Telugu (English: /ˈtɛlʊɡuː/; తెలుగు [θɛlʊɡʊ]) is a Dravidian language spoken in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and the union territories of Puducherry (Yanam) by the Telugu people. It stands alongside Hindi, English and Bengali as one of the few languages with primary official language status in more than one Indian state. There are also significant linguistic minorities in neighbouring states. It is one of six languages designated a classical language of India by the country's government.
Telugu ranks fourth among the languages with the highest number of native speakers in India, with 6.93 percent at the 2011 census, and fifteenth in the Ethnologue list of most widely-spoken languages worldwide. It is the most widely spoken member of the Dravidian language family. It is one of the twenty-two scheduled languages of the Republic of India. Roughly 10,000 pre-colonial inscriptions exist in the Telugu language.
|Region||Andhra Pradesh, Telangana|
|81 million (2011 census)|
Official language in
Spoken in these States and union territories of India:
Atharvana Acharya in the 13th century wrote a grammar of Telugu, calling it the Trilinga Śabdānusāsana (or Trilinga Grammar). Appa Kavi in the 17th century explicitly wrote that Telugu was derived from "Trilinga". Scholar Charles P. Brown made a comment that it was a "strange notion" since the predecessors of Appa Kavi had no knowledge of such a derivation.
George Abraham Grierson and other linguists doubt this derivation, holding rather that Telugu was the older term and Trilinga must be the later Sanskritisation of it. If so the derivation itself must have been quite ancient because Triglyphum, Trilingum and Modogalingam are attested in ancient Greek sources, the last of which can be interpreted as a Telugu rendition of "Trilinga".
Another view holds that tenugu is derived from the proto-Dravidian word ten ("south") to mean "the people who lived in the south/southern direction" (relative to Sanskrit and Prakrit-speaking peoples). The name telugu, then, is a result of an 'n' to 'l' alternation established in Telugu.
According to linguist Bhadriraju Krishnamurti, Telugu, as a Dravidian language, descends from Proto-Dravidian, a proto-language. Linguistic reconstruction suggests that Proto-Dravidian was spoken around the third millennium BCE, possibly in the region around the lower Godavari river basin in peninsular India. According to the Russian linguist Mikhail S. Andronov, Telugu split from the Proto-Dravidian language between 1000 and 1500 AD.
A legend gives the town of Lepakshi a significant place in the Ramayanam. This was where the bird Jatayu fell, wounded after a futile battle against Ravana who was carrying away Sita. When Sri Rama reached the spot, he saw the bird and said compassionately, "Le, Pakshi" — translated to ‘rise, bird’. This indicates the presence of Telugu Language in ancient Indian literature.
Prakrit Inscriptions with some Telugu words dating back to between 400 BCE and 100 BCE have been discovered in Bhattiprolu in the Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh. The English translation of an inscription reads, "gift of the slab by venerable Midikilayakha".
Dated between 200 BCE – 300 CE, a Prakrit work called Gāthā Saptaśatī written by Sathavahana King Hala, Telugu words like అత్త, వాలుంకి, పీలుఅ, పోట్టం, కిలించిఅః, అద్దాఏ, భోండీ, సరఅస్స, తుప్ప, ఫలహీ, వేంట, రుంప-రంప, మడహసరిఆ, వోడసుణఓ, సాఉలీ and తీరఏ have been used.
Certain exploration and excavation missions conducted by the Archaeological Department in and around the Keesaragutta temple have brought to light, a number of brick temples, cells and other structures encompassed by brick prakaram along with coins, beads, stucco figures, garbhapatra, pottery, and Brahmi label inscriptions datable to 4th and 5th centuries CE. On top of one of the rock-cut caves, an early Telugu label inscription reading as ‘Thulachuvanru’ can be noticed. On the basis of palaeography, the inscription is dated around the 4th to 5th centuries CE.
One of the first words in the Telugu language, "Nagabu", was found in a Sanskrit inscription of the 1st century B.C at Amaravathi (not to be confused with the newly planned city of Amaravati). Telugu words were also found in the Dharmasila inscription of Emperor Ashoka. A number of Telugu words were found in the Sanskrit and Prakrit inscriptions of the Satavahanas, Vishnukundinas, and Ikshwakas.
According to Telugu lore, its grammar has a prehistoric past. Sage kanva was said to be the languages first grammarian. A Rajeswara Sarma discussed the historicity and content of Kanva's grammar. He cited twenty grammatical aphorisms ascribed to Kanva, and concluded that Kanva wrote an ancient Telugu Grammar which was lost.
“The Bhattiprolu stone Buddhist casket in proto Telugu belongs to BCE 300 (Ref.Epigraphia Indica Vol.ii, page no.232), the Erragudi Asokan Rock Edict in Proto Telugu belongs to 257 BCE (DC Sarkar’s Ashokan Studies, Calcutta 1979 pages 7–8), the Ghantasala Brahmin inscription. Epigraphia Indica, Vol. 27–1947–48, pages 1 to 4 and the pillar inscription of Vijaya Satakarni, Vijayapuri, Nagarjunakonda etc., belongs to First Century CE. Further, Tummalagudem inscription of Vishnukundinas belongs to 5th Century CE. (Epigraphia Andhrika, Vol.ii pages 9 to 14)”.
The period from 575 CE to 1022 CE corresponds to the second phase of Telugu history, after the Andhra Ikshvaku period. This is evidenced by the first inscription that is entirely in Telugu, dated 575 CE, which was found in the Rayalaseema region and is attributed to the Renati Cholas, who broke with the prevailing custom of using Sanskrit and began writing royal proclamations in the local language. During the next fifty years, Telugu inscriptions appeared in Anantapuram and other neighbouring regions.
Telugu was more influenced by Sanskrit and Prakrit during this period, which corresponded to the advent of Telugu literature. Telugu literature was initially found in inscriptions and poetry in the courts of the rulers, and later in written works such as Nannayya's Mahabharatam (1022 AD). During the time of Nannayya, the literary language diverged from the popular language. It was also a period of phonetic changes in the spoken language.
The third phase is marked by further stylization and sophistication of the literary languages. During this period the split of the Telugu from Kannada alphabets took place. Tikkana wrote his works in this script.
The Vijayanagara Empire gained dominance from 1336 to the late 17th century, reaching its peak during the rule of Krishnadevaraya in the 16th century, when Telugu literature experienced what is considered its Golden Age.
A distinct dialect developed in present day Telangana region, due to Persian/Arabic influence: the Delhi Sultanate of the Tughlaq dynasty was established earlier in the northern Deccan Plateau during the 14th century. In the latter half of the 17th century, the Mughal Empire extended further south, culminating in the establishment of the Hyderabad State by the dynasty of the Nizam of Hyderabad in 1724. This heralded an era of Persian influence on the Telugu language, especially Hyderabad State. The effect is also evident in the prose of the early 19th century, as in the Kaifiyats.
In the princely Hyderabad State, the Andhra Mahasabha was started in 1921 with the main intention of promoting Telugu language, literature, its books and historical research led by Madapati Hanumantha Rao (the founder of the Andhra Mahasabha), Komarraju Venkata Lakshmana Rao (Founder of Library Movement in Hyderabad State), Suravaram Pratapa Reddy and others.
The 16th-century Venetian explorer Niccolò de' Conti, who visited the Vijayanagara Empire, found that the words in the Telugu language end with vowels, just like those in Italian, and hence referred it as "The Italian of the East"; a saying that has been widely repeated.
In the late 19th and the early 20th centuries, the influence of the English language was seen, and modern communication/printing press arose as an effect of the British rule, especially in the areas that were part of the Madras Presidency. Literature from this time had a mix of classical and modern traditions and included works by such scholars as Gidugu Venkata Ramamoorty, Kandukuri Veeresalingam, Gurazada Apparao, Gidugu Sitapati and Panuganti Lakshminarasimha Rao.
Since the 1930s, what was considered an elite literary form of the Telugu language, has now spread to the common people with the introduction of mass media like movies, television, radio and newspapers. This form of the language is also taught in schools and colleges as a standard.
as of 2017 census
According to the famous Japanese Historian Noboru Karashima who served as the President of the Epigraphical Society of India in 1985, calculated that there are approximately 10,000 inscriptions which exist in the Telugu language as of the year 1996 making it one of the most densely inscribed languages. Telugu inscriptions are found in all the districts of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. They are also found in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, and Chhattisgarh. According to recent estimates by ASI (Archaeological Survey of India) the number of inscriptions in Telugu language goes up to 14,000.  Namely Adilabad, Nizamabad, Hyderabad, Anantapur, and Chittoor — produced no more than a handful of Telugu inscriptions in the Kakatiya era spanning between 1175–1324 CE.
Andhra is characterised as having its own mother tongue, and its territory has been equated with the extent of the Telugu language. The equivalence between the Telugu linguistic sphere and geographical boundaries of Andhra is also brought out in an eleventh century description of Andhra boundaries. Andhra, according to this text, was bounded in north by Mahendra mountain in the modern Ganjam District of Orissa and to the south by Kalahasti temple in Chittor District. But Andhra extended westwards as far as Srisailam in the Kurnool District, about halfway across the modern state. Page number-36. According to other sources in the early sixteenth century, the northern boundary is Simhachalam and the southern limit is Tirupati or Tirumala Hill of the Telugu Country.
Telugu place names are present all around Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. Common suffixes are ooru, pudi, pedu, peta, patnam, wada, giri, cherla, seema, gudem, palle, palem and palli. Examples that use this are Tadepalligudem, Gunturu, Chintalapudi, Yerpedu, Suryapeta, Vemulawada, Visakapatnam, Ananthagiri Hills Vijayawada, Vuyyuru, Macherla, Poranki, Ramagundam, Warangal, Mancheriala, Miryalagudem etc. They can also be seen in the border areas of Tamil Nadu.
There are three major dialects: Andhra dialect spoken in the coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh, Rayalaseema dialect spoken in the four Rayalaseema districts of Andhra Pradesh and finally Telangana dialect, laced with Urdu words, spoken mainly in Telangana.
Waddar, Chenchu, and Manna-Dora are all closely related to Telugu. Other dialects of Telugu are Berad, Dasari, Dommara, Golari, Kamathi, Komtao, Konda-Reddi, Salewari, Vadaga, Srikakula, Vishakhapatnam, East Godaveri, Rayalseema, Nellore, Guntur, Vadari and Yanadi.
In Karnataka the dialect sees more influence of Kannada and is a bit different than what is spoken in Andhra region. There are significant populations of Telugu speakers in the eastern districts of Karnataka viz. Bangalore Urban, Bellary, Chikballapur and Kolar.
In Tamil Nadu the Telugu dialect is classified into Hosur, Salem, Coimbatore, Vellore, Tiruvannamalai and Madras Telugu dialects. It is also spoken in pockets of Krishnagiri, Virudhunagar, Tuticorin, Tirunelveli, Madurai, Theni, Madras (Chennai) and Thanjavur districts.
Telugu is natively spoken in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana and Yanam district of Puducherry. Telugu speaking migrants are also found in the neighboring states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, some parts of Jharkhand and the Kharagpur region of West Bengal in India. At 7.2% of the population, Telugu is the third-most-spoken language in the Indian subcontinent after Hindi and Bengali. In Karnataka, 7.0% of the population speak Telugu, and 5.6% in Tamil Nadu.
The Telugu diaspora numbers more than 800,000 in the United States, with the highest concentration in Central New Jersey (Little Andhra); Telugu speakers are found as well in Australia, New Zealand, Bahrain, Canada (Toronto), Fiji, Malaysia, Singapore, Mauritius, Myanmar, Europe (Italy, Netherlands, Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland and the United Kingdom), South Africa, Trinidad and Tobago, and United Arab Emirates.
The Roman transliteration of the Telugu script is in National Library at Kolkata romanisation.
Telugu words generally end in vowels. In Old Telugu, this was absolute; in the modern language m, n, y, w may end a word. Atypically for a Dravidian language, voiced consonants were distinctive even in the oldest recorded form of the language. Sanskrit loans have introduced aspirated and murmured consonants as well.
Telugu features a form of vowel harmony wherein the second vowel in disyllabic noun and adjective roots alters according to whether the first vowel is tense or lax. Also, if the second vowel is open (i.e., /aː/ or /a/), then the first vowel is more open and centralized (e.g., [mɛːka] 'goat', as opposed to [meːku] 'nail'). Telugu words also have vowels in inflectional suffixes that are harmonized with the vowels of the preceding syllable.
|Vowels – అచ్చులు ACHULU|
|i ఇ i||iː ఈ ī||u ఉ u||uː ఊ ū|
|e ఎ e||eː ఏ ē||o ఒ o||oː ఓ ō|
|æː||a అ a||aː ఆ ā|
/æː/ only occurs in loan words. In the Guntur dialect, [æː] is a frequent allophone of /aː/ in certain verbs in the past tense.
Telugu has two diphthongs: /ai/ ఐ ai and /au/ ఔ au .
The table below lists the consonantal phonemes of Telugu.
*The aspirated and breathy-voiced consonants occur mostly in loan words, as do the fricatives apart from native /s/.
The Telugu Grammar is called vyākaranam (వ్యాకరణం).
The first treatise on Telugu grammar, the Āndhra Śabda Cinṭāmaṇi, was written in Sanskrit by Nannayya, considered the first Telugu poet and translator, in the 11th century CE. This grammar followed patterns described in grammatical treatises such as Aṣṭādhyāyī and Vālmīkivyākaranam, but unlike Pāṇini, Nannayya divided his work into five chapters, covering samjnā, sandhi, ajanta, halanta and kriya. Every Telugu grammatical rule is derived from Pāṇinian concepts.
In the 19th century, Chinnaya Suri wrote a simplified work on Telugu grammar called Bāla Vyākaraṇam, borrowing concepts and ideas from Nannayya's grammar.
|Sentence||రాముడు బడికి వెళ్తాడు.|
|Translation||Rama goes to school.|
This sentence can also be interpreted as 'Rama will go to school', depending on the context, but it does not affect the SOV order.
Telugu nouns are inflected for number (singular, plural), gender (masculine, feminine, and neuter) and case (nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, vocative, instrumental, and locative).
Telugu has three genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter.
Telugu pronouns include personal pronouns (the persons speaking, the persons spoken to, or the persons or things spoken about); indefinite pronouns; relative pronouns (connecting parts of sentences); and reciprocal or reflexive pronouns (in which the object of a verb is acted on by the verb's subject).
The nominative case (karta), the object of a verb (karma), and the verb are somewhat in a sequence in Telugu sentence construction. "Vibhakti" (case of a noun) and "pratyāyamulu" (an affix to roots and words forming derivatives and inflections) depict the ancient nature and progression of the language. The "Vibhaktis" of Telugu language " డు [ḍu], ము [mu], వు [vu], లు [lu]", etc., are different from those in Sanskrit and have been in use for a long time.
Sanskrit influenced Telugu for about 1500 years; however, there is evidence that suggests an older influence. During the period 1000–1100 CE, Nannaya's re-writing of the Mahābhārata in Telugu (మహాభారతము) re-established its use, and it dominated over the royal language, Sanskrit. Telugu absorbed tatsamas from Sanskrit.
The vocabulary of Telugu, especially in Telangana, has a trove of Persian–Arabic borrowings, which have been modified to fit Telugu phonology. This was due to centuries of Turkic rule in these regions, such as the erstwhile kingdoms of Golkonda and Hyderabad (e.g., కబురు, /kaburu/ for Urdu /xabar/, خبر or జవాబు, /dʒavaːbu/ for Urdu /dʒawɑːb/, جواب).
Modern Telugu vocabulary can be said to constitute a diglossia because the formal, standardised version of the language is either lexically Sanskrit or heavily influenced by Sanskrit, is taught in schools, and is used by the government and Hindu religious institutions. However, everyday Telugu varies depending upon region.
The Telugu script is an abugida consisting of 60 symbols – 16 vowels, 3 vowel modifiers, and 41 consonants. Telugu has a complete set of letters that follow a system to express sounds. The script is derived from the Brahmi script like those of many other Indian languages. The Telugu script is written from left to right and consists of sequences of simple and/or complex characters. The script is syllabic in nature—the basic units of writing are syllables. Since the number of possible syllables is very large, syllables are composed of more basic units such as vowels ("acchu" or "swaram") and consonants ("hallu" or "vyanjanam"). Consonants in consonant clusters take shapes that are very different from the shapes they take elsewhere. Consonants are presumed pure consonants, that is, without any vowel sound in them. However, it is traditional to write and read consonants with an implied 'a' vowel sound. When consonants combine with other vowel signs, the vowel part is indicated orthographically using signs known as vowel "mātras". The shapes of vowel "mātras" are also very different from the shapes of the corresponding vowels.
Historically, a sentence used to end with either a single bar । ("pūrna virāmam") or a double bar ॥ ("dīrgha virāmam"); in handwriting, Telugu words were not separated by spaces. However, in modern times, English punctuation (commas, semicolon, etc.) has virtually replaced the old method of punctuation.
|Consonants – hallulu (హల్లులు)|
Telugu has ĉ and ĵ, which are not represented in Sanskrit. Their pronunciation is similar to the 's' sound in the word treasure (i.e., the postalveolar voiced fricative) and 'z' sound in zebra (i.e., the alveolar voiced fricative), respectively.
These are some examples of combining a consonant with different vowels.
క కా కి కీ కు కూ కృ కౄ కె కే కై కొ కో కౌ క్ కం కః
ఖ ఖా ఖి ఖీ ఖు ఖూ ఖృ ఖౄ ఖె ఖే ఖై ఖొ ఖో ఖౌ ఖ్ ఖం ఖః
|sunna (Telugu form of Sanskrit word śūnyam)||okaṭi||renḍu||mūḍu||nālugu||aidu||āru||ēḍu||enimidi||tommidi|
In the earliest period Telugu literature existed in the form of inscriptions, precisely from 575 CE onward.
Prabandha Ratnavali (1918) & Pre-Nannayya Chandassu (Raja Raja Narendra Pattabhisekha Sanchika) by Veturi Prabhakara Sastry talk about the existence of Jain Telugu literature during 850-1000 CE. A verse from Telugu Jinendra Puranam by Padma Kavi (Pampa), a couple of verses from Telugu Adi Puranam by Sarvadeva and Kavijanasrayam (a Telugu Chandassu poetic guide for poets) affiliation to Jainism were discussed.
Historically, Vemulawada was a Jain knowledge hub and played a significant role in patronizing Jain literature and poets.1980s excavations around Vemulawada revealed and affirmed the existence of Telugu Jain literature.
Malliya Rechana - First Telugu Author (940 CE) - P.V.Parabrahma Sastry, Nidadavolu Venkata Rao .P.V.P Sastry also points out that many Jain works could have been destroyed. Historical rivalry among Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism is well known.
This is the period of Kavi Trayam or Trinity of Poets. Nannayya, Tikkana and Yerrapragada (or Errana) are known as the Kavi Trayam.
Nannaya Bhattarakudu's (Telugu: నన్నయ) Andhra mahabharatam, who lived around the 11th century, is commonly referred to as the first Telugu literary composition (aadi kaavyam). Although there is evidence of Telugu literature before Nannaya, he is given the epithet Aadi Kavi ("the first poet"). Nannaya was the first to establish a formal grammar of written Telugu. This grammar followed the patterns which existed in grammatical treatises like Aṣṭādhyāyī and Vālmīkivyākaranam but unlike Pāṇini, Nannayya divided his work into five chapters, covering samjnā, sandhi, ajanta, halanta and kriya. Nannaya completed the first two chapters and a part of the third chapter of the Mahabharata epic, which is rendered in the Champu style.
Tikkana Somayaji (1205–1288 CE): Nannaya's Andhra Mahabharatam was almost completed by Tikanna Somayaji (Telugu: తిక్కన సోమయాజి) (1205–1288) who wrote chapters 4 to 18.
Yerrapragada : (Telugu: ఎర్రాప్రగడ) who lived in the 14th century, finished the epic by completing the third chapter. He mimics Nannaya's style in the beginning, slowly changes tempo and finishes the chapter in the writing style of Tikkana. These three writers – Nannaya, Tikanna and Yerrapragada – are known as the Kavitraya ("three great poets") of Telugu. Other such translations like Marana’s Markandeya Puranam, Ketana’s Dasakumara Charita, Yerrapragada’s Harivamsam followed. Many scientific[relevant? ] works, like Ganitasarasangrahamu by Pavuluri Mallana and Prakirnaganitamu by Eluganti Peddana, were written in the 12th century.
Sumati Shatakam, which is a neeti ("moral"), is one of the most famous Telugu Shatakams. Shatakam is composed of more than a 100 padyalu (poems). According to many literary critics[who?] Sumati Shatakam was composed by Baddena Bhupaludu (Telugu: బద్దెన భూపాల) (CE 1220–1280). He was also known as Bhadra Bhupala. He was a Chola prince and a vassal under the Kakatiya empress Rani Rudrama Devi, and a pupil of Tikkana. If we assume that the Sumati Shatakam was indeed written by Baddena, it would rank as one of the earliest Shatakams in Telugu along with the Vrushadhipa Satakam of Palkuriki Somanatha and the Sarveswara Satakam of Yathavakkula Annamayya.[original research?] The Sumatee Shatakam is also one of the earliest Telugu works to be translated into a European language, as C. P. Brown rendered it in English in the 1840s.
Palkuriki Somanatha: Important among his Telugu language writings are the Basava Purana, Panditaradhya charitra, Malamadevipuranamu and Somanatha Stava–in dwipada metre ("couplets"); Anubhavasara, Chennamallu Sisamalu, Vrishadhipa Shataka and Cheturvedasara–in verses; Basavodharana in verses and ragale metre (rhymed couplets in blank verse); and the Basavaragada.
Gona Budda Reddy: His Ranganatha Ramayanam was a pioneering work in the Telugu language on the theme of the Ramayana epic. Most scholars believe he wrote it between 1300 and 1310 A.D., possibly with help from his family. The work has become part of cultural life in Andhra Pradesh and is used in puppet shows.
In the Telugu literature Tikkana was given agraasana (top position) by many famous critics.
Paravastu Chinnayya Soori (1807–1861) is a well-known Telugu writer who dedicated his entire life to the progress and promotion of Telugu language and literature. Sri Chinnayasoori wrote the Bala Vyakaranam in a new style after doing extensive research on Telugu grammar. Other well-known writings by Chinnayasoori are Neethichandrika, Sootandhra Vyaakaranamu, Andhra Dhatumoola, and Neeti Sangrahamu.
Kandukuri Veeresalingam (1848–1919) is generally considered the father of modern Telugu literature. His novel Rajasekhara Charitamu was inspired by the Vicar of Wakefield. His work marked the beginning of a dynamic of socially conscious Telugu literature and its transition to the modern period, which is also part of the wider literary renaissance that took place in Indian culture during this period. Other prominent literary figures from this period are Gurajada Appa Rao, Viswanatha Satyanarayana, Gurram Jashuva, Rayaprolu Subba Rao, Devulapalli Krishnasastri and Srirangam Srinivasa Rao, popularly known as Mahakavi Sri Sri. Sri Sri was instrumental in popularising free verse in spoken Telugu (vaaduka bhasha), as opposed to the pure form of written Telugu used by several poets in his time. Devulapalli Krishnasastri is often referred to as the Shelley of Telugu literature because of his pioneering works in Telugu Romantic poetry.
Viswanatha Satyanarayana won India's national literary honour, the Jnanpith Award for his magnum opus Ramayana Kalpavrukshamu. C. Narayana Reddy won the Jnanpith Award in 1988 for his poetic work, Viswambara. Ravuri Bharadhwaja won the 3rd Jnanpith Award for Telugu literature in 2013 for Paakudu Raallu, a graphic account of life behind the screen in film industry. Kanyasulkam, the first social play in Telugu by Gurajada Appa Rao, was followed by the progressive movement, the free verse movement and the Digambara style of Telugu verse. Other modern Telugu novelists include Unnava Lakshminarayana (Maalapalli), Bulusu Venkateswarulu (Bharatiya Tatva Sastram), Kodavatiganti Kutumba Rao and Buchi Babu.
Telugu input, display, and support were initially provided on the Microsoft Windows platform. Subsequently, various browsers, office applications, operating systems, and user interfaces were localized for Windows and Linux platforms by vendors and free and open-source software volunteers. Telugu-capable smart phones were also introduced by vendors in 2013.
On 15 February 2018, Apple devices were experiencing crashes of apps and device shutdowns when two particular characters from the Telugu language (specifically జ్ఞా) was rendered on the display. Reports show that this has affected iOS, macOS, tvOS and watchOS. On 20 February, Apple announced that the bug was fixed with the iOS 11.2.6 update.
The easier and more ancient "Telugu" appears to have been converted here into the impressive Sanskrit word Trilinga, and making use of its enormous presitge as the classical language, the theory wa sput forth that the word Trilinga is the morther and not the child.
Aacharya Aatreya (born Kilambi Venkata Narasimhacharyulu pronunciation ) (7 May 1921 – 13 September 1989) was an Indian poet, scenarist, playwright, lyricist, and screenwriter known for his works in Telugu cinema, and Telugu theatre. He received the state Nandi Award for Best Lyricist in 1981 for "Andamaina Lokamani" from the film "Tholikoodi Koochindi".Bigg Boss Telugu
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It is a remake of the Tamil film Poova Thalaiya, directed by K. Balachander himself. The film stars Chandra Mohan, S. Varalakshmi, Chalam, Vennira Aadai Nirmala, Allu Ramalingaiah, Mukkamala, Raja Babu and Ramaprabha.
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A crore (; abbreviated cr) or koti denotes ten million (10,000,000 or 107 in scientific notation) and is equal to 100 lakh in the Indian numbering system as 1,00,00,000 with the local style of digit group separators (a lakh is equal to one hundred thousand and is written as 1,00,000).ETV Network
ETV Network is a network of Telugu language news and entertainment satellite television channels in India. It is based in Hyderabad. It also had some non Telugu language satellite television channels. All non Telugu language satellite television channels were acquired by Reliance Industries- owned TV18 in FY 2014-2015 and later rebranded.Eenadu
Eenadu (lit. Today) daily newspaper which is the largest circulated Telugu newspaper in the State of Andhra Pradesh and the State of Telangana of India. According to the Indian Readership Survey (IRS) Q1 2012, Eenadu ranks at number six among the Indian language dailies with a total readership (TR) of 5,906,000. Eenadu ("This day"; "This country", having two meanings in Telugu) was founded by the Indian media baron Ramoji Rao in 1974. Eenadu's rapid expansion enabled diversification of its portfolio by venturing into other markets such as finance and chit funds (e.g. Margadarsi chits), foods (Priya Foods), film production (Usha Kiran Films), film distribution (Mayuri Films), and a group of television channels (ETV). All the businesses are organized under the Ramoji Group.Gemeni (film)
Gemeni is a 2002 Telugu language gangster film directed by Saran and produced by M. Saravanan on AVM Productions. Starring Venkatesh and Namitha in the lead roles and music composed by RP Patnaik. The film is remake of the Tamil film Gemini, released the same year. The film's title was spelt 'Gemeni' to differentiate from the original Tamil version. The film recorded as Average at box-office.It was dubbed in Hindi as Aaj ka Shoorveer.Lakh
A lakh (; abbreviated L; sometimes written Lac or Lacs; Devanāgarī: लाख) is a unit in the Indian numbering system equal to one hundred thousand (100,000; scientific notation: 105). In the Indian convention of digit grouping, it is written as 1,00,000. For example, in India 150,000 rupees becomes 1.5 lakh rupees, written as ₹1,50,000 or INR 1,50,000.
It is widely used both in official and other contexts in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. It is often used in Indian, Pakistani, and Sri Lankan English. In Pakistan, the word lakh is used mostly in local languages rather than in English media.List of Telugu-language television channels
This is a list of satellite television channels in Telugu language (spoken in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana) broadcasting at least throughout Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states.Lists of Telugu-language films
This is a list of films produced in the Telugu cinema or Tollywood industry and in the Telugu language.Paddu
Kuzhi paniyaram (Tamil: குழி பணியாரம்) or Paddu/GuLiyappa/Yeriyappa (Kannada: ಪಡ್ಡು/ಗುಳಿಯಪ್ಪ/ಎರಿಯಪ್ಪ) or Gunta Ponganalu (Telugu: గుంట పొంగణాలు) or is an Indian dish made by steaming batter using a mould. The batter is made of black lentils and rice and is similar in composition to the batter used to make idli and dosa. The dish can also be made sweet or spicy depending on the ingredients jaggery and chillies respectively. Paniyaram is made on a special pan that comes with multiple small fissures. It is known by various names in South India, including paddu, appe, guliappa, gulittu, yeriyappa, gundponglu, ponganalu.Rangasthalam
Rangasthalam (transl. The stage) is a 2018 Indian Telugu-language period action drama film directed by Sukumar and produced by Y. Naveen, Y. Ravi Shankar and C. V. Mohan under the banner Mythri Movie Makers. The film stars Ram Charan and Samantha Akkineni in the lead roles, along with Anasuya Bharadwaj, Aadhi Pinisetty, Jagapati Babu, and Prakash Raj in other pivotal supporting roles. Music for the film is composed by Devi Sri Prasad. The film was officially launched by Chiranjeevi in February and commenced its shooting from April 2017. The film released worldwide on 30 March 2018. It grossed around ₹210 crores world wide. It is now being dubbed to Kannada, Tamil and Malayalam.Saaho
Saaho is an upcoming Indian action film, written and directed by Sujeeth, and produced by UV Creations, T-Series, and Dharma Productions. The film stars Prabhas, Shraddha Kapoor, Neil Nitin Mukesh and Evelyn Sharma, and is being shot simultaneously in Hindi, Tamil and TeluguThe filming began in June 2017. Saaho's first look poster released on 23 October 2017, on the occasion of Prabhas' birthday. A second teaser released on 23 October 2018, once again on the occasion of Prabhas' birthday.Suryaa
Suryaa is a Telugu-language newspaper headquartered in Hyderabad. This newspaper is promoted by Nukarapu Surya Prakash Rao. It is published from seventeen cities in India.Swati Mutyam
Swati Mutyam (English: The White Pearl) is a 1986 Telugu-language drama film written and directed by K. Viswanath, and produced by Edida Nageshwara Rao. The film stars Kamal Haasan and Raadhika in the lead roles, with soundtrack and background score by Ilaiyaraaja. Swati Mutyam depicts the plight of a young widow who is rescued by an autistic man. The cult classic was selected by India as its entry for the Best Foreign Language Film for the Academy Awards in 1986, but was not nominated.Swati Mutyam was a box office success. The film was screened at the Moscow Film Festival, the Asian and African film festival in Tashkent, the 11th International Film Festival of India in the inaugural mainstream section, and the Asia Pacific Film Festival where it won awards for "Best Film" and "Best Actor" categories. The film received the National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Telugu, the Nandi Award for Best Feature Film, and the Filmfare South Award for Best Direction. The film was later dubbed into Tamil as Sippikkul Muthu. Upon its success, the film was later remade in Hindi as Eeshwar and in Kannada as Swathi Muthu. The 2003 Bollywood film Koi... Mil Gaya was inspired by Swati Mutyam.TV9 (Telugu)
TV9 is an Indian satellite television news network that provides 24-hour news coverage in Telugu language. TV9 was founded in 2004 by Ravi Prakash and is owned by Associated Broadcasting Company Private Limited (ABCL) which has seven television stations in different languages in India.Tanikella Bharani
Tanikella Bharani (Telugu: తనికెళ్ళ భరణి; born 14 July 1954) is an Indian film actor, screenwriter, dialogue writer, poet, theatre actor, playwright and director predominant in Telugu cinema. He has worked in more than 750 films (Including Tamil, Kannada and Hindi). He has garnered three Andhra Pradesh State Nandi Awards.Telugu
may refer to:
Telugu language, a major Dravidian language of South India
Telugu script, used to write the Telugu language
Telugu (Unicode block), a block of Telugu characters in Unicode
Telugu people, an ethnolinguistic group of IndiaTelugu people
The Telugu people or Telugu vaaru, are a Dravidian ethnic group who speak Telugu as their native language and/or trace their ancestry to the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. There is also a large significant Telugu population in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Odisha, Chhattisgarh and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The Telugu language is the third-most spoken language in India and the fourth most in the Indian subcontinent, following Hindi, Bengali and Marathi.
Italics indicate extinct languages (no surviving native speakers and no spoken descendant)
(population over 1 lakh)