Temperate coniferous forest

Temperate coniferous forest is a terrestrial habitat type defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature. Temperate coniferous forests are found predominantly in areas with warm summers and cool winters, and vary in their kinds of plant life. In some, needleleaf trees dominate, while others are home primarily to broadleaf evergreen trees or a mix of both tree types.[1] A separate habitat type, the tropical coniferous forests, occurs in more tropical climates.

Temperate coniferous forests are common in the coastal areas of regions that have mild winters and heavy rainfall, or inland in drier climates or montane areas. Many species of trees inhabit these forests including pine, cedar, fir, and redwood. The understory also contains a wide variety of herbaceous and shrub species. Temperate coniferous forests sustain the highest levels of biomass in any terrestrial ecosystem and are notable for trees of massive proportions in temperate rainforest regions.[1]

Structurally, these forests are rather simple, consisting of 2 layers generally: an overstory and understory. However, some forests may support a layer of shrubs. Pine forests support an herbaceous groundlayer that may be dominated by grasses and forbs that lend themselves to ecologically important wildfires. In contrast, the moist conditions found in temperate rain forests favor the dominance by ferns and some forbs.[1]

Temperate rain forests only occur in 7 regions around the world - the Pacific Northwest, the Validivian forests of southwestern South America, the rain forests of New Zealand and Tasmania, the Northeastern Atlantic (small, isolated pockets in Ireland, Scotland, and Iceland), southwestern Japan, and those of the eastern Black Sea).[1][2]

Forest communities dominated by huge trees (e.g., giant sequoia, Sequoiadendron gigantea; redwood, Sequoia sempervirens; mountain ash, Eucalyptus regnans), an unusual ecological phenomena, occur in western North America, southwestern South America, as well as in the Australasian region in such areas as southeastern Australia and northern New Zealand.[1]

The Klamath-Siskiyou ecoregion of western North America harbors diverse and unusual assemblages and displays notable endemism for a number of plant and animal taxa.[1][3]

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A pine forest is an example of a temperate coniferous forest

Ecoregions

Eurasia

Bor lowland typical forest
Carpathian montane conifer forest, Slovakia.
Palearctic temperate coniferous forests
Alps conifer and mixed forests Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Slovenia, Switzerland
Altai montane forest and forest steppe China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Russia
Caledon conifer forests United Kingdom
Carpathian montane conifer forests Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine
Da Hinggan-Dzhagdy Mountains conifer forests China, Russia
East Afghan montane conifer forests Afghanistan, Pakistan
Elburz Range forest steppe Iran
Helanshan montane conifer forests China
Hengduan Mountains subalpine conifer forests China
Hokkaido montane conifer forests Japan
Honshū alpine conifer forests Japan
Khangai Mountains conifer forests Mongolia, Russia
Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests Algeria, Morocco, Spain, Tunisia
Northeastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests China, India, Bhutan
Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests Turkey
Nujiang Langcang Gorge alpine conifer and mixed forests China
Qilian Mountains conifer forests China
Qionglai-Minshan conifer forests China
Sayan montane conifer forests Mongolia, Russia
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway
Tian Shan montane conifer forests China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan
Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests Bhutan, India, Nepal
Western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests India, Nepal, Pakistan

North America

Petroglyphs Forest
A temperate coniferous forest ecosystem in Petroglyphs Provincial Park, Ontario.
Nearctic temperate coniferous forests
Alberta Mountain forests Canada
Alberta-British Columbia foothills forests Canada
Arizona Mountains forests United States
Atlantic coastal pine barrens United States
Blue Mountains forests United States
British Columbia mainland coastal forests Canada, United States
Cascade Mountains leeward forests Canada, United States
Central and Southern Cascades forests United States
Central British Columbia Mountain forests Canada
Central Pacific coastal forests Canada, United States
Colorado Rockies forests United States
Eastern Cascades forests Canada, United States
Fraser Plateau and Basin complex Canada
Florida Scrub United States
Great Basin montane forests United States
Klamath-Siskiyou forests United States
Maritime Coast Range Ponderosa Pine forests United States
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States
North Central Rockies forests Canada, United States
Northern California coastal forests United States
Northern Pacific coastal forests Canada, United States
Northern transitional alpine forests Canada
Okanogan dry forests Canada, United States
Piney Woods forests United States
Puget lowland forests Canada, United States
Haida Gwaii Canada
Sierra Nevada forests United States
South Central Rockies forests United States
Southeastern conifer forests United States
Wasatch and Uinta montane forests United States
Sierra de Manantlán Biosphere Reserve[4] Mexico
Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve Mexico

South America

Araucaria montane forests Argentina, Chile
Austrocedrus forests Argentina, Chile
Fitzroya forests Argentina, Chile
Araucaria moist forests Brazil, Argentina

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f  This article incorporates text available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license. World Wide Fund for Nature. "Temperate Coniferous Forest Ecoregions". Archived from the original on 2011-01-02.
  2. ^ Kellogg, E; Weigand, J; Mitchell, A; Morgan, D (1992). "Coastal temperate rain forests: ecological characteristics, status and distribution worldwide". Portland, Oregon, USA: Ecotrust & Conservation International. Occasional Paper Series No. 1.
  3. ^ Kauffmann, Michael (2012). Conifer Country. Kneeland: Backcountry Press. ISBN 978-0-578-09416-8.
  4. ^ https://www.biodiversidad.gob.mx/ecosistemas/bosqueTemplado.html
  • Waring, Richard H (2002). "Temperate coniferous forest" (PDF). Volume 2, The Earth system: biological and ecological dimensions of global environmental change. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. pp. 560–565. Retrieved April 18, 2012.

External links

Arabis macdonaldiana

Arabis macdonaldiana is a species of flowering plant in the mustard family known by the common name MacDonald's rockcress. It is native to northern California and Oregon, where it grows on newly exposed, barren serpentine soils in openings in temperate coniferous forest habitat. It is a rare and endangered plant known from several sites in California and approximately two occurrences in Oregon, where it is threatened mainly by mining, particularly of nickel, which is one of several metals plentiful in the serpentine. On September 29, 1978, this was the second plant to be federally listed as an endangered species.This is a perennial herb growing one or more slender stems from a small, branching caudex, reaching 10 to 30 centimeters tall. There is a basal patch of leaves with edges lined in small, widely spaced teeth which are sometimes tipped with spines. The leaves may lack teeth and have wavy margins. There may also be a few smaller leaves along the stem. The top of the stem forms an inflorescence of a few flowers, each with four bright rose-purple petals. The fruit is a flat, straight silique about 3 centimeters long which contains several oblong little seeds.

Ayubia National Park

Ayubia National Park (Urdu: ایوبیہ ملی باغ‎), also known as Ayubia (Urdu: ایوبیہ‎), is a protected area of 3,312 hectares (33 km2) located in Abbottabad District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan. It was declared a national park in 1984. Ayubia was named after Muhammad Ayub Khan (1958–1969), second President of Pakistan. The area supports temperate coniferous forest and temperate broadleaf and mixed forest ecoregion habitats, with an average elevation of 8,000 feet (2,400 m) above sea level.Ayubia National Park is surrounded by seven major villages and three small towns of Thandiani, Nathiagali and Khanspur. The park has been developed as a resort complex from a combination of four mini resorts of Khaira Gali, Changla Gali, Khanspur and Ghora Dhaka in Galyat. Currently, it is managed by the Wildlife and Parks Department of Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

British Columbia Mainland Coastal Forests (WWF ecoregion)

British Columbia mainland coastal forests is a temperate coniferous forest ecoregion the Pacific coast of North America, as defined by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) categorization system.

Bromus vulgaris

Bromus vulgaris is a species of brome grass known by the common name Columbia brome.

It is native to western North America from British Columbia to California to Wyoming, where it grows in many types of habitat, including temperate coniferous forest. It is a perennial grass which may reach 1.1 meters in height. The inflorescence is an open array of spikelets, the lower ones drooping or nodding. The spikelets are flattened and have awns each up to a centimeter long at the tips of the fruits. This grass is considered a good forage for livestock and wild grazing animals.

Calamagrostis bolanderi

Calamagrostis bolanderi is a species of grass known by the common name Bolander's reedgrass.

It is endemic to northern California, where it grows in moist coastal habitat such as temperate coniferous forest, wet meadows and bogs, and coastal scrub. This is a perennial grass growing to heights between 0.5 and 1.5 meters, each erect stem generally with four nodes. It has flat leaves and open, spreading inflorescences of very small spikelets. Each spikelet is made up of one floret surrounded by a v-shaped pair of smooth bracts.

Campanula wilkinsiana

Campanula wilkinsiana is a rare species of bellflower known by the common name Wilkins' bellflower. It is endemic to California, where it is known fewer than twenty scattered occurrences in the Klamath Mountains and Cascade Range, and possibly the northern peaks of the High Sierra. It grows in temperate coniferous forest and mountain meadows. This is a perennial herb growing from a slender rhizome and producing an erect or leaning stem up to about 30 centimeters long. The plant is known to form dense colonies of many individuals. The thin, toothed leaves are between 1 and 2 centimeters long. The flower is bright blue to deep purple, funnel-shaped, and just over a centimeter long. The stigma is blue and protrudes from the mouth of the bloom.

Ceanothus sanguineus

Ceanothus sanguineus is a species of shrub in the buckthorn family Rhamnaceae known by the common name redstem ceanothus. It is native to western North America from British Columbia to Montana to far northern California; it is also known from Michigan. It grows in temperate coniferous forest habitat in forest openings amidst the conifers. This is an erect shrub approaching 3 meters in maximum height. Its stem is red to purple in color, its woody parts green and hairless when new. The deciduous leaves are alternately arranged and up to about 10 centimeters long. They are thin, light green, oval, and generally edged with glandular teeth. The undersides are sometimes hairy. The inflorescence is a cluster of white flowers up to about 12 centimeters long. The fruit is a three-lobed smooth capsule about 4 millimeters long. This shrub is an important food plant for wild ungulates such as the Rocky Mountain Elk, it is browsed eagerly by many types of livestock, and the seed is consumed by many types of animals.

Colorado Rockies forests

The Colorado Rockies forests is a temperate coniferous forest ecoregion of the United States.

Delphinium inopinum

Delphinium inopinum is a species of larkspur known by the common name unexpected larkspur. It is endemic to the Sierra Nevada of California, where it is known mostly from rocky areas in open temperate coniferous forest habitat.

Honshū alpine conifer forests

The Honshū alpine conifer forests ecoregion covers 4,400 square miles (11,000 km2) in the high-elevation mountains of central Honshū and the Oshima Peninsula of Hokkaidō, Japan. It is a temperate coniferous forest ecoregion in the Palearctic ecozone.

Intermountain West

The Intermountain West, or Intermountain Region, is a geographic and geological region of the Western United States. It is located between the front ranges of the Rocky Mountains on the east and the Cascade Range and Sierra Nevada on the west.

Ivesia longibracteata

Ivesia longibracteata is a rare species of flowering plant in the rose family known by the common names Castle Crags ivesia and longbract mousetail. It is endemic to Shasta County, California, where it is known only from Castle Crags. It grows in rocky granite habitat in the temperate coniferous forest.

Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests

Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests is an ecoregion, in the temperate coniferous forest biome, which occupies the high mountain ranges of North Africa and southern Spain. The term is also a botanically recognized plant association in the African and Mediterranean literature.

Middle Atlantic coastal forests

The Middle Atlantic coastal forests are a temperate coniferous forest mixed with patches of evergreen broadleaved forests (closer to the Atlantic coast) along the coast of the southeastern United States.

North Central Rockies forest

The North Central Rockies forests is a temperate coniferous forest ecoregion of Canada and the United States. This region gets more rain on average than the South Central Rockies forests and is notable for containing the only inland populations of many species from the Pacific coast.

Piney Woods

The Piney Woods is a temperate coniferous forest terrestrial ecoregion in the Southern United States covering 54,400 square miles (141,000 km2) of East Texas, southern Arkansas, western Louisiana, and southeastern Oklahoma. These coniferous forests are dominated by several species of pine as well as hardwoods including hickory and oak. Historically the most dense part of this forest region was the Big Thicket though the lumber industry dramatically reduced the forest concentration in this area and throughout the Piney Woods during the 19th and 20th centuries. The World Wide Fund for Nature considers the Piney Woods to be one of the critically endangered ecoregions of the United States. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines most of this ecoregion as the South Central Plains.

South Central Rockies forests

The South Central Rockies forests is a temperate coniferous forest ecoregion of the United States located mainly in Wyoming, Idaho, and Montana. It has a considerably drier climate than the North Central Rockies forest.

Wasatch and Uinta montane forests

The Wasatch and Uinta montane forest is a temperate coniferous forest ecoregion in the Wasatch Range and Uinta Mountains of the western Rocky Mountains system, in the Western United States.

Zaborze, Cieszyn County

Zaborze [zaˈbɔʐɛ] is a village in Gmina Chybie, Cieszyn County, Silesian Voivodeship, southern Poland. It has a population of 1,005 (2008). It lies in the historical region of Cieszyn Silesia.

The name is of topographic origin and literally means [a place] behind a bór (bór is a Polish name for temperate coniferous forest). In the 17th century it was known as Podpierściec (see a nearby village of Pierściec).

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Biogeographic
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See also

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