Telefoni Bianchi (Italian pronunciation: [teˈlɛːfoni ˈbjaŋki]; "white telephones") films were made in Italy in the 1930s in imitation of American comedies of the time. For example, there would be expensive Art Deco sets featuring white telephones (status symbol of bourgeois wealth and generally unavailable to the movie-going public), and children would have Shirley Temple curls. The films tended to be socially conservative, promoting family values, respect for authority, a rigid class hierarchy, and country life, all stances perfectly in line with the ideology of the fascist regime. The genre is also referred by modern film critics as "Hungarian style comedies", because they were often adaptation of stage plays of Hungarian authors (a popular source material also for Hollywood productions of the time). In fact, to avoid the limitations imposed by the censure of the fascist authorities, when potentially controversial topics were addressed in the plot (for instance divorce, at the time illegal in Italy, or adultery, a punishable offence by the contemporary Italian law) the action was often set in various, and sometimes imaginary, Eastern European countries, but always with Italian protagonists.
The Neorealist filmmakers saw their gritty films as a reaction to the idealized Telefoni Bianchi style. They compared and contrasted the high-and-almighty gimmicks of set and studio production, with the dishevelled beauty of everyday life, the rigorous depiction of human life and its sufferings, and chose instead to work on location and with non-professional actors.Acid Western
Acid Western is a subgenre of the Western film that emerged in the 1960s and 1970s that combines the metaphorical ambitions of critically acclaimed Westerns, such as Shane and The Searchers, with the excesses of the Spaghetti Westerns and the outlook of the counterculture of the 1960s. Acid Westerns subvert many of the conventions of earlier Westerns to "conjure up a crazed version of autodestructive white America at its most solipsistic, hankering after its own lost origins".Adriana Benetti
Adriana Benetti (12 December 1919 – 24 February 2016) was an Italian actress.Aldo Vergano
Aldo Vergano was an Italian director, screenwriter and journalist.
Born in Rome, Vergano was the co-founder with Alessandro Blasetti of the magazine Cinematografo.He made his film debut with the screenplay of Blasetti's Sun, one of the most important films of the Italian silent cinema. In the thirties, though persecuted by fascism for his political views, he was a prolific screenwriter of Telefoni Bianchi films. He made his debut as a director with the patriotic drama Pietro Micca.Vergano is probably best known for the film Il sole sorge ancora, produced by the PNA, (the National Association of Italian Partisans), which is considered "one of the cornerstones of neorealism".Alessandro Pavolini
Alessandro Pavolini (September 27, 1903 – April 28, 1945) was an Italian politician, journalist, and essayist, notable for his involvement in the Fascist government, during World War II, and also, for his cruelty against the opponents of fascism.Alvaro Vitali
Alvaro Vitali (Italian pronunciation: [alˈvaːro viˈtaːli]; born 3 February 1950) is an Italian actor.
He was an electrician until he was discovered by Federico Fellini and played a small part in Satyricon (1969), it led to other roles, notably in the movie Amarcord (1973), becoming the only actor in the world who participated in four Fellini films.
In the 1970s, Vitali became one of the most charismatic actors in the commedia erotica all'italiana (erotic comedy) genre. He was very popular in Spain as well. He recently worked for the satirical TV show Striscia la notizia in a parody of Ferrari manager Jean Todt.Caterina Boratto
Caterina Boratto (15 March 1915 – 14 September 2010) was an Italian film actress. She appeared in 50 films between 1936 and 1993.Cinema of Italy
The Cinema of Italy comprises the films made within Italy or by Italian directors. The first Italian director is considered to be Vittorio Calcina, a collaborator of the Lumière Brothers, who filmed Pope Leo XIII in 1896. Since its beginning, Italian cinema has influenced film movements worldwide. As of 2018, Italian films have won 14 Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film (the most of any country) as well as 12 Palmes d'Or (the second-most of any country), one Academy Award for Best Picture and many Golden Lions and Golden Bears.
Italy is the birthplace of Art Cinema and the stylistic aspect of film has been the most important factor in the history of Italian movies. In the early 1900s, artistic and epic films such as Otello (1906), The Last Days of Pompeii (1908), L'Inferno (1911), Quo Vadis (1913), and Cabiria (1914), were made as adaptations of books or stage plays. Italian filmmakers were utilizing complex set designs, lavish costumes, and record budgets, to produce pioneering films. One of the first cinematic avante-garde movements, Italian Futurism, took place in Italy in the late 1910s. After a period of decline in the 1920s, the Italian film industry was revitalized in the 1930s with the arrival of sound film. A popular Italian genre during this period, the Telefoni Bianchi, consisted of comedies with glamorous backgrounds.While Italy's Fascist government provided financial support for the nation's film industry, most notably the construction of the Cinecittà studios (the largest film studio in Europe), it also engaged in censorship, and thus many Italian films produced in the late 1930s were propaganda films. Post-World War II Italy saw the rise of the influential Italian neorealist movement, which launched the directorial careers of Luchino Visconti, Roberto Rossellini, and Vittorio De Sica. Neorealism declined in the late 1950s in favor of lighter films, such as those of the Commedia all'italiana genre and important directors like Federico Fellini and Michelangelo Antonioni. Actresses such as Sophia Loren, Giulietta Masina and Gina Lollobrigida achieved international stardom during this period.The Spaghetti Western achieved popularity in the mid-1960s, peaking with Sergio Leone's Dollars Trilogy, which featured enigmatic scores by composer Ennio Morricone. Erotic Italian thrillers, or giallos, produced by directors such as Mario Bava and Dario Argento in the 1970s, influenced the horror genre worldwide. During the 1980s and 1990s, directors such as Ermanno Olmi, Bernardo Bertolucci, Giuseppe Tornatore, Gabriele Salvatores and Roberto Benigni brought critical acclaim back to Italian cinema.The country is also famed for its prestigious Venice Film Festival, the oldest film festival in the world, held annually since 1932 and awarding the Golden Lion. In 2008 the Venice Days ("Giornate degli Autori"), a section held in parallel to the Venice Film Festival, has produced in collaboration with Cinecittà studios and the Ministry of Cultural Heritage a list of 100 films that have changed the collective memory of the country between 1942 and 1978, the "100 Italian films to be saved".Clara Calamai
Clara Calamai (7 September 1909 – 21 September 1998) was an Italian actress.
She was one of the most famous and popular Italian actresses in the 1930s and 1940s, sharing the limelight with actresses such as Alida Valli, Valentina Cortese, and rivals, Doris Duranti, Luisa Ferida and Isa Miranda. She was a charming and versatile actress who starred in both dramas and comedies of the telefoni bianchi style.Don Pasquale (1940 film)
Don Pasquale is a 1940 Italian comedy film directed by Camillo Mastrocinque and starring Armando Falconi, Laura Solari and Maurizio D'Ancora. It is loosely based on Giovanni Ruffini's libretto for Gaetano Donizetti's opera buffa Don Pasquale. It was screened at the 8th Venice International Film Festival.Francesca Bertini
Francesca Bertini (born Elena Seracini Vitiello; 5 January 1892 – 13 October 1985) was an Italian silent film actress. She was one of the most successful silent film stars in the first quarter of the twentieth-century.Italian neorealism
Italian neorealism (Italian: Neorealismo), also known as the Golden Age, is a national film movement characterized by stories set amongst the poor and the working class, filmed on location, frequently using non-professional actors. Italian neorealism films mostly contend with the difficult economic and moral conditions of post-World War II Italy, representing changes in the Italian psyche and conditions of everyday life, including poverty, oppression, injustice, and desperation.List of apocalyptic films
This is a list of apocalyptic feature-length films. All films within this list feature either the end of the world, a prelude to such an end (such as a world taken over by a viral infection), and/or a post-apocalyptic setting.Meat pie Western
Meat pie western, also known as a kangaroo western, is a category of Western-style films or TV series set in the Australian outback. The first term is a play on the term Spaghetti Western, used for Italian-made Westerns, relating in both cases to what are regarded as national dishes. Some critics have said that the category is important to differentiate more Americanised Australian films from those with a more historical basis, such as films about bushrangers (also called bushranger films).Opera film
An opera film is a recording of an opera on film.Romanian New Wave
The Romanian New Wave (Romanian: Noul val românesc) is a genre of realist and often minimalist films made in Romania since the mid-aughts, starting with two award-winning shorts by two Romanian directors, namely Cristi Puiu's Cigarettes and Coffee, which won the Short Film Golden Bear at the 2004 Berlin International Film Festival, and Cătălin Mitulescu's Trafic, which won the Short Film Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival later that same year.The Career of a Chambermaid
Telefoni bianchi (English:White Telephone, internationally released as The Career of a Chambermaid) is a 1976 Italian comedy film directed by Dino Risi. For this film Agostina Belli was awarded with a Special David di Donatello for her performance. The title refers to the White Telephone comedies of the 1930s and 1940s. The film is a comic portrayal of the Italian film industry during the Fascist era in which an ambitious young woman briefly rises to become a film star.Ugo Tognazzi
Ugo Tognazzi (Italian pronunciation: [ˈuːɡo toɲˈɲattsi]; 23 March 1922 – 27 October 1990) was an Italian film, TV, and theatre actor, director, and screenwriter.Vera Carmi
Vera Carmi (23 November 1914 – 6 September 1969) was an Italian film actress. She appeared in 51 films between 1940 and 1956. She was born in Turin, Italy and died in Rome, Italy.
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