Temperate climate

In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.[1] These zones generally have wider temperature ranges throughout the year and more distinct seasonal changes compared to tropical climates, where such variations are often small. They typically feature four distinct seasons, Summer the warmest, Autumn the transitioning season to Winter, the colder season, and Spring the transitioning season from winter back into summer. On the northern hemisphere the year starts with winter, transitions in the first halfyear through spring into summer which is in mid-year, then at the second halfyear through autumn into winter at year-end. On the southern hemisphere seasons are swapped with summer in between years and winter in mid-year.

The temperate zones (latitudes from 23.5° to the polar circles at about 66.5°, north and south) are where the widest seasonal changes occur, with most climates found in it having some influence from both the tropics and the poles. The subtropics (latitudes from about 23.5° to 35°, north and south) have temperate climates that have the least seasonal change and the warmest in winter, while at the other end, Boreal climates located from 55 to 65 north latitude have the most seasonal changes and long and severe winters.

In temperate climates, not only due latitudinal positions influence temperature changes, but sea currents, prevailing wind direction, continentality (how large a landmass is), and altitude also shape temperate climates.

The Köppen climate classification defines a climate as "temperate" when the mean temperature is above −3 °C (26.6 °F) but below 18 °C (64.4 °F) in the coldest month. However, in more recent climate classifications climatologists the 0 °C (32.0 °F) line .[2][3]

World map indicating tropics and subtropics
The different geographical zones of the world. The temperate zones span from either north or south of the subtropics (north of the yellow dotted line, at 40 degrees north) to the polar circles.

Zones and climates

The north temperate zone extends from (approximately 23.5° north) to the Arctic Circle (approximately 66.5° north latitude). The south temperate zone extends from (approximately 23.5° south) to the Antarctic Circle (at approximately 66.5° south).[4][5]

In some climate classifications, the temperate zone is often divided into several smaller climate zones, based on monthly temperatures, the coldest month, and rainfall. These include humid subtropical climate, Mediterranean climate, oceanic, and continental climate.

Subtropics

These are the climates that are typically found at southernmost portion of the temperate zone between 23.5° and 35° north or south, and thus are far more influenced by the tropics than any other tepid climate type, usually having warmer temperatures over the year, longer summers and mild, short winters. Freezing precipatation is less common in this portion of the temperate zone.

Humid Subtropical (Cfa)

Koppen World Map Cwa Cfa
Regions where the Humid (Cfa) and Dry-Winter Subtropical (Cwa) climates are found.

Humid Subtropical climates generally have no marked dry season with rainfall and relative humidity evenly distributed over the year, influenced by Humid Tropical regions and by warm ocean currents. They are predominant on the leeward southeastern corners of the continents such as in southeast of South America (Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil), China, The United States, South Africa, eastern Australia and parts of southern Europe namely the Pó Valley of northern Italy.

Monsoonal Subtropical (Cwa)

Monsoonal Subtropical climates are the ones with a marked winter dry/drier season with rainfall usually on the warmest months with the coming of monsoons from humid tropical zones. Are usually found at the edges of predominantly Humid Subtropical regions nearby Arid and Semi-Arid climates, less influenced by the humid tropics and warm oceans, such as southeastern China and Northern India or High altitude areas in the Tropical and Subtropical zone, such as the highlands of Mexico, South America and Sub-saharan Africa

Mediterranean (Csa)

Koppen World Map C
Regions where the Dry Summer Subtropical or Mediterranean Climates are found.

Mediterranean Climates, opposite to the monsoonal variety have a dry summer, with rainfall on the winter and cooler months. They occur mostly at the western edges and coasts of the continents and are bounded by arid deserts on their equatorward sides that cause the dry season of summer, and oceanic climates to the poleward sides that are influenced by warm and humid ocean currents and air masses that bring the rainfall of winter. The five main mediterranean regions of the world are the Mediterranean Sea basin in northwestern Afro-Eurasia, the west coast of North America specially California, the southwest of South America namely Argentina and Chile, the Western Cape of South Africa and the south and southwestern coast of Australia.

Subtropical/Tropical Highland (Cfb, Cwb, Csb)

These are variants of the subtropical climates found in high altitude plateaus or montane systems either in the tropics or subtropics, they have characteristically mild temperatures year round, featuring the four seasons in the subtropics and no marked seasons in the tropics, the latter usually remaining mild to cool through most of the year.

Middle-Latitudes

These occur in the middle latitudes, between 35° and 55° north and south and are the ones with the most of practically equal influence from the equator and the poles, and the most characteristic temperate climates with the typical distinct four season pattern. In these the temperatures remain relatively cool through most of the year as opposed to mild and warm in the subtropics and cold in the subpoles.

Oceanic (Cfb)

The Oceanic climates are created by the onshore flow from the cool high latitude oceans to their west. This causes the climate to have cool summers and cool (but not cold) winters, and relative humidity and precipitation evenly distributed along the year. These climates are frequently cloudy, and are fairly milder both in winter and summer in comparison to other temperate climates. Annual rainfall is spread throughout the entire year. Regions with this climate include Northwestern Europe, Northwestern North America, southeastern and southwestern South America, southeastern Australia and most of New Zealand.

Continental (Dfa, Dwa, Dsa, Dfb, Dwb, Dsb)

The Continental climates, as opposed to the oceanic climates have strikingly extreme seasonal differences. With less moderating effect from ocean currents and more influence from tropical and polar large-size continental land air-masses they feature more extreme temperatures in each respective season, with summers getting as hot as those of subtropical or tropical climates and winters as cold as in subpolar climates. They are almost exclusively found only on the northern hemisphere, because this is where there is a large enough landmass to generate extremes in seasonal temperatures. This climate type is found in northeast Asia, the north-central and north- eastern United States and southern Canada, and Eurasia, in eastern, central and northern Europe.

Supolars

These are temperate climates that opposite to the subtropicals are on the poleward edge of the temperate zone, therefore still have four marked seasons including a warmer one, but are far more influenced by the poles than any other but the very polar climates (Tundra and Icecap).

Subpolar-Oceanic (Cfc, Cwc, Csc)

Areas with subpolar oceanic climates feature an oceanic climate but are usually located closer to polar regions. As a result of their location, these regions tend to be on the cool end of oceanic climates. Snowfall tends to be more common here than in other oceanic climates. Subpolar oceanic climates are less prone to temperature extremes than subarctic climates or continental climates, featuring milder winters than these climates. This variant of an oceanic climate is found in parts of coastal Iceland, the Faroe Islands, parts of Scotland, northwestern coastal areas of Norway such as Lofoten and reaching to 70°N on some islands, uplands near the coast of southwestern Norway, the Aleutian Islands of Alaska and northern parts of the Alaskan Panhandle, the far south of Chile and Argentina, and a few highland areas of Tasmania, and the Australian and Southern Alps. This type of climate is even found in the very remote parts of the Papuan Highlands in Indonesia. The classification used for this regime is Cfc. In the most marine of those areas affected by this regime, temperatures above 20 °C (68 °F) are extreme weather events, even in the midst of summer. Temperatures above 30 °C (86 °F) have been recorded on rare occasions in some areas of this climate, and in winter temperatures down to −20 °C (−4 °F) have seldom been recorded in some areas.

Boreal/Subarctic (Dfc, Dwc, Dsc, Dfd, Dwd, Dsd)

Mostly north of Humid Continental zones this climate features extremely cold and long winters, with short mild summers. In very small areas at high altitudes around the Mediterranean Basin, Iran, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Alaska and other parts of the northwestern United States (Eastern Washington, Eastern Oregon and Southern Idaho) and Russian South-Eastern regions the climate is classified as Dsc with a dry summer climate, such as in Seneca, Oregon or Atlin, British Columbia. This is the closest to the polar climates of all four-season temperate climates as practically all of the year is set up by extremely low temperatures, except for summer.

Human aspects

Demography, fauna and flora

The vast majority of the world's human population resides in temperate zones, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, due to its greater mass of land.[6] The biggest described number in temperate region in the world is found in southern Africa, where some 24,000 taxa (species and infraspecific taxa) have been described, but the native fauna and flora of this region does not have much cultural importance for the majority of the human population of the world that lives in Temperate Zones and that live in the Northern Hemisphere, only environmental importance.[7]

Agriculture

Farming is a large-scale practice in the temperate regions (except for Boreal/Subarctic regions) due to the plentiful rainfall and warm summers, because most agricultural activity occurs in the spring and summer, cold winters have a small effect on agricultural production. Extreme winters or summers have a huge impact on the productivity of agriculture.[8]

Urbanization

Temperate regions have the majority of the world's population, which leads to large cities. There are a couple factors why the climate of large city landscapes differs from the climate of rural areas. One factor is the strength of the absorption rate of builds and asphalt, which is higher than natural land. The other large factor is the burning of fossil fuels from buildings and vehicles. These factors have led to the average climate of cities to be warmer than surrounding areas.[8]

Misconceptions

"Temperate Climate" refers to climates between Polar and Tropical. However, there is a gradual change from polar to tropical climates across the middle latitude temperate zones. Normally the northern portions of the temperate zone feature Boreal, Continental, and Oceanic climates, while the southern portions of the temperate zone are often Mediterranean and humid subtropical climates. These different climates all fall within the temperate zone which has a basic definition as being any climate with a mean temperature above −3 °C (26.6 °F) but below 18 °C (64.4 °F) in the coldest month. Obviously winter temperatures will be more mild in southerly portions and colder in the more northerly portions of the northern temperate zone and vice-versa in the southern temperate zone.

From a floristic standpoint, each of these climate zones have generally temperate vegetation. There is however, an obvious change in flora from the far northern portions of the temperate zone (Boreal) to the far southern portion (humid subtropical). Pines and conifers are endemic and more abundant in the northern portion of the temperate, while palms may be endemic to far southern portions of the temperate zone. Along with this, the humid subtropical climate may be wrongly separated from the Temperate group of climates, and further associated with the Tropical climates, much because of its name, temperatures and the vegetation found in Subtropical zones which can be somewhat similar to that of Tropical regions (For instance the Atlantic Forest of Brazil is spread across both Temperate and Tropical zones of the country). Additionally, both temperate and tropical species can be found side by side in the far southern portions of the temperate zone (for example in central Florida), while subarctic species might be found growing in northern portions of the continental zone (for example in Northwest Europe).

See also

References

  1. ^ "Weather & Climate Change: Climates around the world". Education Scotland. Archived from the original on 14 April 2016.
  2. ^ "Latitude & Climate Zones". The Environmental Literacy Council. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
  3. ^ "Patterns of Climate". Weather-climate.org.uk. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
  4. ^ McColltoll, R. W. (2005). Encyclopedia of World Geography, Volume 1. Facts on File Library of World Geography. New York: Facts on File. p. 919. ISBN 0-816-05786-9.
  5. ^ "Solar Illumination: Seasonal and Diurnal Patterns". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 4 October 2012.
  6. ^ Cohen, Joel E.; Small, Christopher (24 November 1998). "Hypsographic demography: The distribution of human population by altitude". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 95 (24): 14009–14014. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.24.14009. PMC 24316. PMID 9826643.
  7. ^ Germishuizen, Gerrit; Meyer, N. L., eds. (January 2003). Plants of Southern Africa: An Annotated Checklist (PDF). Strelitzia. 14. Pretoria: National Botanical Institute. ISBN 978-1-919795-99-7.
  8. ^ a b Burroughs, William James (1999). The Climate Revealed. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-521-77081-1.
Boreal Kingdom

The Boreal Kingdom or Holarctic Kingdom (Holarctis) is a floristic kingdom identified by botanist Ronald Good (and later by Armen Takhtajan), which includes the temperate to Arctic portions of North America and Eurasia. Its flora is inherited from the ancient supercontinent of Laurasia. However, parts of the floristic kingdom (and most of its Circumboreal Region) were glaciated during the Pleistocene and as a consequence have a very young flora. Cenozoic relicts found refuge in the southern and mountainous parts of the kingdom, especially in the Eastern Asiatic Region and southern North American Atlantic Region.

Good noted that many plant species of temperate North America and Eurasia were very closely related, despite their separation by the Atlantic Ocean and the Bering Strait.

Millions of years ago, before the opening of the Atlantic Ocean, North America and Eurasia were joined as a single continent, Laurasia. After the opening of the Atlantic, the continents were connected to one another periodically via land bridges linking Alaska and Siberia. Until a few million years ago, the global climate was warmer than at present, especially at higher latitudes, and many temperate climate species were distributed across North America and Eurasia via Alaska and Siberia. The sharply cooler climate of the past few million years eliminated a temperate-zone connection between North America and Eurasia, but common Laurasian origins and a long history of temperate-climate land bridges account for the botanical similarities between the temperate floras on the two continents.

A floristic kingdom is the botanical analogue to an ecozone, which takes into account the distribution of animal as well as plant species. Many biogeographers distinguish the Boreal Kingdom as comprising two ecozones, the Nearctic (North America) and Palearctic (North Africa and Eurasia). Others, based on the distribution of related plant and animal families, include the Palearctic and Nearctic in a single Holarctic ecozone, which corresponds to Good's Boreal Kingdom.

Borovo, Ruse Province

Borovo (Bulgarian: Борово) is a town in Ruse Province, Northern Bulgaria. It is the administrative centre of the homonymous Borovo Municipality. As of December 2009, the town has a population of 2,330 inhabitants.The name Borovo comes from the Bulgarian word ‘Bor’ which means ‘pine’ (Bulgarian: Бор). The municipality has a temperate climate, with warm summers and cold winters.

Unique objects from a Thracian silver treasure (known as the Borovo Treasure) and a Thracian tomb of c. 4 BC have been discovered on the town's territory. There are evidences of the presence of an old Roman road discovered between the villages of Batin and Gorno Ablanovo near Borovo.

Khristo Markov, who became an Olympic champion in triple jump in 1988, was born in Borovo. Borovo is home to the football/soccer club Vihur (Bulgarian: Вихър) (Hurricane), which competes yearly in the Rousse region. The club is over 50 years old.

The traditional work of the municipality has centered on the textile industry - there are several big factories manufacturing socks, tights and textile wear.

Chillesford Church Pit

Chillesford Church Pit is a 1.1 hectare geological Site of Special Scientific Interest in Chillesford, south of Saxmundham in Suffolk. It is a Geological Conservation Review site, and it is in the Suffolk Coast and Heaths Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.This site has deposits dating to the Early Pleistocene Bramertonian Stage, around 2.4 to 1.8 million years ago. Fossils of molluscs and pollen indicate a temperate climate dating to the Chillesford Crag formation. The Chillesford Clay and Chillesford Crag are parts for the Norwich Crag Formation.The site is private land with no public access.

Domestic energy consumption

Domestic energy consumption is the total amount of energy used in a house for household work. The amount of energy used per household varies widely depending on the standard of living of the country, the climate, and the age and type of residence.

In the United States as of 2008, in an average household in a temperate climate, the yearly use of household energy can be composed as follows:

This equates to an average instantaneous power consumption of 2 kW at any given time.

Households in different parts of the world will have differing levels of consumption, based on latitude and technology.

As of 2015, the average annual household electricity consumption in the US is 10,766 kWh.

El Peñón, Cundinamarca

El Peñón is a municipality and town of Colombia in the department of Cundinamarca. It is located at an altitude of 1,310 metres (4,300 ft) in the western flanks of the Eastern Ranges of the Colombian Andes. The municipality, part of the Rionegro Province borders Topaipí in the north, Vergara and Nimaima in the south, Pacho in the east and La Peña and La Palma in the west. The municipality is 120 kilometres (75 mi) northwest of the capital Bogotá and thanks to the lower elevation has a temperate climate averaging 21 °C (70 °F).

Forest steppe

A forest steppe is a temperate-climate ecotone and habitat type composed of grassland interspersed with areas of woodland or forest.

Guaramiranga

Guaramiranga is one of the smallest towns of the Northeastern state of Ceará in Brazil.

It is located at an altitude of 865 m in the Serra de Baturité hills 110 km from the state capital of Fortaleza. Guaramiranga is known locally for its temperate climate and lush green scenery. The temperature in Guaramiranga varies between 15 and 23 degrees Celsius through the year.

Guaramiranga has a population of about 3,956 people. The town was first populated by an Indian tribe called the Tarariús towards the end of the 19th century.

Guaramiranga hosts a number of events throughout the year including a Festival of Jazz&Blues which is held every year during Carnival, and the Ceará Fest Flores which is held in November.

Guaramiranga has two large churches, the Igreja Matriz Nossa Senhora da Conceição and the Igreja Nossa Senhora de Lourdes.

The town is the birthplace of the scientist and researcher Fernando de Mendonça, founder of Brazil's National Institute for Space Research.

Within its territory, lies the Pico Alto, the highest point of Ceará.

Itatiaiuçu

Itatiaiuçu is a municipality in the state of Minas Gerais in the Southeast region of Brazil.Nestled amidst the Ridge Mountains, on the slopes of the Sierra Itatiaiuçu in Metal Zone, the municipality with 267 square kilometers, whose main economic activity is the mining of iron. It is also great horticultural producer and also has beef and dairy cattle. In a temperate climate tending to the cold, the host city is 890 meters above sea level and is 70 kilometers from Belo Horizonte, located along the BR-381 (Fernão Dias Highway) connecting the Minas Gerais state to the state of São Paulo.

The municipality is divided into eight villages and two districts: Santa Terezinha de Minas and Pinheiros.

Kericho

Kericho is the biggest town in Kericho County located in the highlands west of the Kenyan Rift Valley. Standing on the edge of the Mau Forest, Kericho has a warm and temperate climate making it an ideal location for agriculture and in particular, the large scale cultivation of tea.

The town is strategically located along Kenya's western tourism circuit with access to Lake Victoria, the Maasai Mara National Reserve and Ruma National Park.

As of the 1999 census, the town has a population of 150,000. Kericho is the home town of the Kipsigis, who are a part of the Kalenjin people.

Laikipia County

Laikipia County is one of the 47 counties of Kenya, located on the Equator in the former Rift Valley Province of the country. Laikipia is a cosmopolitan county and is county number 31. The county has two major urban centres: Nanyuki to the southeast, and Nyahururu to the southwest. Its capital is Rumuruti.

Economic activity in the county consists mainly of tourism and agriculture, chiefly grain crops, ranching and greenhouse horticulture.

The county encompasses the high, dry Laikipia Plateau, and has a cool, temperate climate with both rainy and dry seasons.

The county has three constituencies:

Laikipia North Constituency

Laikipia West Constituency

Laikipia East Constituency

List of Irish dishes

This is a list of dishes found in Irish cuisine. Irish cuisine is a style of cooking originating from Ireland or developed by Irish people. It evolved from centuries of social and political change. The cuisine takes its influence from the crops grown and animals farmed in its temperate climate. The introduction of the potato in the second half of the 16th century heavily influenced Ireland's cuisine thereafter and, as a result, is often closely associated with Ireland. Representative Irish dishes include Irish stew, bacon and cabbage, boxty, coddle, and colcannon.

Montane ecosystems

Montane ecosystems refers to any ecosystem found in mountains. These ecosystems are strongly affected by climate, which gets colder as elevation increases. They are stratified according to elevation. Dense forests are common at moderate elevations. However, as the elevation increases, the climate becomes harsher, and the plant community transitions to grasslands or tundra.

Novoseoci

Novoseoci is a village in the municipality of Sokolac, Bosnia and Herzegovina with cold and temperate climate.

Oceanic climate

An oceanic climate, also known as a marine climate or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features mild summers (relative to their latitude) and mild winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates. Oceanic climates are defined as having a monthly mean temperature below 22 °C (72 °F) in the warmest month, and above 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)) in the coldest month.

It typically lacks a dry season, as precipitation is more evenly dispersed throughout the year. It is the predominant climate type across much of Western Europe including the United Kingdom, the Pacific Northwest region of the United States and Canada, portions of central Mexico, southwestern South America, southeastern Australia including Tasmania, and New Zealand, as well as isolated locations elsewhere. Oceanic climates are generally characterised by a narrower annual range of temperatures than in other places at a comparable latitude, and generally do not have the extremely dry summers of Mediterranean climates or the hot summers of humid subtropical. Oceanic climates are most dominant in Europe, where they spread much farther inland than in other continents.Oceanic climates can have considerable storm activity as they are located in the belt of the stormy westerlies. Many oceanic climates have frequent cloudy or overcast conditions due to the near constant storms and lows tracking over or near them. The annual range of temperatures is smaller than typical climates at these latitudes due to the constant stable marine air masses that pass through oceanic climates, which lack both very warm and very cool fronts.

Tea production in Bangladesh

Bangladesh is an important tea-producing country. It is the 12th largest tea producer in the world. Its tea industry dates back to British rule, when the East India Company initiated the tea trade in Chittagong in 1840. Today, the country has 166 commercial tea estates, including many of the world's largest working plantations. The industry accounts for 3% of global tea production, and employs more than 4 million people.The tea is grown in the northern and eastern districts, the highlands, temperate climate, humidity and heavy rainfall within these districts provide a favourable ground for the production of high-quality tea.

Tropentarn

Tropentarn, formerly known as Wüstentarn, is a camouflage pattern used by the Bundeswehr in arid and semi arid regions. It is the desert variant of the Flecktarn 5-color temperate climate camouflage print of the Bundeswehr.

Tropentarn's official name is 3 Farben-Tarndruck der Bundeswehr (3-color camouflage print of the Bundeswehr) – Instead of the 5-color scheme of greens, brown, and black of temperate Flecktarn, Tropentarn uses only three colors: a base color of 70% khaki tan with 20% medium brown and 10% dark green spots.

Uasin Gishu County

Uasin Gishu County is one of the 47 counties of Kenya, located in the former Rift Valley Province. The city of Eldoret is the county's largest population center as well as its administrative and commercial center.

Uasin Gishu is located on a plateau and has a cool and temperate climate. It borders Trans-Nzoia County, Kenya.

Vermaaklikheid

Vermaaklikheid is a settlement on South Africa's Garden Route in the Western Cape. It is situated near Witsand and close to Duiwenhoks River. The area is a fynbos shrubland that has a temperate climate. More than 100 species of birds live here.

Vitis ficifolia

Vitis ficifolia is a species of liana in the grape family native to the Asian temperate climate zone. It is found in mainland China (Hebei, Henan, Jiangsu, Shaanxi, Shandong and Shanxi provinces), Japan (prefectures of Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku and Ryukyu Islands), Taiwan and the Koreas.

Temperate seasons
Tropical seasons
Specific
Class A
Class B
Class C
Class D
Class E

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