The Temple Cup was a cup awarded to the winner of a best-of-seven, post-season play-offs championship tournament for American professional baseball for the National League of Professional Baseball Clubs (known as the National League - established earlier in 1876) and awarded four times from 1894 to 1897. The 30-inch-high (76.2 centimeters high) silver cup cost $800, ($22.3 thousand in 2018 dollars) and was donated by coal, citrus, and lumber baron William Chase Temple (1862-1917), a part-owner of the Pittsburgh Pirates at the time.
Much like the long running Stanley Cup of ice hockey in the National Hockey League and the Temple Cup's predecessor to the professional baseball team champions, the Dauvray Cup (1887-1893), (awarded seven times in the name of the donor, famed stage actress of the day, Helen Dauvray (1859-1923)), there was only one actual Temple Cup passed along to each baseball season's winning team and city.
Since there was only one major league at the time with the folding of the previous American Association 1882-1891, so the series was later played between the first and second-place teams of the surviving NL. The second-place team defeated the first-place team for the Cup in three of the four series that were played. The Temple Cup was also known as the World's Championship Series. If one team won three titles, that team would have permanent possession of the Cup, later given to the city of Baltimore.
Having moved over with several other AA strong franchises to join the senior National League after the 1891 folding of the American Association after ten seasons in the AA since 1882, the frequent champions and powerful scrappy teams of the Baltimore Orioles continued their winning ways from the old AA, capturing three NL pennants in a row (1894-1895-1896), and winning the Temple Cup also. Owner/manager Ned Hanlon (1857-1937), a Baltimorean and one of the most talented baseball men of the sport's early era ran the "Birds" with talented players like "Wee Willie" Keeler (1872-1923), Wilbert Robinson (1863-1934), and John McGraw (1873-1934). McGraw was later player/manager/owner with the early American League charter member team (and third to carry the Orioles name) of the new Baltimore Orioles of 1901-1902, one of the 8 original franchises in the new AL when reorganized in 1901, from the former Western League (on the minor level, 1885-1899) under activist first president Ban Johnson (1864-1931).
After the 1903 "peace pact" between the two major leagues, ending the "war" between them, recognizing each other as equal in stature, accepting a joint policy on player contracts and beginning a "best-of-seven" tournament of champions between them resulting in the modern inter-league World Series for the next century whose championship trophy replaced the old Temple Cup and soon exceeded its esteem. Also each league was allowed a franchise in the nation's largest city, so McGraw was responsible for the new AL Orioles team to move that year of 1903, after only two seasons in Baltimore to New York City to represent the AL, becoming the New York Highlanders, renamed a decade later as the New York Yankees. McGraw went on and later returned to the NL as owner/manager of the famous opposing New York team in the borough of The Bronx with the legendary New York Giants competitive in the early 20th century.
|Current location:||National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum, Cooperstown, New York|
|Last holder:||Baltimore Orioles|
|Most Cups:||Baltimore Orioles (2)|
In the 1880s, there had been postseason play between the winners of the National League and the American Association, but in 1892 the National League absorbed the Association, becoming a 12-team league, and played a split season. In 1893 the Pittsburgh Pirates finished second to the Boston Beaneaters. The Pirates' president, William Chase Temple, felt that his team should have the option of having a playoff series to claim the title. As a result, Temple had his $800 trophy minted and he donated it to the league. The revenue was to be split 65% to 35% between the winner and the loser, but the players of the first series (in 1894) agreed to split the money evenly. However, after the series the New York Giants cheated some Baltimore Orioles players out of their money, tainting the Cup and prompting Temple to sell the Pirates in disgust.
Lack of enthusiasm on the part of the players doomed the series; their apathy spread to the fans, few of whom attended Temple Cup games in later years. Interest in the series faded quickly, as it seemed artificial, with the second-place team winning three of the four series. The Baltimore Orioles appeared in every Temple Cup series, winning the last two and thus coming the closest to gaining permanent possession of the trophy. The last Temple Cup series was played in 1897. However, the concept was revived in 1900 with the Chronicle-Telegraph Cup.
After the Temple Cup series ended, the National League returned the trophy to Temple, whose Pirates team never finished higher than sixth place in the standings during the Cup's existence. In 1939, The Sporting News tracked down the Cup, finding it in the possession of a Temple family member in Florida. The Cup was displayed at the 1939 New York World's Fair. The Temple family later sold the Cup for $750 to the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum, where it remains today.
The Baltimore Orioles won their first National League pennant in 1894. They won 24 of their last 25 games. After the regular season's conclusion, the Orioles participated in the first Temple Cup competition against the second-place New York Giants. The Orioles lost to the Giants in a sweep, four games to none.
The Orioles roster contained six future Hall of Famers: Wilbert Robinson, John McGraw, Dan Brouthers, Hughie Jennings, Wee Willie Keeler and Joe Kelley. Every man in their starting line up hit .300 for the season. They bunted, hit-and-ran, Baltimore chopped, backed up throws, cut off throws, and had pitchers cover first. They also deadened balls by icing them, tilted baselines so bunts would roll fair, and put soap around the mound so opposing pitchers would get slippery fingers if he tried to dry his hands in the dirt.1894 New York Giants season
The 1894 New York Giants season was the franchise's 12th season. The team finished second in the National League pennant race with an 88-44 record, 3 games behind the Baltimore Orioles. After the regular season's conclusion, they participated in the first Temple Cup competition against the first-place Baltimore Orioles. The Giants won in a sweep, four games to none.1895 Baltimore Orioles season
The 1895 Baltimore Orioles season was a season in American baseball. The Orioles finished first in the National League, winning their second straight pennant. However, for the second straight year, they failed to win the Temple Cup, losing to the second-place Cleveland Spiders 4 games to 1.1895 Cleveland Spiders season
The 1895 Cleveland Spiders finished with an 84–46 record and a second-place finish in the National League. After the season they played the first-place Baltimore Orioles in the Temple Cup series, defeating them 4 games to 1.1896 Baltimore Orioles season
The Baltimore Orioles won their third straight National League pennant in 1896. After the season, they faced the Cleveland Spiders in the Temple Cup for the second year in a row. After losing 4 games to 1 in 1895, the Orioles swept the Spiders in four straight. The Orioles had now played in the Cup in each of its first three seasons, with this one being their first win.1896 Cleveland Spiders season
The 1896 Cleveland Spiders season was a season in American baseball. The team finished with an 80–48 record and a second-place finish in the National League. After the season they played the first-place Baltimore Orioles in the Temple Cup series. The same two teams had met the previous season, with the second-place Spiders beating the first-place Orioles 4 games to 1, but this year the results were reversed, as the Spiders were swept in four straight.1897 Baltimore Orioles season
The 1897 Baltimore Orioles season was a season in American baseball. After three straight first-place finishes, the Orioles slipped to second place with a record of 90–40, 2 games behind the National League-leading Boston Beaneaters. After the season, the two teams met in what would be the final Temple Cup competition, with the Orioles winning 4 games to 1. In all, Baltimore played in all four Temple Cups, losing the first two and winning the last two.1897 Boston Beaneaters season
The 1897 Boston Beaneaters season was the 27th season of the franchise. The Beaneaters won the National League pennant, their fourth of the decade and their seventh overall. After the season, the Beaneaters played in the Temple Cup for the first time. They lost the series to the second-place Baltimore Orioles, 4 games to 1.1898 Baltimore Orioles season
The 1898 Baltimore Orioles season was a season in American baseball. Although there was no Temple Cup after the season, the Orioles still finished second in the National League for the second straight year with a record of 96–53, 6 games behind the Boston Beaneaters. The Orioles set a Major League record which still stands, for the most batters hit by a pitch in a season, with 148.American Association (19th century)
The American Association (AA) was a professional baseball league that existed for 10 seasons from 1882 to 1891. Together with the National League (NL), founded in 1876, the AA participated in an early version of the World Series seven times versus the champion of the NL in an interleague championship playoff tournament. At the end of its run, several AA franchises joined the NL. After 1891, the NL existed alone, with each season's champions being awarded the prized Temple Cup (1894-1897).
During its existence, the AA was often simply referred to as "the Association" in the media, in contrast to the NL, which was sometimes called "the League".Baltimore Orioles (1882–1899)
The Baltimore Orioles were a 19th-century American Association and National League (organized 1876) team from 1882 to 1899. The early ball club, which featured numerous future Hall of Famers, finished in first place three consecutive years (1894–1895–1896) and won the "Temple Cup" national championship series in 1896 and 1897. Despite their success, the dominant Orioles were contracted out of the League after the 1899 season, when the N.L. reduced its number of teams and franchises from 12 to 8, with a list of teams and cities limited to just the northeastern United States which endured for the next half-century. This controversial action resulting in the elevation of the former Western League by leaders such as Ban Johnson (1864-1931), into a newly-organized American League in 1901 of which the new reorganized Baltimore Orioles were a prominent member for its first two seasons which "waged war" on the elder "Nationals".Cleveland Spiders
The Cleveland Spiders were a Major League Baseball team which played between 1887 and 1899 in Cleveland, Ohio. The team played at National League Park from 1889 to 1890 and at League Park from 1891 to 1899, being disbanded along with three other teams after a travesty of a season in which the team had a horrific 20-134 won-lost record most closely approached by the 1962 New York Mets.Commissioner's Trophy (MLB)
The Commissioner's Trophy is a trophy presented each year by the Commissioner of Baseball to the Major League Baseball team that wins the World Series. Recent trophy designs contain flags representing each team in North America's top two leagues, the National League and the American League. The two participating teams in that year's World Series were previously represented by two press pins set on the base of the trophy. It is the only championship trophy of the five major sports in North America that is not named after a particular person (contrasting with the National Hockey League's Stanley Cup, Major League Soccer's Philip F. Anschutz Trophy, the National Football League's Vince Lombardi Trophy, and the National Basketball Association's Larry O'Brien Trophy).Fred Hoey
Fred Hoey (1885 – November 17, 1949) was a major league baseball broadcaster. Hoey called games for the Boston Braves from 1925–38 and Boston Red Sox from 1927-38.
Hoey was born in Boston, but raised in Saxonville, Massachusetts. At the age of 12, Hoey saw his first baseball game during the 1897 Temple Cup. Hoey would later play semipro baseball and work as an usher at the Huntington Avenue Grounds.In 1903, Hoey was hired as a sportswriter, writing about high school sports, baseball, and hockey. In 1924, he became the first publicity director of the Boston Bruins. Hoey began broadcasting Braves games in 1925 and Red Sox games in 1927, becoming the first full-time announcer for both teams.
In 1933, Hoey was hired by CBS Radio to call Games 1 and 5 of the World Series after commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis declared that Ted Husing and Graham McNamee could not call World Series games because they did not call any regular season games. Hoey was removed from the CBS broadcasting booth during the fourth inning of game one after his voice went out. Although reported as a cold, Hoey's garbled and incoherent words led many to think that Hoey was drunk. After this incident, Hoey never went to the broadcast booth without a tin of throat lozenges. His only other national assignment was calling the 1936 Major League Baseball All-Star Game, played in Boston, for Mutual.
After the 1936 season, Hoey was fired by the head of the Yankee Network, John Shepard III. Baseball fans, including Franklin D. Roosevelt rallied to his defense. After the 1938 season, Hoey demanded a raise, but the sponsors, despite public pressure, replaced Hoey with former player and manager Frankie Frisch. After leaving the booth, Hoey covered the Red Sox and Braves in Boston newspapers until 1946.Hoey died in Winthrop, Massachusetts, on November 17, 1949, of accidental gas asphyxiation.Joe Corbett
Joseph Aloysius Corbett (December 4, 1875 – May 2, 1945) was a Major League Baseball starting pitcher who played in the National League. He was born in San Francisco, California.Corbett, the younger brother of World Heavyweight Boxing Champion James J. Corbett, played baseball at Saint Mary's College of California from 1890 to 1893 before breaking into the major leagues in 1895. He went 3–0 with a 2.20 earned run average for the Baltimore Orioles in 1896 and then won two games in the Temple Cup series. He had his best season in 1897 when he posted career-highs in wins (24), strikeouts (149), ERA (3.11), starts (37), complete games (34) and innings pitched (313.0). However, Corbett had gotten angry over a dispute with manager Ned Hanlon, and he refused to report to the team the following season. Hanlon welched on a bet and refused to buy Corbett a new suit for winning 20 games.For the next five years, Corbett was a sportswriter for the San Francisco Call and pitched semi-professional ball. He signed with the Pacific Coast League's Los Angeles Angels in 1903. It was the league's inaugural season, and the Angels won the pennant by 27.5 games. Corbett went 23–16, 2.36, led the PCL in strikeouts (196), and tied for the lead in shutouts (8). He also hit .336 in 262 at-bats. Corbett went back to the majors in 1904 with the St. Louis Cardinals, where went 5–8, 4.39. Arm trouble developed because of rheumatism and he was released in August. He then joined the PCL's San Francisco Seals and went 14–10 with a 1.86 ERA during the rest of the season. He also pitched for the Seals in 1905 and then retired except for a brief comeback attempt in 1909.
He later coached baseball at Santa Clara University.Corbett died in San Francisco at age of 69. He was interred in the Holy Cross Cemetery in Colma, California.List of National League pennant winners
Each season, a National League team wins the league's pennant, signifying that they are its champion and they win the right to play in the World Series against the champion of the American League. In addition to the pennant, the team that wins the National League playoffs receives the Warren C. Giles Trophy, named after Warren Giles, who was the league president from 1951 to 1969. Warren's son Bill Giles, the honorary league president and owner of the Philadelphia Phillies, presents the trophy to the National League champion at the conclusion of each National League Championship Series (NLCS). The current National League pennant winners are the Los Angeles Dodgers, who won their second-consecutive NL pennant in October 2018.For most of the history of the National League (94 years), the pennant was presented to the team with the best win–loss record at the end of the season. The first modern World Series was played in 1903, and after a hiatus in 1904, continued until 1994, when a players' strike forced the cancellation of the postseason, and resumed in 1995. In 1969, the league split into two divisions, and the teams with the best records in each division played one another in the NLCS to determine the pennant winner. The format of the NLCS was changed from a best-of-five to a best-of-seven format for the 1985 postseason. In 1995, an additional playoff series was added when Major League Baseball restructured the two divisions in each league into three. As of 2010, the winners of the Eastern, Central, and Western Divisions, as well as one wild card team, play in the National League Division Series, a best-of-five playoff to determine the opponents who will play for the pennant.By pennants, the Los Angeles Dodgers (formerly the Brooklyn Dodgers; 23 pennants, 31 playoff appearances) and the San Francisco Giants (formerly the New York Giants) (23 pennants, 27 playoff appearances) are tied for the winningest teams in the National League. In third place is the St. Louis Cardinals (19 pennants and 28 playoff appearances), followed by the Atlanta Braves (17 pennants and 23 postseason appearances between their three home cities of Atlanta, Milwaukee, and Boston) and the Chicago Cubs (17 pennants and 20 playoff appearances [as the Cubs and White Stockings]). The Philadelphia Phillies won the league in back-to-back seasons in 2008 and 2009, becoming the first National League team to do so since the Braves in 1995 and 1996. The Los Angeles Dodgers would also win the league in back-to-back seasons in 2017 and 2018. Before 1903 there was no World Series as we know it today because the leagues were only loosely affiliated. As of 2018, the New York/San Francisco Giants and the Brooklyn/Los Angeles Dodgers have the most World Series appearances at 20, followed by the St. Louis Cardinals with 19.
The team with the best record to win the National League pennant was the 1906 Cubs, who won 116 of 152 games during that season and finished 20 games ahead of the Giants, playing in New York at the time. The best record by a pennant-winner in the Championship Series era is 108–54, which was achieved by the Cincinnati Reds in 1975 and the New York Mets in 1986; both of these teams went on to win the World Series.National League champions have gone on to win the World Series 48 times, most recently in 2016. Pennant-winners have also won the Temple Cup and the Chronicle-Telegraph Cup, two pre-World Series league championships, although second-place teams won three of the four Temple Cup meetings. The largest margin of victory for a pennant-winner, before the league split into two divisions in 1969, is 27 1⁄2 games; the Pittsburgh Pirates led the Brooklyn Superbas (now the Dodgers) by that margin on the final day of the 1902 season.The only currently-existing National League team to have never won a pennant is the Washington Nationals (formerly the Montreal Expos). While the Milwaukee Brewers have never won a National League pennant, they did win a pennant during their time in the American League.List of pre-World Series baseball champions
The modern World Series, the current championship series of Major League Baseball, began in 1903, and was established as an annual event in 1905. Before the formation of the American Association (AA), there were no playoff rounds—all championships went to the team with the best record at the end of the season. In the initial season of the National League (NL) in 1876, there was controversy as to which team was the champion: the Chicago White Stockings, who had the best overall record (52–14), or the St. Louis Brown Stockings (45–19), who were the only team to have a winning record against every other franchise in the league. The teams agreed to play a five-game "Championship of the West" series, won by St. Louis, 4 games to 1. Beginning in 1884, the championship series between the National League and the American Association were promoted and referred to as the "World's Championship Series" (WCS), or "World's Series" for short; however, they are not officially recognized by Major League Baseball as part of World Series history. Though early publications, such as Ernest Lanigan's Baseball Cyclopedia and Turkin and Thompson's Encyclopedia of Baseball, listed the 19th-century games on an equal basis with those of the 20th century, Sporting News publications about the World Series, which began in the 1920s, ignored the 19th-century games, as did most publications about the Series after 1960. Major League Baseball, in general, regards 19th-century events as a prologue to the modern era of baseball, which is defined by the emergence of the two present major leagues.
In the second year of the WCS, a dispute in the 1885 series concerned Game 2, which was forfeited by the St. Louis Browns when they pulled their team off the field protesting an umpiring decision. The managers, Cap Anson and Charles Comiskey, initially agreed to disregard the game. When St. Louis won the final game and an apparent 3–2 series championship, Chicago owner Albert Spalding overruled his manager and declared that he wanted the forfeit counted. The result of a tied WCS was that neither team got the prize money that had been posted by the owners before the series (and was returned to them after they both agreed it was a tie). Following the collapse of the AA in 1891, four of its clubs were admitted to the National League. The league championship was awarded in 1892 by a playoff between half-season champions. This scheme was abandoned after one season. Beginning in 1893—and continuing until divisional play was introduced in 1969—the pennant was awarded to the first-place club in the standings at the end of the season. For four seasons, the league champions played the runners-up in the postseason championship series called the Temple Cup. A second attempt at this format was the Chronicle-Telegraph Cup series in 1900.Temple Terrace, Florida
Temple Terrace is an incorporated city in northeastern Hillsborough County, Florida, United States, adjacent to Tampa. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 24,541. It is the third and smallest incorporated municipality in Hillsborough County. (Tampa and Plant City are the others.) Incorporated in 1925, the community is known for its rolling landscape, bucolic Hillsborough River views, and majestic trees; it has the most grand sand live oak trees of any place in central Florida and is a Tree City USA. Temple Terrace was originally planned as a 1920s Mediterranean-Revival golf course community and is one of the first such communities in the United States (planned in 1920).
Temple Terrace was named for the then-new hybrid, the Temple orange, also called the tangor. It is a cross between the mandarin orange — also called the tangerine — and the common sweet orange; it was named after Florida-born William Chase Temple, one-time owner of the Pittsburgh Pirates, founder of the Temple Cup, and first president of the Florida Citrus Exchange. Temple Terrace was the first place in the United States where the new Temple orange was grown in large quantities. The "terrace" portion of the name refers to the terraced terrain of the area by the river where the city was founded. One of the original houses also had a terraced yard with a lawn sloping, in tiers, toward the river.William Chase Temple
William Chase Temple (December 28, 1862 – January 9, 1917) was a coal, citrus, and lumber baron during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He was also a part owner of the Pittsburgh Pirates in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania from baseball's National League of Professional Baseball Clubs (later known worldwide as simply as the National League), established 1876. He also established the Temple Cup, a silver trophy awarded to the winner of a best-of-seven, post-season Major League Baseball championship series that was conducted for four seasons in the National League, from 1894 to 1897. He became the first sole owner of a professional American football team, in 1898.
|National League Pennants|
|Pre-World Series Champions (2)|
|Temple Cup Champions (1)|
|World Series Champions (8)|
|Division titles (8)|
|Wild card (3)|
|Minor league affiliates|
|World's Championship Series|
|Division titles (18)|
|Wild card berths (2)|
|World Series |
|League pennants (9)|
|Division titles (9)|
|Wild Card berths (3)|