Television station

A television station is a set of equipment managed by a business, organisation or other entity, such as an amateur television (ATV) operator, that transmits video content via radio waves directly from a transmitter on the earth's surface to a receiver on earth. Most often the term refers to a station which broadcasts structured content to an audience or it refers to the organization that operates the station. A terrestrial television transmission can occur via analog television signals or, more recently, via digital television signals. Television stations are differentiated from cable television or other video providers in that their content is broadcast via terrestrial radio waves. A group of television stations with common ownership or affiliation are known as a TV network and an individual station within the network is referred to as O&O or affiliate, respectively.

Because television station signals use the electromagnetic spectrum, which in the past has been a common, scarce resource, governments often claim authority to regulate them. Broadcast television systems standards vary around the world. Television stations broadcasting over an analog system were typically limited to one television channel, but digital television enables broadcasting via subchannels as well. Television stations usually require a broadcast license from a government agency which sets the requirements and limitations on the station. In the United States, for example, a television license defines the broadcast range, or geographic area, that the station is limited to, allocates the broadcast frequency of the radio spectrum for that station's transmissions, sets limits on what types of television programs can be programmed for broadcast and requires a station to broadcast a minimum amount of certain programs types, such as public affairs messages.

Another form a television station may take is non-commercial educational (NCE) and considered public broadcasting. To avoid concentration of media ownership of television stations, government regulations in most countries generally limit the ownership of television stations by television networks or other media operators, but these regulations vary considerably. Some countries have set up nationwide television networks, in which individual television stations act as mere repeaters of nationwide programs. In those countries, the local television station has no station identification and, from a consumer's point of view, there is no practical distinction between a network and a station, with only small regional changes in programming, such as local television news.

Transmission

Cerro de Punta as seen from Museo de Arte de Ponce, Ponce, Puerto Rico (DSC03460)
Cerro de Punta, Puerto Rico's highest peak, and its TV transmission towers

To broadcast its programs, a television station requires operators to operate equipment, a transmitter or radio antenna, which is often located at the highest point available in the transmission area, such as on a summit, the top of a high skyscraper, or on a tall radio tower. To get a signal from the master control room to the transmitter, a studio/transmitter link (STL) is used. The link can be either by radio or T1/E1. A transmitter/studio link (TSL) may also send telemetry back to the station, but this may be embedded in subcarriers of the main broadcast. Stations which retransmit or simulcast another may simply pick-up that station over-the-air, or via STL or satellite. The license usually specifies which other station it is allowed to carry.

VHF stations often have very tall antennas due to their long wavelength, but require much less effective radiated power (ERP), and therefore use much less transmitter power output, also saving on the electricity bill and emergency backup generators. In North America, full-power stations on band I (channels 2 to 6) are generally limited to 100 kW analog video (VSB) and 10 kW analog audio (FM), or 45 kW digital (8VSB) ERP. Stations on band III (channels 7 to 13) can go up by 5dB to 316 kW video, 31.6 kW audio, or 160 kW digital. Low-VHF stations are often subject to long-distance reception just as with FM. There are no stations on Channel 1.

UHF, by comparison, has a much shorter wavelength, and thus requires a shorter antenna, but also higher power. North American stations can go up to 5000 kW ERP for video and 500 kW audio, or 1000 kW digital. Low channels travel further than high ones at the same power, but UHF does not suffer from as much electromagnetic interference and background "noise" as VHF, making it much more desirable for TV. Despite this, in the U.S., the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is taking another large portion of this band (channels 52 to 69) away, in contrast to the rest of the world, which has been taking VHF instead. This means that some stations left on VHF are harder to receive after the analog shutdown. Since at least 1974, there are no stations on channel 37 in North America for radio astronomy purposes.

Program production

Most television stations are commercial broadcasting enterprises which are structured in a variety of ways to generate revenue from television commercials. They may be an independent station or part of a broadcasting network, or some other structure. They can produce some or all of their programs or buy some broadcast syndication programming for or all of it from other stations or independent production companies.

Many stations have some sort of television studio, which on major-network stations is often used for newscasts or other local programming. There is usually a news department, where journalists gather information. There is also a section where electronic news-gathering (ENG) operations are based, receiving remote broadcasts via remote pickup unit or satellite TV. Outside broadcasting vans, production trucks, or SUVs with electronic field production (EFP) equipment are sent out with reporters, who may also bring back news stories on video tape rather than sending them back live.

To keep pace with technology United States television stations have been replacing operators with broadcast automation systems to increase profits in recent years.

Some stations (known as repeaters or translators) only simulcast another, usually the programmes seen on its owner's flagship station, and have no television studio or production facilities of their own. This is common in developing countries. Low-power stations typically also fall into this category worldwide.

Most stations which are not simulcast produce their own station identifications. TV stations may also advertise on or provide weather (or news) services to local radio stations, particularly co-owned sister stations. This may be a barter in some cases.

See also

References

  1. ^ "22.3.1935: Erstes Fernsehprogramm der Welt". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
Aaj Tak

Aaj Tak is an Indian Hindi language news channel owned by Living Media Group. It is one of the oldest Hindi news channels in India.

Channel (broadcasting)

In broadcasting, a channel or frequency channel is a designated radio frequency (or, equivalently, wavelength), assigned by a competent frequency assignment authority for the operation of a particular radio station, television station or television channel.

Class A television service

The class A television service is a system for regulating some low-power television (LPTV) stations in the United States. Class A stations are denoted by the broadcast callsign suffix "-CA" (analog) or "-CD" (digital), although very many analog -CA stations have a digital companion channel that was assigned the -LD suffix used by regular (non-class-A) digital LPTV stations.

The FCC created this category of service as a result of the Community Broadcasters Protection Act of 1999. Support for this ruling came largely from the Community Broadcasters Association, an industry group representing low-power TV station operators.Unlike traditional LPTV stations, class-A stations were given primary status during the transition to digital television (DTV), meaning that a full-service television station could not displace a class A LPTV station from its broadcast frequency (TV channel), except in rare cases. In contrast, traditional LPTV stations often found their frequencies assigned to full-service DTV operations, forcing them to relocate to another frequency. This was especially true in large cities, where available broadcast spectrum was scarce, and LPTV stations found themselves forced to cease operations due to no suitable spectrum. This was especially so with the taking of the 700 MHz band (channels 52 to 69) from the upper UHF TV band.

Cubavision International

Cubavision International (Spanish: Cubavisión Internacional) is an internationally broadcast Spanish-language channel run by Cuba's national broadcaster, Cuban Institute of Radio and Television. There is also a national channel called Cubavisión with different contents and an own logo.

ESPN PPV

ESPN PPV is the banner for pay-per-view events that ESPN broadcasts, including the out-of-market sports packages ESPN GamePlan (College Football, 150 extra games per year) and ESPN Full Court (College Basketball, 30 extra games per week), which merged in to ESPN College Extra in 2015. The network was originally launched in 1999 as ESPN Extra [1] and was renamed ESPN PPV in 2001 [2].

Most ESPN PPV games are also available on select regional sports networks and local broadcast stations as part of the ESPN Plus package and ESPN3.

Fox (Turkey)

Fox TV is one of the leading free to air TV networks broadcasting in Turkey, and was associated with Fox Broadcasting Company.

Since July 2012, Fox TV broadcasts in 16:9.

HBO Family (Asia)

HBO Family is a Southeast Asian pay television channel owned HBO Asia featuring Hollywood blockbuster movies.

Independent station

Independent station is an independent radio or terrestrial television station which is independent in some way from broadcast networks. The definition of "independence" varies from country to country, reflecting governmental regulations, market environment and the broadcasting medium's development history.

In the United States and Canada, an independent station is a broadcast station which is not directly affiliated with any large network.

In Japan, an independent station is a terrestrial station which is not a member of any networks whose dominant stations are located in Tokyo; see Japanese Association of Independent Television Stations (JAITS) for more details. In addition, although The Open University of Japan is not a member of JAITS, it can also be classified as independent.

Nick Jr. (Italy)

Nick Jr. is an Italian television channel, aimed at a pre-school children audience. It launched on 31 July 2009 on Sky Italia on channel 602 to replace Rai YoYo, although it is still airing on selected cable providers.

From November 10, 2008, Nick Jr. switches to Channel 603. Since July 4, 2011 of the timeshift service called Nick Jr. +1, which offers the same Nick Jr. programming one hour after the numbering 604. Since 10 June 2013, together with the timeshift Nick Jr. +1 the channel broadcasts in wide-screen 16:9 and were renewed bumper, graphics and promos.

Nick Jr. (Turkey)

Nick Jr. Turkey is a kid's cable/satellite television channel which launched on 1 May 2012.

OnTV4U

OnTV4U (often capitalized as ONTV4U) is an American television network that airs a 24/7 infomercial format. It can be seen through various cable providers and on terrestrial affiliates (listed).

Program and System Information Protocol

The Program and System Information Protocol (PSIP) is the MPEG (a video and audio industry group) and privately defined program-specific information originally defined by General Instrument for the DigiCipher 2 system and later extended for the ATSC digital television system for carrying metadata about each channel in the broadcast MPEG transport stream of a television station and for publishing information about television programs so that viewers can select what to watch by title and description.

Shanghai Media Group

Radio and Television Station of Shanghai (RTS), a Shanghai-based government institutions, and its wholly owned subsidiary, Shanghai Media Group (SMG) is one of China’s largest media and cultural conglomerates, with the most complete portfolio of media and related businesses. The Oriental Pearl Media Company under SMG was the first cultural and media company in China to realize a market capitalization totaling more than 100 Bln RMB ($15 Bln) on the Shanghai Stock Exchange in 2015. By June 2015, SMG has more than RMB 61 Bln ($10 Bln) in assets and about 17,200 employees.

SMG’s businesses span operations of radio and TV networks, signal transmission, newspapers and magazines, drama and film production and distribution, OTT and streaming, IPTV, online and console gaming, digital advertising, home shopping and e-commerce, financial data and information services, children’s arts training, TV post-production services, live entertainment, tourism and cultural investments, etc.

Viasat 3

Viasat 3 is a Hungarian TV channel. It began broadcasting on October 23, 2000.

Viasat 3 aired Hungary's first reality Show in 2001 called A Bár (The Bar).

In 2015, the Sony Pictures Television acquired the Hungarian Viasat channels from Modern Times Group (MTG).

WRIW-CD

WRIW-CD, virtual channel 51 (UHF digital channel 17), is a Class A Telemundo owned-and-operated television station licensed to Providence, Rhode Island, United States. Owned by the NBC Owned Television Stations subsidiary of NBCUniversal (itself a subsidiary of Comcast), the station shares studios with NBC affiliate WJAR (channel 10, owned by the Sinclair Broadcast Group) on Kenney Drive in Cranston, Rhode Island. WRIW's transmitter is located on Champlin Hill in Hopkinton, Rhode Island.

WRTD-CD

WRTD-CD, virtual channel 54 (UHF digital channel 49), is a Class A Telemundo owned-and-operated television station licensed to Raleigh, North Carolina, United States. The station is owned by the NBC Owned Television Stations subsidiary of NBCUniversal (itself a subsidiary of Comcast). WRTD-CD's transmitter is located near Auburn, North Carolina.

WTMO-CD

WTMO-CD, virtual and UHF digital channel 31, is a low-powered, Class A Telemundo owned-and-operated television station licensed to Orlando, Florida, United States. The station is owned by the NBC Owned Television Stations subsidiary of NBCUniversal (itself a subsidiary of Comcast). WTMO-CD's transmitter is located on Lake Sparling Road in Pine Hills. The station is simulcast on the third digital subchannel of independent station WRDQ (channel 27, owned by the Cox Media Group subsidiary of Cox Enterprises), as well as on translators WKME-CD (channel 15) in Kissimmee, WDYB-CD (channel 14) in Daytona Beach, and WMVJ-CD (channel 29) in Melbourne.

WWDT-CD

WWDT-CD is the Telemundo owned-and-operated television station for the Fort Myers/Naples, Florida television market, licensed in Naples. It is owned by NBCUniversal and broadcasts on UHF channel 43. As a class A television station, it broadcasts at a lower power than most other stations in the market.

On December 4, 2017, NBCUniversal's Telemundo Station Group announced its purchase of ZGS' 13 television stations, including WWDT-CD. The sale was completed on February 1, 2018.

History
Pioneers
Transmission
media
Network topology
and switching
Multiplexing
Networks

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