Television channel

A television channel is a terrestrial frequency or virtual number over which a television station or television network is distributed. For example, in North America, "channel 2" refers to the terrestrial or cable band of 54 to 60 MHz, with carrier frequencies of 55.25 MHz for NTSC analog video (VSB) and 59.75 MHz for analog audio (FM), or 55.31 MHz for digital ATSC (8VSB). Channels may be shared by many different television stations or cable-distributed channels depending on the location and service provider

Depending on the multinational bandplan for a given regional n, analog television channels are typically 6, 7, or 8 MHz in bandwidth, and therefore television channel frequencies vary as well. Channel numbering is also different. Digital terrestrial television channels are the same as their analog predecessors for legacy reasons, however through multiplexing, each physical radio frequency (RF) channel can carry several digital subchannels. On satellites, each transponder normally carries one channel, however multiple small, independent channels can be on one transponder, with some loss of bandwidth due to the need for guard bands between unrelated transmissions. ISDB, used in Japan and Brazil, has a similar segmented mode.

Preventing interference between terrestrial channels in the same area is accomplished by skipping at least one channel between two analog stations' frequency allocations. Where channel numbers are sequential, frequencies are not contiguous, such as channel 6 to 7 skip from VHF low to high band, and channel 13 to 14 jump to UHF. On cable TV, it is possible to use adjacent channels only because they are all at the same power, something which could only be done terrestrially if the two stations were transmitted at the same power and height from the same location. For DTT, selectivity is inherently better, therefore channels adjacent (either to analog or digital stations) can be used even in the same area.

Other meanings

Commonly, the term "television channel" [[metation or its pay television counterpart (both outlined below). Sometimes, especially outside the U.S. and in the context of pay television, it is used instead of the term television network, which otherwise (in its technical use above) describes a group of geographically-distributed television stations that share affiliation/ownership and some or all of their programming with one another. This terminology may be muddled somewhat in other jurisdictions, for instance Europe, where terrestrial channels are commonly mapped from physical channels to common numerical positions (i.e. BBC One does not broadcast on any particular "channel 1" but is nonetheless mapped to the "1" input on most British television sets). On digital platforms, such (location) channels are usually arbitrary and changeable, due to virtual channels.

Television station

A television station is a type of terrestrial station that broadcasts both audio and video to television receivers in a particular area. Traditionally, TV stations made their broadcasts by sending specially-encoded radio signals over the air, called terrestrial television. Individual television stations are usually granted licenses by a government agency to use a particular section of the radio spectrum (a channel) through which they send their signals. Some stations use LPTV broadcast translators to retransmit to further areas.

Many television stations are now in the process of converting from analogue terrestrial (NTSC, PAL or SECAM) broadcast, to digital terrestrial (ATSC broadcast, DVB or ISDB).

Non-terrestrial television channels

Because some regions have had difficulty picking up terrestrial television signals (particularly in mountainous areas), alternative means of distribution such as direct-to-home satellite and cable television have been introduced. Television channels specifically built to run on cable or satellite blur the line between TV station and TV network. That fact led some early cable channels to call themselves superstations.

Satellite and cable have created changes. Local programming TV stations in an area can sign-up or even be required to be carried on cable, but content providers like TLC cannot. They are not licensed to run broadcast equipment like a station, and they do not regularly provide content to licensed broadcasters either. Furthermore, a distributor like TNT may start producing its own programming, and shows presented exclusively on pay-TV by one distributor may be syndicated to terrestrial stations. The cost of creating a nationwide channel has been reduced and there has been a huge increase in the number of such channels, with most catering to a small group. See also: significantly viewed.

From the definitions above, use of the terms "network" or "station" in reference to nationwide cable or satellite channels is technically inaccurate. However, this is an arbitrary, inconsequential distinction, and varies from company to company. Indeed, the term "cable network" has entered into common usage in the United States in reference to such channels. There is even some geographical separation among "national" pay television channels in the U.S., be it programming (e.g., the Fox Sports group of regional sports channels, which share several programs), or simply regionalized advertising inserted by the local cable company.

Should a legal distinction be necessary between a (location) channel as defined above and a television channel in this sense, the terms "programming service" (e.g.[1]) or "programming undertaking" (for instance,[2]) may be used instead of the latter definition.

A person viewing by subscription providers might not know what kind of organization is responsible for a given program, especially if it is syndicated, so what seems to be a station or a network may be neither.

See also

References

  1. ^ Center, Arbitration and Mediation. "WIPO Domain Name Decision: D2001-1440". arbiter.wipo.int. Archived from the original on 2006-04-16.
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-06-14. Retrieved 2006-03-31.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)

External links

5Select

5Select is a British free-to-air television channel which features documentaries and dramas and Channel 5 original content. It is owned by Channel 5 Broadcasting Ltd.

AMC (TV channel)

AMC is an American pay television channel that is an owned flagship property of AMC Networks. The channel's programming primarily consists of theatrically released films, along with a limited amount of original programming. The channel's name originally stood for "American Movie Classics", but since 2002 the full name has been de-emphasized as a result of a major shift in its programming.As of July 2015, AMC was received by approximately 94,832,000 households in the United States that subscribe to a pay television service (81.5% of U.S. households with at least one television set). In March 2015, Dish Network's Sling TV announced it would soon begin making AMC channels available to cord cutters, including AMC, BBC America, IFC, Sundance TV, and We TV.

BBC Japan

BBC Japan was a television channel from the BBC available via satellite in Japan. Similar in format to BBC Prime (now BBC Entertainment), BBC Japan showed such BBC programmes as Blackadder and Fawlty Towers, with many of them subtitled in Japanese.The channel launched on December 1, 2004 and was available on Sky PerfecTV! satellite channel 110 and Online TV Company's IPTV service, but ceased broadcasting less than two years later.

Bravo (New Zealand)

Bravo is the second New Zealand television channel owned and operated by MediaWorks New Zealand and NBCUniversal International Networks, broadcast via the state-owned Kordia transmission network and on MediaWorks' website ThreeNow. The channel launched on 3 July 2016. Bravo focuses on design, food, glamour and pop culture.

CBS Reality

CBS Reality is a reality television channel which broadcasts across Europe, the Middle East and Africa.

Canal (TV provider)

Canal is a French subscription provider. It is owned by Vivendi (owner of Canal) with a hundred percent share.

Channel (broadcasting)

In broadcasting, a channel or frequency channel is a designated radio frequency (or, equivalently, wavelength), assigned by a competent frequency assignment authority for the operation of a particular radio station, television station or television channel.

Discovery Kids (India)

Discovery Kids is a television channel for kids in India launched 7 August 2012 by Discovery India, a division of Discovery Networks Asia Pacific.

Doctor Television Channel

The Doctor Television Channel, known as Doctor TV (stylized as DrTV), is a healthy lifestyle digital television network in the United States. Doctor TV is primarily affiliated with the digital sub-channels (main channel or second) of television stations owned and/or operated by Edge Spectrum Inc, as well as a handful of other station groups, with additional stations adding the channel in the near future. The network’s programming format is somewhat similar to those of ION Life and the Live Well Network.

A sister channel to IBN Television, the DrTV headquarters are located at 1511 S Chestnut St in Lufkin, Texas.

E!

E! (originally an initialism of Entertainment Television) is an American pay television channel that is owned by the NBCUniversal Cable Entertainment Group division of NBCUniversal, all owned by Comcast.

As of January 2016, E! is available to 92.4 million households in America.

History (Canadian TV network)

History is a Canadian English language Category A specialty channel that presents programming related to history and historical fiction. It is owned by Corus Entertainment, with the History branding used under a licensing agreement with A+E Networks. The channel operates two time-shifted feeds: East (Eastern Time) and West (Pacific Time). The West Coast feed was launched on September 1, 2006.

The channel has a French language equivalent, Historia, which is also owned by Corus Entertainment.

Music television

Music television is a type of television programming which focuses predominantly on playing music videos from recording artists, usually on dedicated television channels broadcasting on satellite or cable.

Music television channels may host their own shows charts, award prizes. Examples are MTV, Channel UFX, 4Music, 40 TV, Channel V, VIVA, Scuzz, MuchMusic, Kerrang! TV, RAC 105 TV, VH1, Fuse TV and Palladia.

Nick Jr. (Italy)

Nick Jr. is an Italian television channel, aimed at a pre-school children audience. It launched on 31 July 2009 on Sky Italia on channel 602 to replace Rai YoYo, although it is still airing on selected cable providers.

From November 10, 2008, Nick Jr. switches to Channel 603. Since July 4, 2011 of the timeshift service called Nick Jr. +1, which offers the same Nick Jr. programming one hour after the numbering 604. Since 10 June 2013, together with the timeshift Nick Jr. +1 the channel broadcasts in wide-screen 16:9 and were renewed bumper, graphics and promos.

Nick Jr. (Scandinavia)

Nick Jr. is a Scandinavian television channel targeting pre-schoolers.

Viasat announced the launch of Nick Jr. on May 25, 2010. It is scheduled to launch on September 1, 2010. Viasat and Tele2 TV were broadcasting the channel from the start. Canal Digital added the channel on January 7, 2013.Nick Jr. became MTV Networks' fourth dedicated Swedish channel, after MTV, Nickelodeon and Comedy Central.

Nicktoons (Scandinavia)

Nicktoons is a Scandinavian television channel based on the American channel of the same name. It was launched to Scandinavian audiences on 1 February 2017 and showcases programming from Nickelodeon's vast library of animation.

PBJ (TV network)

PBJ was an American digital broadcast children's television network that was a joint venture between Luken Communications and DreamWorks Classics. PBJ began programming in late summer 2011, and had 19 broadcast affiliates before they ceased operations in March 2016.

Toonami (France)

Toonami is a television channel that launched in France on 11 February 2016. It is operated and distributed in France by Turner Broadcasting System Europe. It is named after the late Saturday night programming block seen in the United States, using the logo introduced in 2004 but with different branded promos, also using in Asia.

On 3 February, it was confirmed by Toonami Squad in an Email with Turner that Toonami would be launching in France on 11 February 2016.

Zee Bangla

Zee Bangla (জি বাংলা) is a Bengali language Cable television channel in India and Bangladesh. It is offered by Zee Network, part of the Essel Group. The first Bengali-language television channel in India, Zee Bangla was launched in 1996 by Zee's TV chairman.It was one of three stations named in a 2014 court case that sought to ban Indian television stations from broadcasting in Bangladesh.It aired the comedy show "Raja and Gaja" before the show switched stations.It has its own YouTube Channel and has over 4 million subscribers.

History
Pioneers
Transmission
media
Network topology
and switching
Multiplexing
Networks

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