Telecommunications network

A telecommunications network is a collection of terminal nodes[1] in which links are connected so as to enable telecommunication between the terminals.[1] The transmission links connect the nodes together. The nodes use circuit switching, message switching or packet switching to pass the signal through the correct links and nodes to reach the correct destination terminal. Each terminal in the network usually has a unique address so messages or connections can be routed to the correct recipients. The collection of addresses in the network is called the address space. Examples of telecommunications networks are:[2]

Benefits of telecommunications and networking

Telecommunications facilitates interaction and information transfer over large distances. Businesses use telecommunications to expand and grow their networks. With Internet, computer, and telephone networks, businesses can allocate their resources efficiently. These core types of networks will be discussed below: Computer network: a computer network consists of computers and devices connected to one another. Information can be transferred from one device to the next. For example, an office filled with computers can share files together on each separate device. Computer networks can range from a local area network (LAN) to a wide area network (WAN). The difference between the types of networks is the size. These types of computer networks work at certain speeds, also known as broadband. The Internet network connects computers worldwide. Internet network: access to the network allows users to use many resources. Over time the Internet network will replace books. This will enable users to discover information almost instantly and apply concepts to different situations. The Internet can be used for recreational, governmental, educational, and other purposes. Businesses in particular use the Internet network for research or to service customers and clients. Telephone network: the telephone network connects people to one another. This network can be used in a variety of ways. Many businesses use the telephone network to route calls and/or service their customers. Some businesses use a telephone network on a greater scale through a private branch exchange. It is a system where a specific business focuses on routing and servicing calls for another business. Majority of the time, the telephone network is used around the world for recreational purposes.

Network structure

In general, every telecommunications network conceptually consists of three parts, or planes (so called because they can be thought of as being, and often are, separate overlay networks):

  • The data plane (also user plane, bearer plane, or forwarding plane) carries the network's users' traffic, the actual payload.
  • The control plane carries control information (also known as signaling).
  • The management plane carries the operations and administration traffic required for network management. The management plane is sometimes considered a part of the control plane.

Example: the TCP/IP data network

Data networks are used extensively throughout the world to connect individuals and organizations. Data networks can be connected to allow users seamless access to resources that are hosted outside of the particular provider they are connected to. The Internet[3] is the best example of many data networks[1] from different organizations all operating under a single address space. Terminals attached to TCP/IP networks are addressed using IP addresses. There are different types of IP address, but the most common is IP Version 4. Each unique address consists of 4 integers between 0 and 255, usually separated by dots when written down, e.g. 82.131.34.56. TCP/IP are the fundamental protocols that provide the control and routing of messages across the data network. There are many different network structures that TCP/IP can be used across to efficiently route messages, for example:

There are three features that differentiate MANs from LANs or WANs:

  1. The area of the network size is between LANs and WANs. The MAN will have a physical area between 5 and 50 km in diameter.[3]
  2. MANs do not generally belong to a single organization. The equipment that interconnects the network, the links, and the MAN itself are often owned by an association or a network provider that provides or leases the service to others.[3]
  3. A MAN is a means for sharing resources at high speeds within the network. It often provide connections to WAN networks for access to resources outside the scope of the MAN.[3]

Datacenter networks also rely highly on TCP/IP for communication across machines. They connect thousands of servers, are designed to be highly robust, provide low latency that is typically up to hundreds of microseconds, and high bandwidth. Datacenter network topology plays a significant role in determining the level of failure resiliency, ease of incremental expansion, communication bandwidth and latency.[4]

References

  1. ^ a b c "Design Elements - Telecommunication networks".
  2. ^ "Telecommunication Network - Types of Telecommunication Networks".
  3. ^ a b c d "Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)". Erg.abdn.ac.uk. Retrieved 2013-06-15.
  4. ^ Noormohammadpour, Mohammad; Raghavendra, Cauligi (28 July 2018). "Datacenter Traffic Control: Understanding Techniques and Tradeoffs". IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials. 20 (2): 1492–1525. arXiv:1712.03530. doi:10.1109/COMST.2017.2782753.
Aeronautical Telecommunication Network

The Aeronautical Telecommunication Network (ATN) is an internetwork architecture that allows ground/ground, air/ground, and avionic data subnetworks to interoperate by adopting common interface services and protocols based on the ISO OSI Reference Model.The European part of ATN used for ground/ground communications is represented by PENS.

Circuit switching

Circuit switching is a method of implementing a telecommunications network in which two network nodes establish a dedicated communications channel (circuit) through the network before the nodes may communicate. The circuit guarantees the full bandwidth of the channel and remains connected for the duration of the communication session. The circuit functions as if the nodes were physically connected as with an electrical circuit.

The defining example of a circuit-switched network is the early analog telephone network. When a call is made from one telephone to another, switches within the telephone exchanges create a continuous wire circuit between the two telephones, for as long as the call lasts.

Circuit switching contrasts with packet switching, which divides the data to be transmitted into packets transmitted through the network independently. In packet switching, instead of being dedicated to one communication session at a time, network links are shared by packets from multiple competing communication sessions, resulting in the loss of the quality of service guarantees that are provided by circuit switching.

In circuit switching, the bit delay is constant during a connection, as opposed to packet switching, where packet queues may cause varying and potentially indefinitely long packet transfer delays. No circuit can be degraded by competing users because it is protected from use by other callers until the circuit is released and a new connection is set up. Even if no actual communication is taking place, the channel remains reserved and protected from competing users.

Virtual circuit switching is a packet switching technology that emulates circuit switching, in the sense that the connection is established before any packets are transferred, and packets are delivered in order.

While circuit switching is commonly used for connecting voice circuits, the concept of a dedicated path persisting between two communicating parties or nodes can be extended to signal content other than voice. The advantage of using circuit switching is that it provides for continuous transfer without the overhead associated with packets, making maximal use of available bandwidth for that communication. One disadvantage is that it can be relatively inefficient, because unused capacity guaranteed to a connection cannot be used by other connections on the same network.

Downstream (networking)

In a telecommunications network or computer network, downstream refers to data sent from a network service provider to a customer.Although the best dial-up modems are called 56 kbit/s modems, downstream speeds can be limited to a few tens of kilobits per second with even lower upstream speeds. Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) and cable modems, two popular Internet access technologies, greatly improved downstream speeds reaching several Mbit/s. Mobile broadband and satellite Internet access providers also often have lower upstream speeds than downstream.

One process sending data primarily in the downstream direction is downloading. However, the overall download speed depends on the downstream speed of the user, the upstream speed of the server, and the network between them.

In the client–server model, downstream can refer to the direction from the server to the client.

Hispanic Information and Telecommunications Network

Hispanic Information and Telecommunications Network, Inc. (HITN) is the largest Spanish-language public broadcasting network in the United States. It delivers educational programming to over 44 million homes nationwide, and reaches over 40% of US households.Its distribution network includes Xfinity, DirecTV, DirectTV NOW, Verizon FiOS, DISH Network, Cablevision, AT&T U-verse TV, Charter Communications, Charter Spectrum, Mediacom, CenturyLink Prism, Altice, and a host of smaller distributors.The HITN mission is to offer US Hispanic audiences relevant, varied and high-quality content that both educates and entertains.In 2017, the HITN network was nominated for three Emmy Awards in the arts, community, and public service categories.

Huawei SingleRAN

Huawei SingleRAN is a radio access network (RAN) technology offered by Huawei that allows mobile telecommunications operators to support multiple mobile communications standards and wireless telephone services on a single network. The technology incorporates a software-defined radio device, and is designed with a consolidated set of hardware components, allowing operators to purchase, operate and maintain a single telecommunications network and set of equipment, while supporting multiple mobile communications standards.

K2 Telecom

K2 Telecom is a telecommunications network company in Uganda. It was established in January 2013. By November 2015, the company's estimated its number of subscribers at about 200,000.

Maritime Mobile Service Identity

A Maritime Mobile Service Identity (MMSI) is a series of nine digits which are sent in digital form over a radio frequency channel in order to uniquely identify ship stations, ship earth stations, coast stations, coast earth stations, and group calls. These identities are formed in such a way that the identity or part thereof can be used by telephone and telex subscribers connected to the general telecommunications network to call ships automatically.

Maritime Telecommunications Network

Founded in 1981, MTN Satellite Communications (MTN), formerly known as Maritime Telecommunications Network, was a privately held VSAT satellite service provider headquartered in Miramar, Florida, USA. MTN provided connectivity services to major cruise lines, including Carnival Corporation, Royal Caribbean International, Norwegian Cruise Lines and well as luxury yachts, oil rigs, government and military vessels, and commercial vessels. MTN was acquired by Emerging Markets Communications in 2015.

Metro by T-Mobile

Metro by T-Mobile (formerly known as MetroPCS and also known simply as Metro) is a prepaid wireless carrier brand owned by T-Mobile US. It previously operated the fifth largest mobile telecommunications network in the United States using code division multiple access. In 2013, the carrier engaged in a reverse merger with T-Mobile USA; post-merger, its services were merged under T-Mobile's 4G and LTE network.

Mexsat-3

Mexsat-3, also known as Mexsat Bicentenario or simply Bicentenario, is the first of three Mexican satellites forming the MEXSAT telecommunications network, and is named to commemorate the bicentennial of the Independence of Mexico. It was launched on 19 December 2012 to serve the other two satellites in the network, Mexsat-1 and Mexsat-2, as a fixed satellite service. It was manufactured by the company Orbital Sciences Corporation and was launched from Kourou in French Guiana, and currently occupies the orbit 114.9° West.

Network address

A network address is an identifier for a node or host on a telecommunications network. Network addresses are designed to be unique identifiers across the network, although some networks allow for local, private addresses or locally administered addresses that may not be unique. Special network addresses are allocated as broadcast or multicast addresses. These too are not unique.

In some cases, network hosts may have more than one network address; for example, each network interface may be uniquely identified. Further, because protocols are frequently layered, more than one protocol's network address can occur in any particular network interface or node and more than one type of network address may be used in any one network.

Network engineering

Network engineering may refer to:

The field concerned with internetworking service requirements for switched telephone networks

The field concerned with Computer Networking; the design and management of computer networks

The field concerned with Telecommunications Engineering; developing telecommunications network topologies

The field concerned with Broadcasting; spreading messages to a dispersed audience electronically.

TasNetworks

Tasmanian Networks Pty Limited, trading as TasNetworks, is a Tasmanian Government State owned company that is responsible for electricity transmission and distribution throughout Tasmania. It also owns and operates a telecommunications network throughout the state.TasNetworks is a participant in the Australian National Electricity Market (NEM) that operates an interconnected power system that extends from Queensland to South Australia. Tasmania is connected to the NEM via the Basslink interconnector, which is a 370 km (230 mi) HVDC submarine cable.

TasNetworks is a regulated monopoly that receives its revenue cap from the Australian Energy Regulator. The company has two shareholders, the Minister for Energy and the Treasurer of Tasmania. TasNetworks was formed on 1 July 2014, following the merger of the transmission company Transend Networks, which disbanded, and the distribution division of Aurora Energy; which became a retail-only business.

Telephone line

A telephone line or telephone circuit (or just line or circuit within the industry) is a single-user circuit on a telephone communication system. This is the physical wire or other signaling medium connecting the user's telephone apparatus to the telecommunications network, and usually also implies a single telephone number for billing purposes reserved for that user. Telephone lines are used to deliver landline telephone service and Digital subscriber line (DSL) phone cable service to the premises. Telephone overhead lines are connected to the public switched telephone network.

Telephone network

A telephone network is a telecommunications network used for telephone calls between two or more parties.

There are a number of different types of telephone network:

A landline network where the telephones must be directly wired into a single telephone exchange. This is known as the public switched telephone network or PSTN.

A wireless network where the telephones are mobile and can move around anywhere within the coverage area.

A private network where a closed group of telephones are connected primarily to each other and use a gateway to reach the outside world. This is usually used inside companies and call centres and is called a private branch exchange (PBX).

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)Public telephone operators (PTOs) own and build networks of the first two types and provide services to the public under license from the national government. Virtual Network Operators (VNOs) lease capacity wholesale from the PTOs and sell on telephony service to the public directly

Vodafone Idea Limited

Vodafone Idea Limited is India's largest telecom operator with its headquarter based in Mumbai, Maharashtra. Vodafone Idea is a pan-India integrated GSM operator offering 2G, 3G and 4G(LTE) mobile services under two brands named Vodafone and Idea. Vodafone Idea also provides services including Mobile payments, IoT, advanced enterprise offerings and entertainment, accessible via both digital channels as well as on-ground touch points, centers across the country. The company's vision is 'to create world class digital experiences to connect and inspire every Indian to build a better tomorrow'. As of December 2018, Vodafone Idea has 35.61% market share in India with 418.745 million subscribers, making it the largest mobile telecommunications network in India and Third largest mobile telecommunications network in the world. Vodafone Idea has a broadband network of 340,000 sites, distribution reach of 1.7 million retail outlets.On 31 August 2018, Vodafone India merged with Idea Cellular, and was renamed as Vodafone Idea Limited. However, the merged entity continues using both the Idea and Vodafone brand. Currently, the Vodafone Group holds a 45.1% stake in the combined entity, the Aditya Birla Group holds 26% and the remaining shares will be held by the public. Kumar Mangalam Birla heads the merged company as the Chairman, with Balesh Sharma as the CEO.

Washington K-20 Network

Washington K-20 Network is a Wide Area Network providing educational Internet access in the U.S. state of Washington for schools and educational service districts, colleges and community colleges, and libraries. The network was formed in 1996. A state settlement with Qwest Communications funded network access to state libraries starting in 2000–2001. WWAMI medical schools began to participate in 2007.The network was connected to Internet2 via Pacific Northwest Gigapop in 2001.

Wide area network

A wide area network (WAN) is a telecommunications network that extends over a large geographical distance for the primary purpose of computer networking. Wide area networks are often established with leased telecommunication circuits.Business, education and government entities use wide area networks to relay data to staff, students, clients, buyers, and suppliers from various locations across the world. In essence, this mode of telecommunication allows a business to effectively carry out its daily function regardless of location. The Internet may be considered a WAN.Similar types of networks are personal area networks (PANs), local area networks (LANs), campus area networks (CANs), or metropolitan area networks (MANs) which are usually limited to a room, building, campus or specific metropolitan area, respectively.

History
Pioneers
Transmission
media
Network topology
and switching
Multiplexing
Networks

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