Telefunken

Telefunken was a German radio and television apparatus company, founded in Berlin in 1903, as a joint venture of Siemens & Halske and the Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft (AEG) (General electricity company).

Telefunken
IndustryElectrical industry
Founded1903
Defunct1967 merger with parent company AEG to AEG-Telefunken (1996 merger with Daimler-Benz and sale/dissolution various company parts), 2005 rename of the last former Telefunken division
HeadquartersGermany
Websitetelefunken.com

Brief overview

The name "Telefunken" appears in:

  • the product brand name "Telefunken";
  • Gesellschaft für drahtlose Telegraphie m.b.H., System Telefunken, founded 1903 in Berlin as a subsidiary of AEG and Siemens & Halske;
  • Telefunken, Gesellschaft für drahtlose Telegraphie m.b.H. (from 1923 to 1955 - since 1941 subsidiary of the AEG only);
  • Telefunken GmbH in 1955;
  • Telefunken Aktiengesellschaft (AG) in 1963;
  • Merger of AEG and Telefunken to form Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft AEG-Telefunken (from 1967 to 1979);
  • AEG-TELEFUNKEN AG (from 1979 to 1985);
  • TELEFUNKEN Fernseh und Rundfunk GmbH, Hanover (1972, subsidiary of AEG-TELEFUNKEN);
  • the company Telefunken USA in 2001, now "Telefunken Elektroakustik" (2009);
  • the company "Telefunken Semiconductors GmbH & Co. KG" in Heilbronn, Germany (since 2009);
  • the company "Telefunken Lighting technologies S.L." (2009)

The company Telefunken USA was incorporated in early 2001 to provide restoration services and build reproductions of vintage Telefunken microphones.[1]

History

Triode REN904
Telefunken REN 904. A vacuum tube from 1930, used in early German radios.
Telefunken Digitale 45
Telefunken alarm clock from c. 1995, designed by Philippe Starck.
Telefunken RC 881 CD
A modern Telefunken RC 881 cassette, CD player, and radio.
Telefunken electric appliance water boiling Oct-2011 HK
Telefunken electric kettle from 2011

Around the start of the 20th century, two groups of German researchers worked on the development of techniques for wireless communication. The one group at AEG, led by Adolf Slaby and Georg Graf von Arco, developed systems for the Kaiserliche Marine; the other one, under Karl Ferdinand Braun, at Siemens, for the German Army. Their main competitor was the British Marconi Company.

When a dispute concerning patents arose between the two companies, Kaiser Wilhelm II urged both parties to join efforts, creating Gesellschaft für drahtlose Telegraphie System Telefunken ("The Company for Wireless Telegraphy Ltd.") joint venture on 27 May 1903, with the disputed patents and techniques invested in it. On 17 April 1923, it was renamed Telefunken, The Company for Wireless Telegraphy. Telefunken was the company's telegraphic address. The first technical director of Telefunken was Count Georg von Arco.

Telefunken rapidly became a major player in the radio and electronics fields, both civilian and military. During World War I, they supplied radio sets and telegraphy equipment for the military, as well as building one of the first radio navigation systems for the Zeppelin force. The Telefunken Kompass Sender operated from 1908 to 1918, allowing the Zeppelins to navigate throughout the North Sea area in any weather.

Starting in 1923, Telefunken built broadcast transmitters and radio sets. In 1928, Telefunken made history by designing the V-41 amplifier for the German Radio Network. This was the very first two-stage, "Hi-Fi" amplifier. Over time, Telefunken perfected their designs and in 1950 the V-72 amplifier was developed. The TAB (a manufacturing subcontractor to Telefunken) V-72 soon became popular with other radio stations and recording facilities. The V-72S was the only type of amplifier found in the REDD.37 console used by the Beatles at Abbey Road Studios on many of their early recordings. In 1932, record players were added to the product line.

In 1941, Siemens transferred its Telefunken shares to AEG as part of the agreements known as the "Telefunken settlement", and AEG thus became the sole owner and continued to lead Telefunken as a subsidiary (starting in 1955 as "Telefunken GmbH" and from 1963 as "Telefunken AG").

During the Second World War, Telefunken was a supplier of vacuum tubes, transmitters and radio relay systems, and developed Funkmess facilities (later referred to as radar devices by the US Navy) and directional finders, as part of the German air defence against aerial bombing. During the war, manufacturing plants were shifted to and developed in west of Germany or relocated. Thus, Telefunken, under AEG, turned into the smaller subsidiary, with the three divisions realigning and data processing technology, elements as well as broadcast, television and phono. Telefunken was also the originator of the FM radio broadcast system. Telefunken, through the subsidiary company Teldec (a joint venture with Decca Records), was for many decades one of the largest German record companies, until Teldec was sold to WEA in 1988.

In 1959, Telefunken established a modern semiconductor works in Heilbronn, where in April 1960 production began. The works was expanded several times, and in 1970 a new 6-storey building was built at the northern edge of the area. At the beginning of the 1970s it housed approximately 2,500 employees.

In 1967, Telefunken was merged with AEG, which was then renamed to AEG-Telefunken. In the beginning of the 1960s, Walter Bruch developed the PAL-colour television system for the company, in use by most countries of the western Hemisphere (except United States, Canada, Mexico and the western part of South America). PAL is established i.e. in the United Kingdom (PAL-I) and, except France, many other European countries - also in Brazil (PAL-M), Argentina (PAL-N), South Africa, India and Australia.

The mainframe computer TR 4[2] was developed at Telefunken in Backnang, and the TR 440 model was developed at Telefunken in Konstanz, including the first ball-based mouse named Rollkugel in 1968.[3] The computers were in use at many German university computing centres from the 1970s to around 1985. The development and manufacture of large computers was separated in 1974 to the Konstanz Computer Company (CGK). The production of mini- and process computers was integrated into the automatic control engineering division of AEG. When AEG was bought by Daimler in 1985, "Telefunken" was dropped from the company name.

In 1995, Telefunken was sold to Tech Sym Corporation (owners of Continental Electronics Corporation of Dallas) for $9 million. However, Telefunken remained a German company.[4]

In the 1970s and early 1980s, Telefunken was also instrumental in the development of high quality audio noise reduction systems, including telcom c4 (marketed since 1975), High Com (marketed since 1978), High Com II, High Com III, High Com FM, and CX (1982).

In 2005, Telefunken Sender Systeme Berlin changed its name to Transradio SenderSysteme Berlin AG. The name "Transradio" dates back to 1918, when Transradio was founded as a subsidiary of Telefunken. A year later, in 1919, Transradio made history by introducing duplex transmission. Transradio has specialized in research, development and design of modern AM, VHF/FM and DRM broadcasting systems.

In August 2006, it was acquired by the Turkish company Profilo Telra, one of the largest European manufacturers of TV-devices, with Brand-owner Telefunken Licenses GmbH granting a license for the Telefunken trademark rights and producing televisions under that name.

In 2000, Toni Roger Fishman acquired The Diamond Shaped Logo & The Telefunken Brand Name from Telefunken Licenses for use in North America. The company "Telefunken USA" [1] was incorporated in early 2001 to provide restoration services and build exact reproductions of vintage Telefunken microphones. In 2003, Telefunken USA won a TEC Award for Studio Microphone Technology for their exact reproduction of the original Ela M 250 / 251 Microphone system. Telefunken USA has since received several TEC Awards nominations for the following microphone systems: the Telefunken USA M12 or C12 (originally developed by AKG), the R-F-T M16 MkII, and the AK47. The Historic Telefunken Ela M251 microphone system entered the MIX foundation's Hall of fame in 2006. In 2008, Telefunken USA won a second TEC Award for its new Ela M 260 microphone.

As a result of a conference held in Frankfurt in May 2009, Telefunken USA has been renamed Telefunken Elektroakustik ("Electrical Acoustics") Division of Telefunken and awarded the exclusive rights to manufacture a wide variety of professional audio products and vacuum tubes bearing the Telefunken Trade Mark, in over 27 countries. Telefunken Elektroakustik now uses the Telefunken trademark for professional audio equipment and component-based electronics, such as capacitors, transformers, vacuum tubes in Asia, Europe, North America, Oceania and South America.

Business fields

The old Telefunken company had produced an extensive product spectrum of devices and systems from 1903 to 1996. Common characteristics are the authority for high frequency and communications technology and the construction unit and infrastructure technology necessary for it. Among other things:

  • Energy-saving lighting technology
  • Analogue computers
  • Voucher recognition, pattern recognition and letter sorting
  • Data communications networks
  • Digital computer for exchange technique, air traffic control, scientific, military applications
  • Electrical elements
  • Electro-acoustic plants and studio equipment
  • Flight guidance systems
  • Guidance and weapon deployment systems
  • Radio and data communication for applications of military
  • Radios for authority and operating radio
  • Semiconductors, circuits, solar cells, infrared modules
  • Mobile radio engineering
  • Direction finder and detection
  • Phono and tape decks, videodisc
  • Power tools
  • Radar facilities for soil, flight and ship monitoring
  • Radio and TV home receivers
  • Vacuum tubes
  • Radio relay link and satellite technology
  • Records
  • Sending and receipt tubes, travelling field tubes, color image tubes
  • Transmitters for broadcast and television, DAB transmitters
  • Speech recognition
  • Telephone, long-distance traffic, cable technology.

Locations and manufacturing plants

Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R26738, Kombinierter Fernseh- und Rundfunkempfänger
FE I - Telefunken's first Television set using CRT (ca.1932)[5]

Into the 1930s years, production was made after a distributor in the workshops of the two parent companies. The company headquarters was located in Berlin Kreuzberg, Hallesches Ufer 30 (1918–37).

The first commercially made electronic television sets with cathode ray tubes were manufactured by Telefunken in Berlin in 1932,[5]

Starting from 1938, manufacturing and developing plants were concentrated at the new headquarters (until 1945) in Berlin Zehlendorf, Goerzallee.

During the Second World War, there were further manufacturing plants in the Berlin area, in Thuringia, Saxonia, Moravia, Silesia, on Rügen. In addition, in Baltic countries at Tallinn and Riga, and in occupied areas of Poland at Kraków and Łódź, floats and works were established. The vacuum tube factory Łódź was shifted with the staff in August 1944 to Ulm (Fortress Wilhelmsburg).

After the Second World War, new firm locations for development and production were established. The company headquarters was located first in Berlin-Schöneberg (1945–48), then in Berlin-Kreuzberg (1948–52), Berlin-Moabit (1952–60) and Berlin Charlottenburg (1960–67).

Production plants were located in:

Telefunken Hannover
Hanover, Göttinger Chaussee 76: Administration building (1959/1960) of the former Telefunken Fernseh und Rundfunk GmbH (under Cultural heritage management), right next former Huth Apparatefabrik (1940/1941)
  • Backnang: Long-distance communications and cable technology (now Tesat-Spacecom)
  • Berlin-Moabit, Sickingenstr. 20-26: Broadcast and television transmitters, mobile communications (since 2005 Transradio SenderSysteme Berlin AG, later simply known as Transradio)
  • Berlin-Moabit, Sickingenstr. 71: Tubes (since 2005: JobCenter Berlin Mitte, employment agency)
  • Berlin-Wedding (current: Gesundbrunnen), Schwedenstr.: Broadcast sets, phono and tape decks, videocassette recorders, Videodisc players
  • Celle: Color television sets (1966–1997), buildings completely demolished 2001/2002
  • Eiweiler: High-frequency engineering
  • Hanover, Göttinger Chaussee 76: Broadcast and television sets, acoustic engineering (until 1973)
  • Heilbronn: Semiconductors, circuits, solar cells, infrared modules (1998-2008 Atmel; since 2009 Telefunken Semiconductors GmbH & Co. KG (subsidiary of Tejas Silicon Holdings, UK; Insolvency of Telefunken Semiconductors in April 2013)
  • Konstanz: Computer technology, letter sorting systems, character recognition technology, air traffic control systems, studio tape decks, cash dispensing machines
  • Offenburg: Long-distance communications technologies
  • Osterode am Harz (former Kuba-Imperial plant): Videocassette recorder
  • Ulm, Danube valley: Television picture tubes
  • Ulm, Elisabethenstrasse: Radar, radiolocation, detection equipment, speech and radio data transmission systems, Research Centre (2000: EADS Racoms - Radio Communication Systems; then Cassidian, part of EADS Defence & Security, today Airbus Defence and Space)
  • Ulm, Söflinger Strasse: Tubes
  • Wolfenbüttel: Electroacoustics (from 1973 on)

Notes

  1. ^ Telefunken Elektroakustik,Factory Restoration Services
  2. ^ . 196309.pdf. "A SURVEY OF NEW WEST-EUROPEAN DIGITAL COMPUTERS (Part 1): GERMANY". Computers and Automation. XII (9): 24. Sep 1963.CS1 maint: others (link)
  3. ^ "The first rolling-ball mouse · e-basteln". www.e-basteln.de.
  4. ^ Wood, James (2000). History of International Broadcasting. IET. ISBN 9780852969205.
  5. ^ a b Telefunken, Early Electronic TV Gallery, Early Television Foundation.

References

  • M. Friedewald: Telefunken und der deutsche Schiffsfunk 1903–1914. In: Zeitschrift für Unternehmensgeschichte 46. Nr. 1, 2001, S. 27–57
  • M. Fuchs: Georg von Arco (1869–1940) – Ingenieur, Pazifist, Technischer Direktor von Telefunken. Eine Erfinderbiographie. Verlag für Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften und der Technik, Berlin & München: Diepholz 2003
  • L. U. Scholl: Marconi versus Telefunken: Drahtlose Telegraphie und ihre Bedeutung für die Schiffahrt. In: G. Bayerl, W. Weber (ed.): Sozialgeschichte der Technik. Ulrich Troitzsche zum 60. Geburtstag. Waxmann, Münster 1997 (Cottbuser Studien zur Geschichte von Technik, Arbeit und Umwelt, 7)
  • Telefunken Sendertechnik GmbH: 90 Jahre Telefunken. Berlin 1993
  • Erdmann Thiele (ed.): Telefunken nach 100 Jahren – Das Erbe einer deutschen Weltmarke. Nicolaische Verlagsbuchhandlung, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-87584-961-2

External links

1998 Copa Perú

The 1998 Copa Perú season (Spanish: Copa Perú 1998), the promotion tournament of Peruvian football.

The tournament has 5 stages. The first four stages are played as mini-league round-robin tournaments, except for third stage in region IV, which is played as a knockout stage. The final stage features two knockout rounds and a final four-team group stage to determine the two promoted teams.

The 1998 Peru Cup started with the District Stage (Spanish: Etapa Distrital) on February. The next stage was the Provincial Stage (Spanish: Etapa Provincial) which started, on June. The tournament continued with the Departmental Stage (Spanish: Etapa Departamental) on July. The Regional Staged followed. The National Stage (Spanish: Etapa Nacional) started on November. The winner and runner-up of the National Stage will be promoted to the First Division.

AEG

Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft AG (AEG) (German: "General electricity company") was a German producer of electrical equipment founded as the Deutsche Edison-Gesellschaft für angewandte Elektricität in 1883 in Berlin by Emil Rathenau. After World War II its headquarters moved to Frankfurt am Main.

In 1967 AEG joined with its subsidiary Telefunken AG creating Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft AEG-Telefunken. In 1985 Daimler-Benz purchased the AEG-Telefunken Aktiengesellschaft, which was renamed to AEG Aktiengesellschaft and wholly integrated the company in 1996 into Daimler-Benz AG (1998:DaimlerChrysler). The remains of AEG became part of Adtranz (today Bombardier Transportation) and Deutsche Aerospace (1998: DASA, today Airbus).

After acquiring the AEG household subsidiary AEG Hausgeräte GmbH in 1994, in 2005 Electrolux obtained the rights to the brand name AEG, which it now uses on some of its products. The AEG name is also licensed to various brand partners under the Electrolux Global Brand Licensing program.

Adolf Slaby

Adolf Karl Heinrich Slaby (18 April 1849 – 6 April 1913) was a German electronics pioneer and the first Professor of electro-technology at the Technical University of Berlin (1886).

Ajax-mars

"Ajax-mars" (English: Ajax march) is the official club song of Dutch association football club AFC Ajax since 1918.The song was first heard on the 31 March 1918 when Ajax clinched their first ever division championship in a 4-1 win over Sparta Rotterdam. Sparta had won consecutive championships the previous three seasons with Bok de Korver, but when Ajax starlets Jan de Natris and Wim Gupffert scored three goals in three minutes, the crowd at Het Houten Stadion were jumping and chanting what would become the blueprint for this song. The words to the song were then written by Dirk Knegt, and it was composed by Emile Painparé. It was performed at the stadium by an orchestra during the championship celebration.

On 9 June 1918 Ajax then won the National championship without losing a single match. In the version of 1918 the word 'heil' was in the lyrics in place of the word 'hup', the word was however replaced in 1963 due to its association with the Nazi occupation and the Third Reich. The oldest known recording of the song is from 1919 performed by the Odeon Orchestra.Then followed in 1932 an instrumental version by the orchestra of Jack Presburg on Ultraphon,later also released on Telefunken. In 1950 Max van Praag recorded the song together with the Accordiola Orchestra. The last recording is from 1963 by Fred Wiegman and the City Theater Orchestra.

Bach cantatas (Teldec)

J. S. Bach - Das Kantatenwerk is a classical music recording project initiated by the record label of Telefunken in 1971 (first recordings had been made in December 1970) to record all 193 sacred Bach cantatas. The project was entrusted to Nikolaus Harnoncourt and Gustav Leonhardt. Each conductor had his own instrumental ensemble, based in Austria and the Netherlands respectively.

The project was the first attempt at a complete recording of the sacred cantatas, but Harnoncourt and Leonhardt were still working on the cantatas when a project which started later, led by Helmuth Rilling, Gächinger Kantorei and Bach-Collegium Stuttgart completed a recording of the sacred cantatas and oratorios on Bach's 300th birthday, 21 March 1985. Since Rilling recorded on modern instruments the Telefunken (then Teldec) project could at least claim, when the project completed in 1990, to be the first recording using historical instruments, with boys' choirs and boy soloists for most soprano and some alto parts. Adult soloists included the tenors Kurt Equiluz and Marius van Altena. An exception to the use of male voices was made for cantatas nos. 51 and 199, which were intended for a female soprano voice.

Harnoncourt conducted his Concentus Musicus Wien with either the Wiener Sängerknaben or the Tölzer Knabenchor. Leonhardt's instrumental ensemble was the Leonhardt-Consort. Leonardt's usual choirs were the boys of the Tölzer Knabenchor and Knabenchor Hannover (Holland does not have a strong tradition of boy sopranos), and the adult Collegium Vocale Gent, while he featured the choir of King's College, Cambridge in the first volume.Shortly before the project finished Telefunken sold the Teldec label to Warner in 1988.

CX (audio)

CX is a noise reduction system for recorded analog audio. It was developed by CBS Laboratories (a division of CBS) in the late 1970s as a competitor to other noise reduction (NR) systems such as Dolby and dbx, and was officially introduced in 1981. The name CX was derived from "Compatible eXpansion", a feature of the technique. The CX integrated circuit U2141B was developed by AEG-Telefunken, Germany, in 1982, by the same team who also designed the High Com noise reduction system, a broadband compander with up to 20 dB of noise reduction. Hitachi also offered dedicated CX chips named HA12043 and HA12044 in 1983.

Computer mouse

A computer mouse is a hand-held pointing device that detects two-dimensional motion relative to a surface. This motion is typically translated into the motion of a pointer on a display, which allows a smooth control of the graphical user interface. The first public demonstration of a mouse controlling a computer system was in 1968. Originally wired to a computer, many modern mice are cordless, relying on short-range radio communication with the connected system. Mice originally used a ball rolling on a surface to detect motion, but modern mice often have optical sensors that have no moving parts. In addition to moving a cursor, computer mice have one or more buttons to allow operations such as selection of a menu item on a display. Mice often also feature other elements, such as touch surfaces and "wheels", which enable additional control and dimensional input.

Concentus Musicus Wien

Concentus Musicus Wien (CMW) is an Austrian baroque music ensemble based in Vienna. The CMW is recognized as a progenitor of the period-instrument performance movement.Nikolaus Harnoncourt and Alice Harnoncourt co-founded the CMW in 1953, along with several musicians from the Vienna Symphony Orchestra. The CMW did research and rehearsal for 4 years before their first official concert; although the ensemble made its 'unofficial' debut at the Konzerthaus, Vienna in 1954 with a production of Claudio Monteverdi's Orfeo, the CMW's first public concert was in May 1957 at the Schwarzenberg Palace in Vienna. The CMW gave a regular concert series at the Schwarzenberg Palace from 1958 to 1962. The CMW made its formal debut in the Mozart-Saal of the Vienna Konzerthaus in February 1962, and performed concerts regularly there until 1971. The CMW staged its first opera at the 1971 Wiener Festwochen with Monteverdi's Il ritorno d'Ulisse in patria. The CMW's first concert at the Musikverein, Vienna, was in 1973. The orchestra has continued to perform regularly at the Musikverein since then. Nikolaus Harnoncourt directed the ensemble from the cello until 1987, and subsequently led the CMW as its conductor and artistic director.

The CMW has performed at European music festivals in such cities as Salzburg and Lucerne, as well as the styriarte festival in Graz which Harnoncourt founded. The CMW first toured North America in 1966, including its Boston debut for the Peabody Mason Concert series,. Subsequent American tours followed in 1968 and in 1971.The CMW made their first recording in 1962, of music for viols by Henry Purcell, for the Telefunken label. This recording began a long recording relationship with Telefunken, later Teldec, that continued into the 1990s. Among the CMW's recording projects with Telefunken and Teldec were the complete cycle of cantatas of Johann Sebastian Bach, over the period from 1971 to 1990, recorded by the CMW and Harnoncourt, as well as Gustav Leonhardt and the Leonhardt-Consort. In addition to their long series of recordings for Telefunken and Teldec, the CMW has made commercial recordings for other labels such as Deutsche Harmonia Mundi and Sony Classical. The CMW's final commercial recordings with Nikolaus Harnoncourt were two recordings of music of Beethoven, the 4th and 5th Symphonies and the Missa solemnis, the latter being Harnoncourt's final recording.Nikolaus Harnoncourt retired from the CMW and from conducting in general in December 2015. In parallel with her husband's retirement, Alice Harnoncourt retired from the CMW. In succession to Alice Harnoncourt, the current leader of the ensemble is Erich Höbarth. In succession to Nikolaus Harnoncourt, the CMW's current artistic leader is the harpsichordist Stefan Gottfried. The ensemble's current manager is Maximilian Harnoncourt, grandson of Nikolaus and Alice Harnoncourt.

Georg von Arco

Georg Wilhelm Alexander Hans Graf von Arco (30 August 1869 in Großgorschütz – 5 May 1940 in Berlin) was a German physicist, radio pioneer, and one of the joint founders of the "Society for Wireless Telegraphy" which became the Telefunken company. He was an engineer and the technical director of Telefunken. He was crucial in the development of wireless technology in Europe.

Arco served for a time as an assistant to Adolf Slaby, who was close to William II, German Emperor. Until 1930, Arco was one of the two managing directors of the company. He participated in the development of high performance tube transmitters. Together with his teacher, Slaby, he was considerably involved in the study and development of high-frequency engineering in Germany. He was a Monist and a pacifist. Between 1921-22, he was a chairman of the German Monist Federation.

Hanover bars

Hanover bars, in one of the PAL television video formats, are an undesirable visual artifact in the reception of a television image. The name Hanover refers to the city (Hannover) in which the PAL system developer Telefunken Fernseh und Rundfunk GmbH was located.

Two signals, B-Y (U) and R-Y (V) are used in the PAL system to carry the color information for a picture, with the phase of the V signal (hue) reversed (i.e. shifted through 180 degrees) on alternate lines (hence the name PAL, or phase alternate line). This is done to cancel minor phase errors in the reception process. However, if gross errors occur, complementary errors from the V signal carry into the U signal, and thus visible stripes occur.

Later PAL systems introduced alterations to ensure that Hanover bars do not occur, introducing a "swinging burst" to the color synchronization. Other PAL systems may handle this problem differently.

High Com

The High Com (also as HIGH COM, both written with a thin space) noise reduction system was developed by Telefunken, Germany, in the 1970s as a high quality high compression analogue compander for audio recordings.

Mr. Five by Five

"Mr. Five by Five" is a 1942 popular song by Don Raye and Gene DePaul that describes a heavyset man who is "five feet tall and five feet wide". The person highlighted by the song was Jimmy Rushing, "Mr. Five by Five", who was the featured vocalist of Count Basie's Orchestra from 1935 to 1948.

The song was introduced in the motion pictures Behind the Eight Ball and Who Done It?, both of which were 1942 Universal Pictures releases.

Ella Mae Morse with Freddie Slack and His Orchestra [1] had a hit recording with the song in 1942, which went to number one on the Harlem Hit Parade chart (Capitol 115), for two non consecutive weeks, as did Harry James and His Orchestra also issued a best-selling platter on the Columbia label that year. The song appeared on Variety's 10 Best Sellers on Coin Machines list in December 1942.Also performed by:

Harmony Sisters, Thore Ehrling's Orchestra. Recorded in Stockholm on August 31, 1943. Released on the 78 rpm records Telefunken A-5359 in Sweden and Telefunken T-8508 in Norway. The A side was I'm Coming Home, Virginia

Harry Parry on Crazy Rhythm, Harry Parry's Radio Rhythm Club Sextet/

The Humphrey Lyttelton Big Band with Jimmy Rushing, Upbeat (URCD174)/

Jimmy Rushing on Rushing Lullabies, Columbia/Legacy 1959/

Andrews Sisters

Imelda May on the soundtrack to the 2013 film Gangster SquadIt was also the origin of several small bits on radio comedy shows of the period, including on the Jack Benny and Fred Allen programs.

Neumann U47

The U 47 was a large-diaphragm condenser microphone manufactured by Georg Neumann GmbH during the years 1949-1965.

Nuvistor

The nuvistor is a type of vacuum tube announced by RCA in 1959. Most nuvistors are basically thimble-shaped, but somewhat smaller than a thimble, and much smaller than conventional tubes of the day, almost approaching the compactness of early discrete transistor casings. Triodes and a few tetrodes were made. The tube is made entirely of metal and ceramic. Making nuvistors requires special equipment, since there is no intubation to pump gases out of the envelope. Instead, the entire structure is assembled, inserted into its metal envelope, sealed and processed in a large vacuum chamber with simple robotic devices.

Nuvistors are among the highest performing small signal receiving tubes. They feature excellent VHF and UHF performance plus low noise figures, and were widely used throughout the 1960s in television sets (beginning with RCA's "New Vista" line of color sets in 1961 with the CTC-11 chassis), radio and high-fidelity equipment primarily in RF sections, and oscilloscopes. They competed with the solid state revolution, and along with GE's Compactron, probably held it at bay for a few years. RCA discontinued their use in television tuners for its product line in late 1971. One famous application was in the Ampex MR-70, a costly studio tape recorder whose entire electronics section was based on nuvistors. Another limited application of this very small tube was in studio-grade microphones from that era, the AKG/Norelco C12a, which employed the 7586, being a good example. It was also later found that, with minor circuit modification, the nuvistor made a sufficient replacement for the obsolete Telefunken VF14 tube, used in the famed Neumann U 47 studio microphone.. Tektronix also used nuvistors in several of its high end oscilloscopes of the 1960s, before replacing them later with JFET transistors.

Slavko Avsenik

Slavko Avsenik (November 26, 1929 – July 2, 2015) was a Slovene composer and musician. Beginning in 1953 with the formation of the Avsenik Brothers Ensemble, Avsenik produced more than 1,000 songs and enjoyed success both in Slovenia and in other parts of Europe and America, and is viewed as a Slovenian cultural icon.

Teldec

Teldec (Telefunken-Decca Schallplatten GmbH) is a German record label in Hamburg, Germany. Today the label is a property of Warner Music Group.

Telefunken Blues

Telefunken Blues is an album led by jazz drummer Kenny Clarke recorded in late 1954 and early 1955 and first released on the Savoy label.

Television Electronic Disc

Television Electronic Disc (TeD) is a discontinued video recording format, released in 1975 by Telefunken and Teldec. The format used 8-inch-diameter (200 mm) flexible foil discs, which spun at 1,500 rpm on a cushion of air. TeD never gained wide acceptance, and could not compete against the emerging videocassette systems of the time.

Trautonium

The Trautonium is a monophonic electronic musical instrument invented about 1929 by Friedrich Trautwein in Berlin at the Musikhochschule's music and radio lab, the Rundfunkversuchstelle. Soon afterwards Oskar Sala joined him, continuing development until Sala's death in 2002.

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