". Autism Speaks. Archived from the original on 2017-07-12. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  33. ^ Osborne, Lawrence (2002). American Normal : The Hidden World of Asperger Syndrome. New York: Copernicus. pp. 114–115, 155, 158–159. ISBN 978-0-387-95307-6.
  34. ^ Sequenzia, Amy (19 January 2013). "When Autistics Grade Other Autistics". Ollibean. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
  35. ^ Sequenzia, Amy. "Amy Sequenzia". www.facebook.com. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
  36. ^ Coe, Sue (2012). Cruel: bearing witness to animal exploitation. New York: OR Books. p. 64. ISBN 978-1-935928-72-0.
  37. ^ Therafin Corporation. "We manufacture the Squeeze Machine (some people call it hug machine)". therafin.com. Retrieved 28 August 2018. The price of the complete system with air compressor is $4525.00 plus shipping.
  38. ^ "2004 PETA Proggy Awards". PETA. 2004-09-30. Archived from the original on 2009-08-08. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
  39. ^ "Animals are not things". Retrieved 6 July 2009.
  40. ^ "ASABE Fellows" (PDF). American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-10-30. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
  41. ^ "Animal scientist Temple Grandin supports 'pink slime'". Washington Post. 23 May 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
  42. ^ Claudia Wallis: "Temple Grandin on Temple Grandin". Time, February 4, 2010
  43. ^ "Double Helix Medals of 2011". Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Archived from the original on January 6, 2013. Retrieved May 6, 2013.
  44. ^ Grandin, Temple. "Professional resume". Retrieved May 6, 2013.
  45. ^ Seitz, Marisa. "Recognition Monday: Temple Grandin Named Honorary Fellow". stc's notebook. Society for Technical Communication. Archived from the original on 9 July 2015.
  46. ^ "Temple Grandin". Western Heritage from the Texas Trail of Fame. 14 June 2013. Retrieved April 14, 2018.
  47. ^ "Opening of the 83rd General Session of the World Assembly of Delegates of the World Organisation for Animal Health". The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). 24 May 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
  48. ^ "American Academy of Arts and Sciences Elects 213 National and International Scholars, Artists and Philanthropists and Business Leaders". American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 20 April 2016. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
  49. ^ Posted: Sep 17, 2017 12:53 AM EDT (2017-09-17). "Ten women added to National Women's Hall of Fame in Seneca". Localsyr.com. Retrieved 2017-09-28.
  50. ^ Dimas, Jennifer (10 February 2017). "Temple Grandin named to the National Women's Hall of Fame". Source. Colorado State University. Archived from the original on 21 February 2017.
  51. ^ Sanchez, Hayley (18 February 2017). "Temple Grandin will be inducted into National Women's Hall of Fame, Q&A". The Denver Post. Archived from the original on 22 February 2017.
  52. ^ "Dr. Temple Grandin". Templegrandin.com. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
  53. ^ "What Do Animals Think?". Discover Magazine. Retrieved 2011-06-27.
  54. ^ "The Woman who thinks like a Cow". Horizon. BBC. November 2006. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  55. ^ Roybal, Joe (31 October 2008). "Temple Grandin Talks About Her Upcoming HBO Biopic". BEEF Magazine. Archived from the original on 11 March 2012.
  56. ^ Harris, Will (April 2, 2010). "A Chat with Temple Grandin". premiumhollywood.com. Retrieved February 13, 2012.
  57. ^ CBSNews.com, August 30, 2010
  58. ^ "This Business of Autism Debuts to Sold Out Crowd - Broadway World".
  59. ^ http://www.us.penguingroup.com/static/pdf/.../OmnivoresDilemmaTG.pdf
  60. ^ Jennifer Skiff, Rescuing Ladybugs: Inspirational Encounters with Animals That Changed the World, New World Library, 2018
  61. ^ Ibid. page 170

External links

62nd Primetime Creative Arts Emmy Awards

The 62nd Annual Primetime Creative Arts Emmy Awards ceremony was held on August 21, 2010 at the Nokia Theatre in Downtown Los Angeles. This was in conjunction with the annual Primetime Emmy Awards and was presented in recognition of technical and other similar achievements in American television programming. E! aired clips from the ceremony on August 28, the evening preceding the night of the primetime telecast.

62nd Primetime Emmy Awards

The 62nd Primetime Emmy Awards, presented by the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences, were held on Sunday, August 29, 2010, at the Nokia Theatre in Downtown Los Angeles, California beginning at 5:00 p.m. PDT (00:00 UTC; August 30). Comedian and Late Night host Jimmy Fallon hosted the ceremony for the first time.The ceremony honored the best in prime time television programming from June 1, 2009 until May 31, 2010. The HBO miniseries The Pacific won eight awards, the most for any program this year, including Outstanding Miniseries. ABC's freshman series Modern Family was the most honored comedy series of the year with six awards, including Outstanding Comedy Series. AMC's period piece drama Mad Men won four awards, including Outstanding Drama Series, its third consecutive victory in that category. The HBO film Temple Grandin won five major awards, tying the record for most major wins by a television film, set by Promise in 1987.

The ceremony was telecast live coast-to-coast in the United States by NBC, the first such broadcast since ABC did so for the 34th ceremony held in 1976. The ceremony was held before its usual mid-September date to avoid a conflict with NBC Sunday Night Football.On August 21, 2010, the Creative Arts Emmy Awards were presented at the same venue. E! aired clips from the ceremony on August 28, the evening preceding the night of the primetime telecast.

The ceremony was received well by critics, with much praise going to the quality of the production, the voting trends and the entertainment factor. Jimmy Fallon received unanimous acclaim for his performance as the host, with some critics citing him as one of the greatest Emmy hosts in recent times.

Animals in Translation

Animals in Translation: Using the Mysteries of Autism to Decode Animal Behavior is a 2005 book by Temple Grandin and co-written by Catherine Johnson. Animals in Translation explores the similarity between animals and people with autism, a concept that was originally touched upon in Grandin's 1995 book Thinking in Pictures: My Life with Autism.

Catherine O'Hara

Catherine Anne O'Hara (born March 4, 1954) is a Canadian-American actress, writer, and comedian. She first drew notice as an actress in 1974 as a member of The Second City improvisational comedy troupe in Toronto. She landed her first significant television role in 1975 starring opposite John Candy and Dan Aykroyd in the main cast of the Canadian sitcom Coming Up Rosie (1975–1978). The following year, she and Candy began work on Second City Television (1976–84), where she drew acclaim for both her work as a comedic actress and writer, winning a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Writing for a Variety Series in 1981.

O'Hara has appeared in several films directed by Tim Burton, beginning with the role of Delia Deetz in the 1988 film Beetlejuice. Other roles she has portrayed in Burton films include the voices of Sally/Shock in The Nightmare Before Christmas (1993) and Susan Frankenstein in Frankenweenie (2012). She has also frequently collaborated with director and writer Christopher Guest, appearing in the mockumentary films Waiting for Guffman (1996), Best in Show (2000), A Mighty Wind (2003), and For Your Consideration (2006). In 2000, she won a Genie Award for Best Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role for the film The Life Before This. She is also known to audiences as Kate McCallister, the mother of Kevin, in both Home Alone (1990) and Home Alone 2: Lost in New York (1992).

In 2010 O'Hara was nominated for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Limited Series or Movie and the Satellite Award for Best Supporting Actress – Series, Miniseries or Television Film for her portrayal of Aunt Ann in Temple Grandin opposite Claire Danes. For her work on the television series Schitt's Creek (2015–present), O'Hara has won two Canadian Screen Awards for Best Lead Actress in a Comedy Series, at the 4th Canadian Screen Awards in 2016 and the 5th Canadian Screen Awards in 2017.Her other notable television appearances include the recurring roles of Dr. Georgina Orwell in the Netflix series A Series of Unfortunate Events and Carol Ward in Six Feet Under, and the voices of Jackie Martin in Glenn Martin, DDS, Miss Malone in The Completely Mental Misadventures of Ed Grimley, Kaossandra in Skylanders Academy and Liz Larsen in Committed. She has also hosted Saturday Night Live twice during her career and made numerous guest appearances on sitcoms, variety shows, and late night television.

Christopher Monger

Christopher Monger (born 1950) in Taffs Well, Cardiff, Wales is a Welsh screenwriter, director and editor, best known for writing and directing The Englishman who Went up a Hill but Came down a Mountain and writing the HBO biopic Temple Grandin. He has directed eight feature films and written over thirty screenplays.

Claire Danes

Claire Catherine Danes (born April 12, 1979) is an American actress. She is the recipient of three Emmy Awards, four Golden Globe Awards, and two Screen Actors Guild Awards. In 2012, Time named her one of the 100 most influential people in the world, and she was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2015.Danes gained early recognition as Angela Chase in the acclaimed 1994 teen drama series My So-Called Life. The role won her a Golden Globe Award for Best Actress and a Primetime Emmy nomination for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series. She made her film debut the same year in Little Women (1994). Her other films include Home for the Holidays (1995), Romeo + Juliet (1996), The Rainmaker (1997), Les Misérables (1998), Brokedown Palace (1999), the 1999 English dub of Princess Mononoke (1997), Igby Goes Down (2002), The Hours (2002), Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines (2003), Shopgirl (2005), Stardust (2007), Brigsby Bear (2017), and A Kid Like Jake (2018).

From 1998 to 2000, Danes attended Yale University before dropping out to return to acting. She appeared in an Off-Broadway production of The Vagina Monologues in 2000, and made her Broadway debut playing Eliza Doolittle in the 2007 revival of Pygmalion. In 2010, she portrayed Temple Grandin in the highly acclaimed HBO TV film Temple Grandin, which won her a second Golden Globe and her first Primetime Emmy Award for the Outstanding Lead Actress in a Limited Series or Movie. Since 2011, she has starred as Carrie Mathison in the Showtime drama series Homeland, for which she has won two Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series, two Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Television Series Drama, and the Television Critics Association Award for Individual Achievement in Drama.

Dante Di Loreto

Dante Di Loreto is an American film and television producer most notable for executive producing Glee and American Horror Story. He is a two-time Primetime Emmy Award winner and for his work on Temple Grandin and The Normal Heart. He has also won a Daytime Emmy Award for his work on My Louisiana Sky. DiLoreto was the President of Ryan Murphy Television; he is currently the President of Television at Chernin Entertainment.

David Strathairn

David Russell Strathairn (; born January 26, 1949) is an American actor.

Strathairn came to prominence in the 1980s and the 1990s performing in the films of fellow Williams grad John Sayles, including Return of the Secaucus 7 (his screen debut), The Brother from Another Planet, Matewan, City of Hope, Eight Men Out, and Limbo. Strathairn was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actor for portraying journalist Edward R. Murrow in Good Night, and Good Luck (2005). He is also recognized for his role as CIA Deputy Director Noah Vosen in the 2007 film The Bourne Ultimatum, a role he reprised in 2012's The Bourne Legacy. He played a prominent role as Dr. Lee Rosen on the Syfy series Alphas from 2011 to 2012 and played Secretary of State William Henry Seward in Steven Spielberg's Lincoln (2012). He won an Emmy and was nominated for a Golden Globe for his role in the TV film, Temple Grandin (2010).

Hug machine

A hug machine, also known as a hug box, a squeeze machine, or a squeeze box, is a deep-pressure device designed to calm hypersensitive persons, usually individuals with autism spectrum disorders. The therapeutic, stress-relieving device was invented by Temple Grandin while she was attending college.Autism disorders have profound effects upon both social interactions and sensitivity to sensory stimulation in persons with such conditions, often making it uncomfortable or impractical for them to turn to other human beings for comfort. Grandin addressed this by designing the hug machine for sensory relief.

International Society for Applied Ethology

The International Society for Applied Ethology is the leading non-profit professional organization for academics and scientists interested in the behaviour and welfare of confined or domesticated animals, including companion, farm, laboratory and zoo animal species.

The Society was created in Edinburgh in 1966, as the Society for Veterinary Ethology (SVE). It rapidly expanded to cover all applied aspects of Ethology and other Behavioural Sciences, which are relevant to many human-animal interactions, such as farming, wildlife management, the keeping of companion and laboratory animals, and the control of pests. The Society also quickly became increasingly international: it now has a federal, international structure as well as regional representatives around the world. In 1991, on the 25th anniversary of the SVE, the society was renamed the International Society for Applied Ethology (ISAE). At the International Congress that year a paper was presented by Carol Petherick and Ian Duncan entitled "The Society for Veterinary Ethology 1966-1991 the 25th Anniversary Review".Administration of the Society is the responsibility of a Council. The Council also provides technical evidence on topics relating to animal behaviour and animal welfare during the committee stages of government legislation, for example, by discussion with groups such as the UK’s Farm Animal Welfare Council. The European Parliament and the Council of Europe also consult council on such matters.

The membership is drawn from all areas of the world and is divided into 11 regions based on geography. ISAE encourages academic activity within the regions, including support of regional meetings, and also holds an annual Congress based, in alternate years, in Europe and elsewhere in the world. The 50th Anniversary Congress was held back in Edinburgh in July 2016 and commemorated with the publication of the book "Animals and Us: 50 Years and More of Applied Ethology."ISAE's official scientific journal is Applied Animal Behaviour Science (AABS), a monthly publication, originally established as Applied Animal Ethology in 1974. AABS continues to be published by Elsevier.

Honorary Fellows of the society include Ruth Harrison, Donald Broom and Michael C. Appleby. Another notable member is Temple Grandin.

Julia Ormond

Julia Karin Ormond (born 4 January 1965) is an English actress. She rose to prominence appearing in such films as The Baby of Mâcon (1993), Legends of the Fall (1994), First Knight (1995), Sabrina (1995), Smilla's Sense of Snow (1997) and The Barber of Siberia (1998). She won an Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Miniseries or a Movie for her role in the HBO film Temple Grandin (2010).

Mick Jackson (director)

Mick Jackson (born 4 October 1943) is a British film director and television producer. Between 1973 and 1987, Jackson directed many documentary and drama productions for BBC TV and Channel 4. Relocating to Hollywood, he directed feature films, including The Bodyguard starring Kevin Costner and Whitney Houston. In 2010, Jackson won an Emmy for Outstanding Directing for a Miniseries, Movie or a Dramatic Special for the dramatised biographical TV film Temple Grandin.

Point of Inquiry

Point of Inquiry is the radio show and flagship podcast of the Center for Inquiry (CFI), "a think tank promoting science, reason, and secular values in public policy and at the grass roots". Started in 2005, Point of Inquiry has consistently been ranked among the best science podcasts available in iTunes. It has been celebrated for its guests and for the quality of its interviews. Former guests include leading scientists, writers and public intellectuals such as Neil DeGrasse Tyson, Paul Krugman, Lisa Randall, Brian Greene, Oliver Sacks, Susan Jacoby, David Brin and Temple Grandin.

Promise (1986 film)

Promise is a 1986 American made-for-television drama film presented by Hallmark Hall of Fame. Adapted by screenwriter Richard Friedenberg from a story by Ken Blackwell and Tennyson Flowers, the film was directed by Glenn Jordan and aired December 14, 1986. James Garner stars as a carefree man who returns to his hometown after his mother's death and has to assume responsibility for his mentally ill younger brother (James Woods). One of the most honored films in television history, Promise received the Peabody Award, Humanitas Prize, Christopher Award and Golden Globe Award. Its record of five Primetime Emmy Awards was not matched until 2010, by the film Temple Grandin.


In Judaism, shechita (anglicized: ; Hebrew: שחיטה‬; [ʃχiˈta]; also transliterated shehitah, shechitah, shehita) is slaughtering of certain mammals and birds for food according to kashrut (Deut. 12:21, Deut. 14:21, Num. 11:22).

Temple Grandin (film)

Temple Grandin is a 2010 American biographical drama film directed by Mick Jackson and starring Claire Danes as Temple Grandin, an autistic woman who revolutionized practices for the humane handling of livestock on cattle ranches and slaughterhouses.

Too Sane for This World

Too Sane for This World is a documentary series that was directed by William Davenport. The first film, Too Sane for This World, was released on September 1, 2011 and features an introduction by Dr. Temple Grandin. The second documentary, Citizen Autistic, was released on April 1, 2013.

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