Telmessos

This article is about Telmessos in Lycia (modern Fethiye), not to be confused with Telmessos in Caria.

Paintings of Telmessos by Luigi Mayer

Luigi Mayer Ancient Telmessus
Luigi Mayer The Harbor At Cacamo

Telmessos or Telmessus (Ancient Greek: Τελμησσός), also Telmissus (Ancient Greek: Τελμισσός),[1] later Anastasiopolis (Ancient Greek: Αναστασιούπολις), then Makri or Macre (Greek: Μάκρη), was the largest city in Lycia, near the Carian border, and is sometimes confused with Telmessos in Caria. The well-protected harbor of Telmessos is separated from the Gulf of Telmessos by an island.

The name of the modern town on the site is Fethiye.

History

Lycian Tomb of Telmessus
Lycian Tomb of Telmessus

Telmessos was a flourishing city in the west of Lycia, on the Gulf of Fethiye. It was famed for its school of diviners, consulted among others by the Lydian king Croesus, prior to declaring war against Cyrus, and by Alexander the Great, when he came to the town after the siege of Halicarnassus.

Amynthas rock tomb August 2011
The sign on site says one statue has been destroyed by water seepage and two others damaged. August 2011

Telmessos was a member of the Delian League in the 5th century BC. It was taken by Alexander in 334 BC.

Telmessos was renamed Anastasiopolis in the 8th century AD, apparently in honour of Emperor Anastasios II, but this name did not persist. The city came to be called Makri, after the name of the island at the entrance to the harbor. This name is attested for the first time in 879 AD.

Telmessos rock tombs
The tombs date from about 400BC and reflect the wooden architecture of Lycia. August 2011
Lycian Sarcophagus Fethiye - Mugla - Asia Minor, Turkey - πρώην Μάκρη, Μικρά Ασία, Τουρκία - panoramio
Lycian ogival rock tomb in Telmessos/ Fethiye (4th century BCE).

However, an inscription of the 7th century found in Gibraltar and bearing the ethnonym "Makriotes" (from Makri) may indicate an earlier existence of name Makri.[2]

Its ruins are located at Fethiye.

Church history

Le Quien (Oriens christianus, I, 971) mentions two bishops of Telmessus: Hilary (370) and Zenodotus, at the Council of Chalcedon (451). The latter is called "Bishop of the Metropolis of Telmessaei and the Isle of Macra". The Notitiae Episcopatuum mentions Telmessus among the suffragans of Myra until the 10th century, when it is no longer called Macra; in 1316 mention is made of the See of "Macra and Lybysium". Lybysium or Levissi, about four miles south-west of Makri, had in the early 20th century 3000 inhabitants, nearly all Greeks.

The see is included, under the name Telmissus, in the Catholic Church's list of titular sees.[3] The historically important former Bishop of Montreal, Ignace Bourget's first epsicopal title was as bishop of the Catholic titular see of Telmessos.[4] In the Eastern Orthodox Church, Telmessos is also a titular episcopal see of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. The current holder of the see, Archbishop Job, is primate of the Patriarchal Exarchate for Orthodox Parishes of Russian Tradition in Western Europe, based in Paris.[5]

See also

References

  1. ^ Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. I, coll. 971–972
  2. ^ Jaime B. Curbera (1996) "Two Greek Christian Inscriptions from Spain". Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 110 (1996) 290–292.
  3. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2013, ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 985
  4. ^ Léon Pouliot, Monseigneur Bourget et son temps, (Editions Bellamarin, 1972), p. 9.
  5. ^ "L'archimandrite Job (Getcha) a été canoniquement élu ce matin par le Saint-Synode du Patriarcat de Constantinople" [Archimandrite Job (Getcha) has been canonically elected this morning by the Holy Synod of the Patriarchate of Constantinople]. www.orthodoxie.com - L'information orthodoxe sur Internet (in French). 2 November 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2013.

Sources

External links

Coordinates: 36°37′21.3″N 29°06′41.4″E / 36.622583°N 29.111500°E

Antipater Epigonos

Antipater Epigonos also known as Antipater (Greek: Αντίπατρος Επίγονος, flourished second half of 3rd century BC and first half of 2nd century BC) was a Greek Prince from Asia Minor.

Arbinas

Arbinas, also Erbinas, Erbbina, was a Lycian Dynast who ruled circa 430/20-400 BCE. He is most famous for his tomb, the Nereid Monument, now on display in the British Museum. Coinage seems to indicate that he ruled in the western part of Lycia, around Telmessos, while his tomb was established in Xanthos. He was a subject of the Achaemenid Empire.

Aristander

Aristander of Telmessos (Greek: Αρίστανδρος ο Τελμησσεύς; born ca. 380 BCE, fl. 2nd half of 4th century BCE), a Greek from Caria, was Alexander the Great's favorite seer. Aristander was already in Philip's entourage in 357/6, when he correctly interpreted a dream as revealing Olympias' pregnancy. The ancient sources place him interpreting omens from the conqueror's birth to his death. Although details are variously given, and some incidents are fictitious, Aristander was clearly an influential presence during Alexander's campaigns, and played an important role in uplifting the morale of the Macedonian army. There are indications he wrote divinatory works, either before, during or after the expedition, although it is also possible these works were spuriously attributed.

Berenice (daughter of Ptolemy II of Telmessos)

Berenice also known as Berenike (Greek: Βερενίκη; fl. second half of 3rd century BC and first half of 2nd century BC), was a Greek Princess from Asia Minor who was a distant relative of the Seleucid Monarch Antiochus III the Great.

Bolesław Twardowski

Archbishop Bolesław Twardowski (Ukrainian: Болеслав Твардовський; Polish: Bolesław Twardowski; 18 February 1864 – 22 November 1944) was a Roman Catholic prelate, who served as an Auxiliary Bishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lviv and a Titular Bishop of Telmessos from 14 September 1918 until 3 August 1923 and as the Metropolitan Archbishop of the same Archdiocese from 3 August 1923 until his death on 22 November 1944.

Cestrus

Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.

Drizipara

Drizipara (or Druzipara, Drousipara. Drusipara) now Karıştıran (Büyükkarıştıran) in Lüleburgaz district was a city and a residential episcopal see in the Roman province of Europa in the civil diocese of Thrace. It is now a titular see of the Catholic Church.

Epigonos of Telmessos

Epigonos of Telmessos (Greek: Επίγονος της Τελμησσού, flourished 3rd century BC), also known as Epigonos was a Greek Prince from Asia Minor.

Fethiye

Fethiye (Turkish pronunciation: [ˈfethije]) is a city and district of Muğla Province in the Aegean region of Turkey with about 147,000 inhabitants (2016).

Gulf of Fethiye

The Gulf of Fethiye (Turkish: Fethiye Körfezi) is a branch of the Mediterranean Sea in southwestern Turkey. The cities Fethiye and Göcek of Muğla Province are situated around the gulf. It is bounded on the west by Cape Kurdoğlu (Turkish: Kurtoğlu Burnu) and on the east by Cape İblis/Cape Angistro (Turkish: İblis Burnu). It is a popular area for tourism and yachting. Until 1923, it was known as the Gulf of Meğri/Makri/Macre/Mekri, the former Greek-origin name of Fethiye.

It is located in ancient Lycia, and was known as the Gulf of Telmessos or the Glaucus Sinus (presumably for Glaucus, son of Hippolochus). The ancient cities of Lydae and Telmessos (modern Fethiye) lay on it.

Göcek, Fethiye

Göcek (Turkish pronunciation: [ɟœˈdʒec]) is a small town in Fethiye district in Muğla Province, Turkey.

Its site was occupied by the town of Callimache in ancient times, and is located between Fethiye – Telmessos in ancient times – and Dalyan – Caunos in ancient times. According to the legends, it is in the Göcek area that Icarus landed in the sea after his famous flight trying to escape from the tower where he was imprisoned. Göcek was used as a harbour for ships loading chrome ore collected from the mines under nearby mountains during the Ottoman period.

Today, Göcek hosts six significant marinas that serve the yacht tourism in the region: Club Marina, Skopea Marina, Municipality Marinas, Marinturk Göcek Village Port, Marinturk Göcek Exclusive and D-Marin Gocek. A prominent characteristic of the town is the fact that it harbors islands and coves located in a large and secluded bay. Owing to its location, it naturally enjoys a high potential for yacht tourism. In 1988, Göcek was declared a Registered Area of Special Protection. Therefore, multi-story buildings are not allowed, the tourist accommodation facilities are two-storied hotels, motels, apartment hotels, and pensions situated in the town center and its periphery. Göcek has all the necessary infrastructure, capacity, and amenities expected in a tourism center, yet it is renowned as a much more peaceful and quiet settlement than some other tourism areas.

Göcek is situated on Dalaman–Fethiye highway. Until 2006, it was necessary to drive along a relatively narrow and winding road to reach Göcek from Dalaman. However, the 980-meter Göcek vehicle tunnel, completed in June 2006, has significantly increased the accessibility of the town. The vehicle tunnel is a toll roadway and the first example of build-operate-transfer model.

The permanent population in Göcek is around 4,500. This number exceeds 7,000 during the summer months. Since Göcek is a departure and arrival point for Blue Cruises, there is heavy yacht traffic in the town harbor. With its secluded bay, the harbor is quiet and safe, especially for long-distance travelers arriving from international waters. Göcek coves and the 12 islands, which are described as a hidden paradise, with clean Mediterranean water, green pine forests, and beaches, have rendered Göcek an indispensable destination for seafarers. High-quality boarding facilities, daily boat tours, entertainment facilities on the seaside, and numerous nearby beaches and coves provide various alternatives for local and international tourists traveling by road to spend their vacations. There are many restaurants, cafés, and bars on the promenade.

Göcek became known to groups of artists and poets and to some fisherman from Bodrum as a result of their cruising along the Turkish Turquoise Coast, a journey later called the “Blue Voyage”.

The gulf of Göcek and Fethiye provides many opportunities to visit cultural sites as Caunos, Telmessos, Fethiye Museum, Tlos, Pınara, Letoon, Xanthos and Patara.

Of the beaches, one belongs to D-Resort Gocek can be used paying a daily price or taking out a seasonal membership. Inlice Beach is out of Göcek and can be reached with a 10-minute drive; it is run by the municipality of Göcek. The main island beach is reachable by water taxi from the harbor. Other beaches are easily accessible by car or taxi. Amongst these is Sarıgerme, a long sandy beach. Beyond Sarıgerme is the protected beach of Iztuzu in the Dalyan Delta. In the opposite direction, the famous beach at Ölüdeniz is only 40 minutes drive away.

The Twelve Islands can be reached by private charter boats, simple fishing boats, and larger yachts. There are about 20 sailing and motor yacht charter and brokerage sailing companies, which makes Göcek a high-class sailing place. There are several technical yacht services, chandlers and maintenance services.

Job Getcha

Job of Telmessos (born Ihor Wladimir Getcha, Russian: Игорь Владимирович Геча; January 31, 1974) is an Eastern Orthodox Archbishop of the Ecumenical Patriarchate who lead the Patriarchal Exarchate for Orthodox Parishes of Russian Tradition in Western Europe in 2013-15.

Kheriga

Kheriga (in Greek Gergis) was a Dynast of Lycia, who ruled circa 450-410 BCE. Kheriga is mentioned on the succession list of the Xanthian Obelisk, and is probably the owner of the sarcophagus that was standing on top of it.Kheriga was son of Harpagus (Arppakhu in Lycian). Arbinas was the son of Kheriga.Kheriga was ruler of Lycia at the time when Lycia was an ally of Athens in the Delian League. As the power of Athens weakened and Athens and Sparta fought the Peloponnesian wars (431–404 BC), the majority of Lycian cities defaulted from the Delian League, with the exception of Telmessos and Phaselis. In 429 BC, Athens sent an expedition against Lycia to try to force it to rejoin the League. This failed when Lycia's leader Kheriga (Gergis) defeated Athenian general Melesander. The encounter is described in the inscription on the Xanthian Obelisk.

Lyrbe

Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.

Lysimachus of Telmessos

Lysimachus of Telmessos (Greek: Λυσίμαχος της Τελμησσού, flourished 3rd century BC), also known as Lysimachus II was a Greek Prince from Asia Minor who served as a Ptolemaic Client King under the Ptolemaic dynasty of Ancient Egypt.

Ptolemy Epigonos

Ptolemy Epigonos (Greek: Πτολεμαίος Α' ο Επίγονος Ptolemaios I Epigonos, Epigonos i.e. the heir, 299/298 BC–February 240 BC) was a Greek Prince from Asia Minor who was of Macedonian and Thessalian descent.

Ptolemy II of Telmessos

Ptolemy II of Telmessos (Greek: Πτολεμαίος Β’ της Τελμησσού, flourished second half of 3rd century BC & first half of 2nd century BC) who is also known as Ptolemy II. He is identified as Ptolemy of Telmessos and Ptolemy son of Lysimachus. Ptolemy II was a Greek Prince from Asia Minor who served as a Ptolemaic Client King under the Ptolemaic dynasty of Ancient Egypt.

Stratonicea (Lydia)

Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.

Telmessos (Caria)

Telmessos or Telmessus, also Telmissos (Ancient Greek: Τελμησσός or Τελμισσός), was a town in ancient Caria. It was called Telebehi in the Lycian language.

Its site is tentatively located at the remains near Görece in Asiatic Turkey. There was a shrine dedicated to Daphne in Telmessos.

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