Telecommunications equipment

Telecommunications equipment (also telecoms equipment or communications equipment) is hardware used for the purposes of telecommunications. Since the 1990s the boundary between telecoms equipment and IT hardware has become blurred as a result of the growth of the internet and its increasing role in the transfer of telecoms data.[1][2]

Types

Telecommunications equipment can be broadly broken down into the following categories:[3]

Vendors

The world's ten largest telecommunications equipment vendors, 2017 revenues are:[4]

Largest Vendors by 2017 Revenue (billion US dollars)
China Huawei $92.55
United States Cisco Systems $48.00
Japan Fujitsu $38.57
Finland Nokia $27.73
Sweden Ericsson $24.16
Japan NEC Corporation $23.95
United States Qualcomm $22.29
China ZTE $16.71
United States Corning $10.12
United States Motorola Solutions $6.38
Largest By Country 2017
China China $109.26
United States United States $86.79
Japan Japan $62.52
Finland Finland $27.73
Sweden Sweden $24.16

See also

References

  1. ^ "Telecoms equipment - We have the technology". The Economist. 1 October 1998. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  2. ^ "Twisted pair - Nokia and Siemens pool their network divisions to form a new firm". The Economist. 22 June 2006. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  3. ^ Ypsilanti, Dimitri; Plantin, Amy (1991). Telecommunications Equipment: Changing Markets and Trade Structures. OECD Publishing. p. 16. ISBN 9789264135536.
  4. ^ "Telecommunication equipment companies ranked by overall revenue in 2017 (in billion U.S. dollars)". Statista.com. Retrieved August 18, 2018.
Alarm sensor

In telecommunication, the term alarm sensor has the following meanings:

1. In communications systems, a device that can sense an abnormal condition within the system and provide a signal indicating the presence or nature of the abnormality to either a local or remote alarm indicator, and (b) may detect events ranging from a simple contact opening or closure to a time-phased automatic shutdown and restart cycle.

2. In a physical security system, an approved device used to indicate a change in the physical environment of a facility or a part thereof.

3. In electronic security systems, a physical device or change/presence of any electronic signal/logic which causes trigger to electronic circuit to perform application specific operation. In electronic alarm systems the use of this trigger event done by such devices is to turn on the alarm or siren producing sound and/or perform a security calling through telephone lines.

Note: Alarm sensors may also be redundant or chained, such as when one alarm sensor is used to protect the housing, cabling, or power protected by another alarm sensor.

Source: from Federal Standard 1037C and from MIL-STD-188 and from TRISHAM Software Systems

BBK Electronics

BBK Electronics Corporation (Chinese: 广东步步高电子工业有限公司) is a Chinese multinational firm specializing in electronics such as television sets, MP3 players, digital cameras and cell phones. It markets smartphones under the Realme, OPPO, Vivo and OnePlus brands, and Blu-ray players, headphones and headphone amplifiers under the OPPO Digital division. BBK Electronics' headquarters and production base are located in Chang'an, Dongguan. The latest member of the BBK Electronics group is "imoo".The corporate address is 23 Bubugao Avenue, Wusha Village, Chang'an Dist, Dongguan, 523860 China. It is the highest taxpayer in Chang'an.In Q1 2017, BBK Electronics shipped 56.7 million smartphones, surpassing both Huawei and Apple to become the 2nd largest smartphone manufacturer in the world, just behind Samsung. In September 2017, BBK toppled Samsung to become the largest smartphone seller in India.

List of countries by telecommunications equipment exports

The following is a list of countries by telecommunications equipment exports. Data is for 2012, in millions of United States dollars, as reported by The Observatory of Economic Complexity. Currently the top twenty countries are listed.

Lucent

Lucent Technologies, Inc., was an American multinational telecommunications equipment company headquartered in Murray Hill, New Jersey, in the United States. It was established on September 30, 1996, through the divestiture of the former AT&T Technologies business unit of AT&T Corporation, which included Western Electric and Bell Labs.Lucent was merged with Alcatel SA of France in a merger of equals on December 1, 2006, forming Alcatel-Lucent. Alcatel-Lucent was absorbed by Nokia in January 2016.

Metaswitch

Metaswitch Networks is a private UK-based company that designs, develops, manufactures, and markets telecommunications software to communication service providers, equipment manufacturers and large enterprises.

Motorola Solutions

Motorola Solutions, Inc. is an American data communications and telecommunications equipment provider that succeeded Motorola, Inc., following the spinoff of the mobile phone division into Motorola Mobility in 2011. The company is headquartered in Chicago, Illinois.

Nokia Networks

Nokia Networks (formerly Nokia Solutions and Networks (NSN) and Nokia Siemens Networks (NSN)) is a multinational data networking and telecommunications equipment company headquartered in Espoo, Finland, and wholly owned subsidiary of Nokia Corporation. It started as a joint venture between Nokia of Finland and Siemens of Germany known as Nokia Siemens Networks. Nokia Networks has operations in around 120 countries. In 2013, Nokia acquired 100% of Nokia Networks, buying all of Siemens' shares. In April 2014, NSN name was phased out as part of rebranding process.

Outline of telecommunication

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to telecommunication:

Telecommunication – the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. In modern times, this process almost always involves the use of electromagnetic waves by transmitters and receivers, but in earlier years it also involved the use of drums and visual signals such as smoke, fire, beacons, semaphore lines and other optical communications.

Rat-tail splice

A rat-tail splice, also known as a twist splice or a pig-tail splice, is a very basic electrical splice that can be done with both solid and stranded wire. It is made by taking two or more bare wires and wrapping them together symmetrically around the common axis of both wires. The bare splice can be insulated with electrical tape or other means.

This common and simple splice is not very strong mechanically. It can be made stronger by coating it with solder, or it can be twisted and then held in place by the internal metal spring or threads of a twist-on wire connector, also called a wire nut. Because it is not very strong, the splice is not meant to connect wires that will be pulled or stressed. Rather, it is intended for wires that are protected inside an enclosure or junction box.

Redback Networks

Redback Networks was a telecommunications equipment company, specializing in hardware and software used by ISPs to manage broadband services. In December 2006, Ericsson and Redback announced they had signed a definitive agreement under which Ericsson would acquire Redback. The transaction was completed in 2007, and Redback Networks is fully integrated in Ericsson in 2010.

Residential gateway

A residential gateway is a small consumer-grade router which provides network access between local area network (LAN) hosts to a wide area network (WAN) via a modem. The modem may or may not be integrated into the hardware of the residential gateway. The WAN is a larger computer network, generally operated by an Internet service provider.

S band

The S band is a designation by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) for a part of the microwave band of the electromagnetic spectrum covering frequencies from 2 to 4 gigahertz (GHz). Thus it crosses the conventional boundary between the UHF and SHF bands at 3.0 GHz. The S band is used by airport surveillance radar for air traffic control, weather radar, surface ship radar, and some communications satellites, especially those used by NASA to communicate with the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. The 10 cm radar short-band ranges roughly from 1.55 to 5.2 GHz. The S band also contains the 2.4–2.483 GHz ISM band, widely used for low power unlicensed microwave devices such as cordless phones, wireless headphones (Bluetooth), wireless networking (WiFi), garage door openers, keyless vehicle locks, baby monitors as well as for medical diathermy machines and microwave ovens (typically at 2.495 GHz). India’s regional satellite navigation network (IRNSS) broadcasts on 2.483778 to 2.500278 GHz.

T-splice

In electrical wiring, a T-splice is a splice that is used for connecting the end of one wire to the middle of another wire, thus forming a shape like that of the letter "T." This splice can be used with solid or stranded wires. The existing wire is called the main wire. The new wire that connects to the main wire is called the branch wire or tap wire. This is a prevalent junction type used in knob and tube wiring.

Telecommunication circuit

A telecommunication circuit is any line, conductor, or other conduit by which information is transmitted. Originally, this was analog, and was often used by radio stations as a studio/transmitter link (STL) or remote pickup unit (RPU) for their audio, sometimes as a backup to other means. Later lines were digital, and used for private corporate data networks.

A leased line is a circuit that is dedicated to only one use. The opposite of a dedicated circuit is a switched circuit, which can be connected to different paths. A POTS or ISDN telephone line is a switched circuit, because it can connect to any other telephone number.

On digital lines, a virtual circuit can be created to serve either purpose, while sharing a single physical circuit.

Telephone line

A telephone line or telephone circuit (or just line or circuit within the industry) is a single-user circuit on a telephone communication system. This is the physical wire or other signaling medium connecting the user's telephone apparatus to the telecommunications network, and usually also implies a single telephone number for billing purposes reserved for that user. Telephone lines are used to deliver landline telephone service and Digital subscriber line (DSL) phone cable service to the premises. Telephone overhead lines are connected to the public switched telephone network.

Terminal (telecommunication)

In the context of telecommunications, a terminal is a device which ends a telecommunications link and is the point at which a signal enters and/or leaves a network. Examples of equipment containing network terminations are telephones, fax machines, computer terminals and network devices, printers and workstations.

Transceiver

A transceiver is a device comprising both a transmitter and a receiver that are combined and share common circuitry or a single housing. When no circuitry is common between transmit and receive functions, the device is a transmitter-receiver. The term originated in the early 1920s. Similar devices include transponders, transverters, and repeaters.

Transmitter

In electronics and telecommunications, a transmitter or radio transmitter is an electronic device which produces radio waves with an antenna. The transmitter itself generates a radio frequency alternating current, which is applied to the antenna. When excited by this alternating current, the antenna radiates radio waves.

Transmitters are necessary component parts of all electronic devices that communicate by radio, such as radio and television broadcasting stations, cell phones, walkie-talkies, wireless computer networks, Bluetooth enabled devices, garage door openers, two-way radios in aircraft, ships, spacecraft, radar sets and navigational beacons. The term transmitter is usually limited to equipment that generates radio waves for communication purposes; or radiolocation, such as radar and navigational transmitters. Generators of radio waves for heating or industrial purposes, such as microwave ovens or diathermy equipment, are not usually called transmitters, even though they often have similar circuits.

The term is popularly used more specifically to refer to a broadcast transmitter, a transmitter used in broadcasting, as in FM radio transmitter or television transmitter. This usage typically includes both the transmitter proper, the antenna, and often the building it is housed in.

Western Union splice

The Western Union or Lineman splice was developed during the introduction of the telegraph to mechanically and electrically connect wires that were subject to loading stress. The wrapping pattern is designed to cause the termination to tighten as the conductors pull against each other. This type of splice is more suited to solid, rather than stranded conductors.The Western Union Splice is made by twisting two ends of a wire together, traditionally counterclockwise, 3/4 of a turn each, finger tight. Then, usually using needle-nose pliers, the ends are twisted at least five more turns, tightly. The cut off ends are pushed close to the center wire.

"Short tie" and "long tie" variations exist, mainly for purposes of coating the connection with solder. The longer version may aid in solder flow.NASA tests on 22 and 16 AWG wire showed that the Western Union Splice when soldered is very strong and is stronger than the wire alone if done properly.

History
Pioneers
Transmission
media
Network topology
and switching
Multiplexing
Networks

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.