A television advertisement (also called a television commercial, commercial, ad, TV advert or simply an advert) is a span of television programming produced and paid for by an organization. It conveys a message, aimed to market a product or service. Advertisers and marketeers may refer to television commercials as TVCs.
Advertising revenue provides a significant portion of the funding for most privately owned television networks. During the 2010s, the number of commercials has grown steadily, while at the same time, the length of each commercial has diminished. Advertisements of this type have promoted a wide variety of goods, services and ideas from early times in the history of television. The viewership of television programming, as measured by companies such as Nielsen Media Research in the United States, or BARB in the UK, is often used as a metric for television advertisement placement, and consequently, for the rates which broadcasters charge to advertisers to air within a given network, television program, or time of day (called a "daypart").
In many countries, including the United States, television campaign advertisements are considered indispensable for a political campaign. In other countries, such as France, political advertising on television is heavily restricted, while some countries, such as Norway, completely ban political advertisements.
The first official, paid television advertisement came out in the United States on July 1, 1941, over New York station WNBT (subsequently WNBC) before a baseball game between the Brooklyn Dodgers and Philadelphia Phillies. The announcement for Bulova watches, for which the company paid anywhere from $4.00 to $9.00 (reports vary), displayed a WNBT test pattern modified to look like a clock with the hands showing the time. The Bulova logo, with the phrase "Bulova Watch Time", appeared in the lower right-hand quadrant of the test pattern while the second hand swept around the dial for one minute. The first TV ad broadcast in the UK went on air on ITV on September 22, 1955, advertising Gibbs SR toothpaste. In Asia, the first TV ad broadcast appeared on Nippon Television in Tokyo on August 28, 1953, advertising Seikosha (subsequently Seiko); it also displayed a clock with the current time.
The television market has grown to such an extent that it is estimated to reach $69.87 billion for TV ad spending in the United States for 2018. 
Television advertising involves three main tasks: creating a television advertisement that meets broadcast standards, placing the advertisement on television to reaches the desired customer and then measuring the outcomes of these ads, including the return on investment.
To accomplish the first step means different things to different parts of the world depending on the regulations in place. In the UK for example, clearance must be given by the body Clearcast. Another example is Venezuela where clearance is governed by a body called CNAC. The clearance provides guarantee to the broadcasters that the content of the advertisement meets legal guidelines. Because of this, special extended clearance sometimes applies to food and medical products as well as gambling advertisements.
The second is the process of TV advertising delivery and usually incorporates the involvement of a post-production house, a media agency, advertising distribution specialists and the end-goal, the broadcasters.
However, with the emergence of over-the-top media services the Internet itself has become a platform for television,and hence TV advertising. TV attribution is a marketing concept whereby the impact television ads have on consumers is measured.
After the video cassette recorder (VCR) became popular in the 1980s, the television industry began studying the impact of users fast forwarding through commercials. Advertising agencies fought the trend by making them more entertaining. The introduction of digital video recorders (also known as digital television recorders or DTRs), such as TiVo, and services like Sky+, Dish Network and Astro MAX, which allow the recording of television programs into a hard drive, also enabled viewers to fast-forward or automatically skip through advertisements of recorded programs.
At the end of 2008 22 percent of UK households had a DTR. The majority of these households had Sky+ and data from these homes (collected via the SkyView panel of more than 33,000) shows that, once a household gets a DTR, they watch 17 percent more television. 82 percent of their viewing is to normal, linear, broadcast TV without fast-forwarding the ads. In the 18 percent of TV viewing that is time-shifted (i.e. not watched as live broadcast), viewers still watch 30 percent of the ads at normal speed. Overall, the extra viewing encouraged by owning a DTR results in viewers watching 2 percent more ads at normal speed than they did before the DTR was installed.
Other forms of TV advertising include product placement advertising in the TV shows themselves. For example, Extreme Makeover: Home Edition advertises Sears, Kenmore, and the Home Depot by specifically using products from these companies, and some sports events like the Monster Energy Cup of NASCAR are named after sponsors, and race cars are frequently covered in advertisements. Many major sporting venues in North America are named for commercial companies, dating back as far as Wrigley Field. Television programs delivered through new mediums such as streaming online video also bring different opportunities to the traditional methods of generating revenue from television advertising.
Another type of advertisement shown increasingly, mostly for advertising TV shows on the same channel, is an ad overlay at the bottom of the TV screen, which blocks out some of the picture. "Banners", or "Logo Bugs", as they are called, are referred to by media companies as Secondary Events (2E). This is done in much the same way as a severe weather warning is done, only these happen more frequently. They may sometimes take up only 5 to 10 percent of the screen, but in the extreme, they can take up as much as 25 percent of the viewing area. Subtitles that are part of the programme content can be completely obscured by banners. Some even make noise or move across the screen. One example is the 2E ads for Three Moons Over Milford, which was broadcast in the months before the TV show's première. A video taking up approximately 25 percent of the bottom-left portion of the screen would show a comet impacting into the moon with an accompanying explosion, during another television programme.
Online video directories are an emerging form of interactive advertising, which help in recalling and responding to advertising produced primarily for television. These directories also have the potential to offer other value-added services, such as response sheets and click-to-call, which enhance the scope of the interaction with the brand.
During the 2008–09 TV season, Fox experimented with a new strategy, which the network dubbed "Remote-Free TV". Episodes of Fringe and Dollhouse contained approximately ten minutes of advertisements, four to six minutes fewer than other hour-long programs. Fox stated that shorter commercial breaks keep viewers more engaged and improve brand recall for advertisers, as well as reducing channel surfing and fast-forwarding past the advertisements. However, the strategy was not as successful as the network had hoped and it is unclear whether it will be continued in the future.
In May 2018, Fox Networks Group said its channels would try one-minute commercial breaks, mainly during sports events, but also on some shows on Fox Broadcasting Company. Ads during these breaks would cost more and fewer advertisers would be willing to pay that much. Also in 2018, NBC used one-minute commercial breaks after the first block in many shows.
Advertising agencies often use humor as a tool in their creative marketing campaigns. Many psychological studies have attempted to demonstrate the effects of humor and their relationship to empowering advertising persuasion.
Animation is often used in advertisements. The pictures can vary from hand-drawn traditional animation to computer animation. By using animated characters, an advertisement may have a certain appeal that is difficult to achieve with actors or mere product displays. Animation also protects the advertisement from changes in fashion that would date it. For this reason, an animated advertisement (or a series of such advertisements) can be very long-running, several decades in many instances. Notable examples are the series of advertisements for Kellogg's cereals, starring Snap, Crackle and Pop and also Tony the Tiger. The animation is often combined with real actors. Animated advertisements can achieve lasting popularity. In any popular vote for the most memorable television advertisements in the UK, such as on ITV or Channel 4, the top positions in the list invariably include animations, such as the classic Smash and Creature Comforts advertisements.
Other long-running advertising campaigns catch people by surprise, even tricking the viewer, such as the Energizer Bunny advertisement series. It started in the late 1980s as a simple comparison advertisement, where a room full of battery-operated bunnies was seen pounding their drums, all slowing down except one, with the Energizer battery. Years later, a revised version of this seminal advertisement had the Energizer bunny escaping the stage and moving on (according to the announcer, he "keeps going and going and going..."). This was followed by what appeared to be another advertisement: viewers were oblivious to the fact that the following "advertisement" was actually a parody of other well-known advertisements until the Energizer bunny suddenly intrudes on the situation, with the announcer saying "Still going..." (the Energizer Battery Company's way of emphasizing that their battery lasts longer than other leading batteries). This ad campaign lasted for nearly fifteen years. The Energizer Bunny series has itself been imitated by others, via a Coors Light Beer advertisement, in motion pictures, and by current advertisements by GEICO Insurance.
Many television advertisements feature songs or melodies ("jingles") or slogans designed to be striking and memorable, which may remain in the minds of television viewers long after the span of the advertising campaign. Some of these ad jingles or catch-phrases may take on lives of their own, spawning gags that appear in films, television shows, magazines, comics, or literature. These long-lasting advertising elements may be said to have taken a place in the pop culture history of the demographic to whom they appeared. An example is the enduring phrase, "Winston tastes good like a cigarette should", from the eighteen-year advertising campaign for Winston cigarettes from the 1950s to the 1970s. Variations of this dialogue and direct references to it appeared as long as two decades after the advertising campaign expired. Another example is "Where's the Beef?", which grew so popular it was used in the 1984 presidential election by Walter Mondale. Another popular catch-phrase is "I've fallen and I can't get up", which still appears occasionally, over two decades after its first use. Some advertising agency executives have originated more than one enduring slogan, such as Mary Wells Lawrence, who is responsible for such famous slogans as "Raise your hand if you're Sure", "I♥New York" and "Trust the Midas touch."
Prior to the 1970s, music in television advertisements was generally limited to jingles and incidental music; on some occasions lyrics to a popular song would be changed to create a theme song or a jingle for a particular product. An example of this is found on the recent popular Gocompare.com advert that utilises "Over There", the 1917 song popular with United States soldiers in both World Wars and written by George M. Cohan during World War I. In 1971 the converse occurred when a song written for a Coca-Cola advertisement was re-recorded as the pop single "I'd Like to Teach the World to Sing (In Perfect Harmony)" by the New Seekers, and became a hit. Additionally songwriter Paul Williams composed a piece for a Crocker Bank commercial which he lengthened and The Carpenters recorded as "We've Only Just Begun". Some pop and rock songs were re-recorded by cover bands for use in advertisements, but the cost of licensing original recordings for this purpose remained prohibitive in certain countries (including the U.S.) until the late 1980s.
The use of previously recorded popular songs in American television advertisements began in earnest in 1985 when Burger King used the original recording of Aretha Franklin's song "Freeway of Love" in a television advertisement for the restaurant. This also occurred in 1987 when Nike used the original recording of The Beatles' song "Revolution" in an advertisement for athletic shoes. Since then, many classic popular songs have been used in similar fashion. Songs can be used to concretely illustrate a point about the product being sold (such as Bob Seger's "Like a Rock" used for Chevy trucks), but more often are simply used to associate the good feelings listeners had for the song to the product on display. In some cases the original meaning of the song can be totally irrelevant or even completely opposite to the implication of the use in advertising; for example Iggy Pop's "Lust for Life", a song about heroin addiction, has been used to advertise Royal Caribbean International, a cruise ship line. Music-licensing agreements with major artists, especially those that had not previously allowed their recordings to be used for this purpose, such as Microsoft's use of "Start Me Up" by the Rolling Stones and Apple Inc.'s use of U2's "Vertigo" became a source of publicity in themselves.
In early instances, songs were often used over the objections of the original artists, who had lost control of their music publishing, the music of the Beatles being perhaps the most well-known case; more recently artists have actively solicited use of their music in advertisements and songs have gained popularity and sales after being used in advertisements. A famous case is Levi's company, which has used several one hit wonders in their advertisements (songs such as "Inside", "Spaceman", and "Flat Beat"). In 2010, research conducted by PRS for Music revealed that "Light & Day" by The Polyphonic Spree is the most performed song in UK TV advertising.
Sometimes a controversial reaction has followed the use of some particular song on an advertisement. Often the trouble has been that people do not like the idea of using songs that promote values important for them in advertisements. For example, Sly and the Family Stone's anti-racism song, "Everyday People", was used in a car advertisement, which angered some people.
In the late 1990s and early 2000s, electronica music was increasingly used as background scores for television advertisements, initially for automobiles, and later for other technological and business products such as computers and financial services. Television advertising has become a popular outlet for new artists to gain an audience for their work, with some advertisements displaying artist and song information onscreen at the beginning or end.
The association of achievement by lightening one's skin is a message conveyed in the TeleVision Commercial (TVC).
Advertising Content and Television Advertising Avoidance
The 1978 United States Senate election in Illinois took place on November 7, 1978. Incumbent Republican United States Senator Charles H. Percy ran for re-election to a third term in the United States Senate. Percy was opposed by Democratic nominee Alex Seith, an attorney who had been appointed to several local government positions. Though Percy had been expected to coast to re-election over Seith, a first-time candidate, the election quickly became competitive. In the last few days of the campaign, a desperate Percy ran a television advertisement that featured him apologizing and acknowledging that, "I got your message and you're right." Percy's last-ditch effort appeared to have paid off, as he was able to edge out Seith to win what would end up being his third and final term in the Senate.
According to an NBC News exit poll, Percy won 50% of black voters, 54% of voters 35 years old or young, and 58% of Jewish voters.Accrington Stanley F.C.
Accrington Stanley Football Club is a professional association football club based in Accrington, Lancashire, England. The club competes in League One, the third tier of the English football league system.
The current club was formed in 1968, two years after the collapse of the original Accrington Stanley founded in 1891. They were promoted to the Football League in 2006, after winning the 2005–06 Football Conference.Chimes (song)
"Chimes" is a song by Scottish artist and producer Hudson Mohawke. The song gained attention after its appearance on the MacBook Air TV ad, as well as after Mohawke's success through the likes of Kanye West and with the TNGHT project.
On November 21, an official remix of the song, featuring rappers Pusha T, Future, Travi$ Scott and French Montana, was released as a single. The track was featured on a television advertisement called "Stickers" for the Apple MacBook Air.Commercial
Commercial may refer to:
Advertising, paid messages in newspapers, magazines, flyers, billboards, and paid announcements over radio and television
Commerce, a system of voluntary exchange of products and services
Trade, the trading of something of economic value such as goods, services, information or money
Two functional constituencies in the elections for the Legislative Council of Hong Kong:
Commercial (album), a 2009 album by Los Amigos Invisibles
Commercial style or early Chicago school, an American archtectural style
Commercial Drive, Vancouver, a road in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Commercial Township, New Jersey, in Cumberland County, New JerseyDaisy (advertisement)
"Daisy", sometimes known as "Daisy Girl" or "Peace, Little Girl", was a controversial political advertisement aired on television during the 1964 United States presidential election by incumbent president Lyndon B. Johnson's campaign. Though only aired once (by the campaign), it is considered to be an important factor in Johnson's landslide victory over Barry Goldwater and an important turning point in political and advertising history. It remains one of the most controversial political advertisements ever made.Double Life (PlayStation ad)
Double Life is a television advertisement released in 1999 by SCE Europe. The 60-second long ad – conceived and written by copywriter James Sinclair, art director, Ed Morris and Trevor Beattie (creative director) – shows 19 PlayStation players discussing their gaming experience with the console. The ad was the most highly awarded in the world in 1999/2000 and has gone on to gain cult status.Flower (Koda Kumi song)
"Flower," (stylized as flower) is Kumi Koda's 17th domestic single. Flower was written as the theme song for the novel Koibana (恋バナ / Love Story) and also used in the television advertisement for the novel. The lyrics were written by the author of Koibana, Yoshi. This was also the first domestic single released by Kumi Koda that was not accompanied by a promotional music video. It reached #4 on the weekly Oricon Chart.Galaxy (chocolate)
Galaxy is a brand of milk chocolate, made and marketed by Mars, Incorporated, and first manufactured in the United Kingdom in the 1960s. Galaxy is sold in the United Kingdom, Ireland, the Middle East, Morocco, India, Pakistan, Egypt, Malta, and is also sold in the United States, Canada, Mexico and various Continental European countries as Dove. In 2014, Galaxy was ranked the second-best-selling chocolate bar in the UK, after Cadbury Dairy Milk.The Galaxy and Dove brands cover a wide range of products including chocolate bars in milk chocolate, caramel, Cookie Crumble, and Fruit & Nut varieties, Minstrels, Ripple (milk chocolate with a folded or "rippled" milk chocolate centre), Amicelli, Duetto, Promises, Bubbles and Truffle. Related brands in other parts of the world include "Jewels", and "Senzi" in the Middle East. The Galaxy and Dove brands also market a wide range of products including ready-to-drink chocolate milk, hot chocolate powder, chocolate cakes, ice cream and more.
A 2013 British television advertisement for Galaxy featured a computer-generated image of Audrey Hepburn, which was created by CGI firm Framestore in London. The commercial, set to Hepburn singing “Moon River”, debuted in the UK in February 2013.Goodbye Girl (Squeeze song)
"Goodbye Girl" is the first single released from Squeeze's second album Cool for Cats. Three different versions were recorded: one for the UK single, one for the American single, and one for the album. In the UK, the single reached number 63 on the UK Singles Chart.In 2007, the reunited Squeeze recorded a new, guitar-heavy version of "Goodbye Girl" for an Under Armour television advertisement. The Shins covered the song for Levi's Pioneer Sessions in 2010.Tarkio, featuring Colin Meloy of The Decemberists, recorded "Goodbye Girl" in 1998. It was released on the Kill Rock Stars record label in 2006.If It's Love (Squeeze song)
"If It's Love" is the first single released from Squeeze's eighth album, Frank. It reached number seven on the U.S. Modern Rock Tracks chart in 1989.
In 2010 the song was featured in a television advertisement for eHarmony.Mike Walczewski
Michael T. Walczewski (born January 9, 1956) is an American public address announcer best known for his work for the New York Knicks of the National Basketball Association.
A native of Queens, Walczewski resides in Hastings-on-Hudson, New York.
He has served as the arena voice of the Knicks since 1989 and the New York Liberty of the WNBA since their inception in 1997 as well as many college basketball games at Madison Square Garden. In addition, his voice talents can be heard in a television advertisement for Dr Pepper, an episode of Sex and the City, and the 1995 Billy Crystal film Forget Paris. During the 1990s, Walczewski announced many Knicks playoff games at Madison Square Garden. He saw the Knicks, led by Patrick Ewing, reach the NBA Eastern Conference Finals 4 times from 1993-2000, and was also able to see them make 2 NBA Finals appearances (1994 & 1999). He is perhaps most well known for his in-arena calls of "PAT-RICK EWING!" (when Patrick Ewing scored a basket) and "Ooooooone shot..." (when a player is taking one free throw after a made field goal on which he or she was fouled.).
Before being the PA voice of the Knicks, Walczewski was the voice of the Fordham Rams men's basketball team—a position he took after his graduation from the university in 1979.Revolving Door (advertisement)
"Revolving Door" was a famous negative television commercial made for Republican nominee George H.W. Bush's campaign during the 1988 United States presidential election. Along with the racially-charged Willie Horton ("Weekend Passes") commercial, it is considered to have been a major factor in Bush's defeat of Democratic nominee Michael Dukakis. The ad was produced by political consultant Roger Ailes with help from Bush campaign manager Lee Atwater, and first aired on October 5, 1988. "Revolving door syndrome" is a term used in criminology to refer to recidivism; however, in the ad, the implication is that prison sentences were of an inconsequential length.Skryne
Skryne, officially Skreen (from Irish: Scrín Cholm Cille, meaning "Colm Cille's shrine, or originally called The Hill of Acaill"), is a village with a
population of 1403 (Census 2006), situated on and around a hill between the N2 and N3 national primary roads in County Meath, Ireland. It is situated on the far side of the Gabhra valley from the Hill of Tara. This valley is sometimes referred to as the Tara-Skryne Valley. The Hill of Skryne is higher than the neighbouring Hill of Tara. About 1170 Hugh de Lacy, Lord of Meath granted Skryne to Adam de Feypo, whose descendants used the customary title Baron Skryne. A 15th-century church, known locally as Skryne tower or The Steeple, remains in good condition at the top of the hill and is visible from a large area of Meath. At the foot of the tower is a pub and stables that feature in the Guinness "white Christmas" television advertisement.Soap Opera (1964 film)
Soap Opera, subtitled The Lester Persky Story, is a 1964 feature-length underground film directed by Andy Warhol, starring Baby Jane Holzer, and featuring Gerard Malanga, Sam Green, and Ivy Nicholson. The subtitle was used by Warhol since he used old television advertisement footage provided by Lester Persky.Soyuz TM-26
Soyuz TM-26 is a Russian spacecraft that ferried cosmonauts and supplies to the Mir, the Russian space station. It was the 32nd expedition to Mir. It was launched by a Soyuz-U rocket from Baikonur Cosmodrome on August 5, 1997. The main mission was to transport two specially-trained cosmonauts to repair or salvage the troubled space station.
TM-26 docked with Mir on August 7 by manual control. The crew repaired the power cable and harness/connectors in the severely damaged Spektr module and restored much of the lost power; they also repaired and replaced the oxygen generators in Mir. The hole(s) in that module that caused total depressurization of the module could not be located during their spacewalk inside that module.
During the flight a Television advertisement starring Vasily Tsibliyev was filmed on the station. The ad, for Tnuva's brand on UHT milk, was the first ad to be filmed in space.Swift Vets and POWs for Truth
Swift Vets and POWs for Truth, formerly known as the Swift Boat Veterans for Truth (SBVT), was a political group (527 group) of United States Swift boat veterans and former prisoners of war of the Vietnam War, formed during the 2004 presidential election campaign for the purpose of opposing John Kerry's candidacy for the presidency. The campaign inspired the widely used political pejorative "swiftboating", to describe an unfair or untrue political attack. The group disbanded and ceased operations on May 31, 2008.SBVT asserted that Kerry was "unfit to serve" as President based upon his alleged "willful distortion of the conduct" of American servicemen during that war, and his alleged "withholding and/or distortion of material facts" as to his own conduct during that war. SBVT stated that "Kerry's phony war crimes charges, his exaggerated claims about his own service in Vietnam, and his deliberate misrepresentation of the nature and effectiveness of Swift boat operations compel us to step forward." The group challenged the legitimacy of each of the combat medals awarded to Kerry by the U.S. Navy and the disposition of his discharge. (See John Kerry military service controversy.) Further, SBVT said that Kerry's later criticism of the war was a "betrayal of trust" with other soldiers, and that by his activism he had caused direct "harm" to soldiers still at war.
These claims caused tremendous controversy during the election, particularly because most of the organization's members had not been in a place to assess Kerry, while most of the Vietnam veterans who had served with him supported Kerry's version of events.Registered under Section 527 of the Internal Revenue Code, SBVT publicized its criticisms of Kerry during the election campaign in a book, in television advertisements that the group ran in swing states and in the media coverage some members received. The group was the subject of several complaints to the Federal Election Commission (FEC). After the election, the group was credited by media and praised by conservatives as contributing to Kerry's defeat. The group's tactics are considered an example of a successful political smear campaign for its widely publicized and later discredited claims.Texans for Truth
Texans for Truth (TfT) was a political advocacy organization, registered under Section 527 of the United States tax code, formed to oppose George W. Bush's re-election efforts in the 2004 presidential election. In September 2004, the group began airing advertisements in various swing states that questioned Bush's National Guard record, particularly as to whether or not he fulfilled his obligations to serve.The '80s Called
"The '80s Called" is a television advertisement produced by GSD&M for RadioShack, which debuted during Super Bowl XLVIII on February 2, 2014.Walking football
Walking football is a variant of association football that is aimed at keeping people aged over 50 involved with football if, due to a lack of mobility or for other reason, they are not able to play the traditional game. The sport can be played both indoors and outdoors. Walking football was devised, during 2011, by the Chesterfield F.C. Community Trust. Coverage of a session on Sky Sports News and a documentary aired on Sky Sports Football in October 2017, led to several other clubs taking up this version of the game. It has since become a current craze.Though based on association football, the key difference in the rules, from standard football, is that if a player runs then they concede a free kick to the other side. This restriction, together with a ban on slide tackles, is aimed both at avoiding injuries and facilitating the playing of the sport by those who are physically disadvantaged. The manner in which the sport is played promotes cardiovascular fitness whilst producing the least stress on the body. It also helps participants maintain an active lifestyle.
In walking football the game was originally played without goalkeepers (though goalkeepers now play in some variations) and, crucially, the ball must never be kicked above hip height. Different footballs are used in the indoor and the outdoor variations of the sport. When played indoors, a size 4 futsal ball is used. Outdoor games involve a traditional football. The size of the pitch can vary to suit different locations. The length should be from 20 to 40 yards and the width between 15 and 30 yards.The sport came to wider public attention in July 2014, when Barclays Bank aired a television advertisement featuring walking football to promote their services.